Takao Akashi

Tokyo Medical University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (15)25.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: With the shift of a large proportion of cancer chemotherapy recipients to ambulatory care, the role of hospital pharmacists has changed, and their provision of information is essential care for cancer patients. There is little research on pharmacist-patient relations, particularly about pharmacist counselling, in Japan. To meet patients' needs, pharmacist counselling should be optimized. Here, breast cancer patients' preferences for pharmacist counselling were assessed using a discrete choice experiment. Bayesian nonlinear optimal methodology was employed to obtain six attributes (attitude of pharmacist, quality of information, explanation of side effects, frequency of pharmacist counselling before starting chemotherapy, cost of pharmacist counselling, and follow-up with the pharmacist after starting chemotherapy) of two to three levels each. The attributes and levels were used to create 12 hypothetical scenarios that were divided into two questionnaires of six choice sets each. Two hundred eighty participants were randomly assigned to complete one of these questionnaires (blocks). Attributes were analyzed by conditional logit model to determine significant predictors of patient preferences. The responses of 278 patients to 1667 scenarios were analyzed. Attitude of pharmacist, quality of information, cost of pharmacist counselling, and follow-up with the pharmacist after starting chemotherapy were significant predictors of patient preferences, with quality of information receiving the highest priority. Thus patients receiving pharmacist counselling before starting chemotherapy prefer to interact with a pharmacist with a friendly, interested attitude who provides individualized information. Further research is needed to elucidate the information that Japanese patients consider most important and to enhance pharmacist-patient communication.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Background The information provided in patient-centered care and shared decision-making influences patients’ concerns and adherence to treatment. In the decision-making process, patients experience decisional conflict. The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) is a 16-item, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 5 subscales developed to assess patients’ decisional conflict. This study aimed to develop the Japanese version of the DCS and to clarify the influence of the information provided by pharmacists’ on decisional conflict among patients with cancer. Methods We developed the Japanese version of the DCS by using the forward-backward translation method. One hundred patients who were recommended a new chemotherapy regimen were recruited. The psychometric properties of the Japanese DCS, including internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity, were examined. We assessed the decisional conflict of patients before and after the pharmacists’ provision of information. Results Ninety-four patients, predominately female, with an average age of 58.1 years were sampled. The scores on the 5 subscales of the DCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84–0.96). Multi-trait scaling analysis and cluster analysis showed strong validity. The mean total DCS score decreased significantly from 40.2 to 31.7 after patients received information from the pharmacists (p < 0.001, paired t-test). Scores on all 5 subscales, namely, uncertainty, informed, values clarity, support, and effective decision, also significantly improved (p < 0.001 for all categories, paired t-test). Conclusions The psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the DCS are considered appropriate for it to be administered to patients with cancer. Pharmacists’ provision of information was able to decrease decisional conflict among patients with cancer who were recommended a new chemotherapy regimen.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this before-after study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and to analyze the impact of pharmacist counseling on decisional conflict for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Internal consistency reliability was calculated. Multi-trait scaling and cluster analyses were performed to measure construct validity. In addition, decisional conflict in the patients infected with HIV was assessed before and after they received information from pharmacists. Data collected from 69 patients who were recommended a new anti-retroviral therapy were analyzed. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for the five subscales of the DCS (Cronbach&apos;s alpha = 0.78 - 0.90). Multi-trait scaling and cluster analyses indicated good construct validity. After the pharmacist counseling, the mean total DCS score decreased significantly (ie, from 46.3 to 26.5, P < 0.0001, paired t-test). Scores on all subscales of the DCS showed statistically significant improvement (Ps < 0.0001, paired t-test). This paper concludes that the Japanese version of the DCS is psychometrically sound for patients infected with HIV. Before initiating anti-retroviral therapy, these patients have high decisional conflict, which can be improved by pharmacist counseling.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder generally mediated by antibodies against the acetylcholine receptors of the skeletal muscles. Depending on the disease burden, MG patients may experience chronic dysregulation of both the hormonal stress axis and the immune system, consequently, aggravating the disease itself but also leading to secondary psychopathological abnormalities. A long-term clinical course requires long-term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy, which may change the psychological state by affecting the pituitary-adrenocortical system in MG patients. In this study, we investigated the function of the pituitary-adrenocortical system in MG patients who were treated with prednisolone (PSL) and evaluated their quality of life by using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and the 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). ACTH and cortisol levels in the plasma of patients who were treated with PSL (PSL[+] group, n = 18) were lower than those in the plasma of patients who were treated without PSL (PSL[-] group, n = 29; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the PSL(+) group, we confirmed that cortisol levels negatively correlated with daily PSL dosages (P < 0.05). The anxiety and depression scores from the GHQ-28 in the PSL(+) group were lower than those in the PSL(-) group (P < 0.05, respectively). There was no significant correlation between cortisol levels and corticotropin levels in plasma of the PSL(-) group. However, we confirmed that corticotropin levels positively correlated with cortisol levels in plasma (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with anxiety/insomnia scores from the GHQ-28 (P < 0.05) in the PSL(+) group. In conclusion, low-dose GC treatment complemented the pituitary-adrenocortical system and improved the psychological state in MG patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: For infection control purposes,we conducted microbial surveillance targeting the air,floors,and sinks at approximately 250 locations from 1999 to 2004.Annual changes in the average number of microbial isolates from air,floor,and sink samples were not correlated but changes in particular sampling items were correlated.Hospital wards where there was greater movement of people produced larger average numbers of isolates than other parts of the hospital,for example examination rooms.We found that the average number of isolates from air and floor samples was higher when a new hospital ward was under construction as well as just after its opening.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was frequently isolated from floor samples (68.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from both floor (10.3%) and sink (89.7%) samples.The numbers of MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospital ward samples were larger than those from other parts of the hospital.Our microbial surveillance clearly showed that the distribution of environmental bacteria changed in the hospital overall rather than for individual units and was affected by human activity and environmental changes.Furthermore,the species of bacteria isolated from the air,floor,and sink samples were different.Therefore,our results suggest that it is important to address the sanitization of the hospital environment as a whole,not on a ward by ward basis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    ABSTRACT: The target blood concentrations of tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclosporine (CYA) during continuous intravenous infusion (C(ss)) have been determined based on clinical experience. However, it is desirable that C(ss) should be set so that the AUC after intravenous infusion is equal to the AUC after oral administration (AUC(po)). Accordingly, we performed 12-hour monitoring of blood concentrations to calculate C(ss) from the blood trough levels (C(TL)) on 15 kidney recipients administered TAC and 12 recipients administered CYA (Neoral). We used an area under the trough level (AUTL) as a new pharmacokinetic parameter. The C(ss) was evaluated from C(TL), AUC(po), and AUTL was calculated to be C(ss) = C(TL) x (AUC(po)/AUTL). In addition, AUTL/AUC(po) ratio and blood peak/trough level ratio (C(max)/C(min)) were examined to compare pharmacokinetics of TAC and CYA. The formula for TAC was C(ss) = C(TL) x 1.40 and that for CYA, C(ss) = C(TL) x 2.55. The calculated target C(ss) of TAC was 1.40 times that of C(TL), which was similar to the present clinical C(TL). In contrast, the calculated target C(ss) of CYA was 2.55 times the C(TL), and therefore an extremely high C(ss) was necessary to obtain a sufficient AUC that will be available after oral administration. Consequently, intravenous administration of CYA twice a day was considered to be more appropriate to obtain sufficient CYA pharmacokinetics, rather than a continuous intravenous administration. We conclude that the formula, C(ss) = C(TL) x (AUC(po)/AUTL) was useful to calculate the target blood concentration of calcineurin inhibitors when changing from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration of these drugs.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although cholesterol management reportedly reduces fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) events in subjects with or without evident atherosclerotic disease, it is still uncertain whether these benefits extend to Japanese. Methods and Results The study group comprised 8,009 subjects with mildly elevated total cholesterol who were randomized to treatment with 10-20 mg pravastatin plus diet (2,691 women, 1,267 men) or diet alone (2,758 women, 1,293 men). The groups were extremely well balanced with respect to baseline demographics and risk factors such as blood pressure and plasma lipids. Over a 5-year period of follow-up, the primary end-points will be a composite of fatal and non-fatal coronary events. Secondary end-points will include stroke and transient ischemic attack, all cardiovascular events and total mortality. Conclusions The 2 groups will be followed up until the end of March 2004 and end-points will be analyzed by full analysis set.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Circulation Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A design concept of Pb-Bi cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR) has been formulated with some design parameters identified. In the PBWFR, water is injected into hot Pb-Bi above the core, and direct contact boiling takes place in the chimney. The boiling two-phase flow in the chimney serves as a steam lift pump and a steam generator. A two-region core is designed. A decrease in reactivity was estimated to be 1.5 % dk/kk' for 15 years. A fuel assembly has 271 fuel rods with 12.0 mm in diameter and 15.9 mm in pitch in a hexagonal wrapper tube. The chimney, cyclone separators and chevron dryers, direct heat exchangers (DHX), reactor vessel air cooling systems (RVACS) and guard vessel are designed. For the technical development of the PBWFR, experimental and analytical studies are performed for Pb-Bi direct contact boiling two-phase flow, steel corrosion in Pb-Bi flow, oxygen control and oxygen sensor, and removal of polonium contamination. (authors)
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2004
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to immunosuppressive drugs and its influence on glucocorticoid therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC). IC50s of immunosuppressive drugs on in vitro blastogenesis of PBMCs stimulated with concanavalin A were estimated in 76 UC and 146 healthy subjects. Individual differences in IC50s for prednisolone, methylprednisolone, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus on blastogenesis of PBMCs from UC patients were spread from 11.0 to 1000, 0.6 to 1000, 0.01 to 1000, and 0.001 to 4.6 ng/ml, respectively. Normal upper thresholds for IC50s of these drugs were estimated from the mean + 2 S.D. of the IC50s of healthy PBMCs, and the patients exhibiting IC50s over these levels were arbitrarily considered as resistant. The incidences of resistance to glucocorticoids and cyclosporine in UC were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (p < 0.0005). In 14 UC patients, there was a significant correlation between amounts of prednisolone (p < 0.05) or period of prednisolone administration (p < 0.05) for UC treatment and prednisolone IC50. The results showed that large individual deviations in PBMC response to the drugs were observed in UC, and UC patients exhibiting low PBMC sensitivity to prednisolone required a high prednisolone amount as well as long period of prednisolone administration for treatment. Thus, the drug sensitivity tests could be informative to single out refractory patients to the immunosuppressive therapy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · International Immunopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Transplantation
  • T Hirano · T Akashi · T Keira · K Oka · N Ihoya · M Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular pharmacodynamics of cyclosporine (INN, cyclosporin) is considered to be closely implicated in clinical efficacy of the drug in kidney transplantation and other immunologic disorders. We applied this strategy to patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome to predict individual clinical efficacy of cyclosporine. Drug sensitivity tests were carried out with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 31 patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition of cyclosporine on in vitro blastogenesis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A were estimated, and interpatient variations of 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition were evaluated. The relationship between cyclosporine-50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition and clinical outcomes indicated a decrease of urinary protein and the period required for complete remission under cyclosporine therapy was examined in 14 patients. We also evaluated the correlation between cyclosporine-50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition and interleukin-2 production and percentages of interleukin 2 receptor-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cyclosporine 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition on peripheral blood mononuclear cell blastogenesis deviated largely between patients from 0.2 to 86.0 ng/mL. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between cyclosporine-50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition in vitro and decreasing rates of urinary protein at 1 week after onset of cyclosporine administration (r = -0.655, P < .02). When we arbitrarily divide the 14 patients who received cyclosporine therapy according to their median 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition of cyclosporine into two groups, that is, a high-sensitivity group (50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition < 18.1 ng/mL, n = 6) and a low-sensitivity group (50% lymphocytemitosis inhibition > 18.1 ng/mL, n = 8), the period required for complete remission was significantly shorter in the high-sensitivity group (P < .03). The 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition of cyclosporine on interleukin-2 production in culture medium was correlated with 50% lymphocyte-mitosis inhibition of the drug on peripheral blood mononuclear cell blastogenesis (r = 0.806, P < .02). Decreasing rates of interleukin-2R-positive cells by cyclosporine treatment in vitro were negatively correlated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells blastogenesis in the presence of the drug (r = -0.694, P < .02). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to cyclosporine in vitro is closely related to clinical efficacy of the drug in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell resistance to cyclosporine was correlated with ability of the cells to express interleukin 2 and interleukin 2R.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics

  • No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · Transplantation Proceedings

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