[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Senescence accelerated mice (SAM) are a group of mice that show aging-related diseases, and SAM prone 10 (SAMP10) show spontaneous brain atrophy and defects in learning and memory. Our previous report showed that the thymus and the percentage of T lymphocytes are abnormal in the SAMP10, but it was unclear whether the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMMSCs) were abnormal, and whether they played an important role in regenerative medicine. We thus compared BMMSCs from SAMP10 and their control, SAM-resistant (SAMR1), in terms of cell cycle, oxidative stress, and the expression of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase in the SAMP10. We also found increased reactive oxygen stress and decreased PI3K and MAPK on the BMMSCs. These results suggested the BMMSCs were abnormal in SAMP10, and that this might be related to the immune system dysfunction in these mice.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that replacing bone marrow stem cells may improve hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) is an antioxidant protein that decreases with aging. However, it has not been clear whether SMP30 decreases in the livers of obese mice, and whether stem cell replacement would improve SMP30 expression in the liver. Bone marrow stem cells of db/db mice were replaced with the bone marrow stem cells of C57BL/6 mice. Plasma cytokine and insulin levels were measured, and glycogen content, expression of SMP30, and fibrosis in the liver were assessed. Our results showed that stem cell replacement increased the expression of SMP30 in the liver, resulting from decreased plasma inflammation cytokines and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. This is the first report that stem cell replacement increased the expression of SMP30 in the liver, and may help prevent fibrosis in the liver of db/db mice.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is a peripheral T cell lymphoma, known to express CD3 and CD4, and, frequently, also CD10 and c‑Maf‑1. Hypergammaglobulinemia is not particularly rare in patients with AITL. However, AITL in conjunction with plasmacytosis in the peripheral blood is rare. The current report presents a case of CD10‑negative AITL demonstrating leukemic change and plasmacytosis in the peripheral blood mimicking plasma cell leukemia. A 78‑year‑old male was admitted to hospital due to systemic lymph node enlargement, high serum IgG and IgA, and increased counts of plasmacytoid cells and lymphoid cells with atypical nuclei in the peripheral blood. Initially, plasma cell leukemia was suspected, due to the extreme increase in the number of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. However, the plasma cells did not show clonal expansion on examination by flow cytometry. Based on histological analyses, following a biopsy of an enlarged lymph node, the patient was diagnosed with AITL. This case suggests that when hypergammaglobulinemia and increases in B‑lineage cells are observed, AITL should be considered in addition to disorders of B-lineage cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most thymic carcinomas aberrantly express the lymphocyte marker CD5. This study was performed to examine the role of the self-reactive CD5 antigen in thymic carcinoma.
We examined CD5 expression in thymic carcinoma in relation to the lymphoid stroma. All cases of thymic carcinoma examined expressed CD5. A number of CD5(+) lymphocytes were also present in the stroma of thymic carcinoma. The CD5(+) tumour areas were predominantly in contact with the lymphoid stroma, and the expression level was significantly lower in tumour cells than lymphocytes. Although p53 and Bcl-2 expression levels were significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than normal thymic epithelial cells (TECs), they did not differ between CD5(+) and CD5(-) areas. E-cadherin expression in thymic carcinoma was comparable with that of normal TECs, and it also did not differ between these areas. In contrast, both Ki-67 index and mitotic activity were significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than normal TECs, and they were significantly higher in CD5(+) than CD5(-) areas.
CD5 may be induced by interaction with CD5(+) lymphoid stoma, and may be related to tumour proliferation. CD5 induction may also be a significant and/or specific effect of the tumour microenvironment of the thymus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and obesity. The db/db mouse model displays increased levels of insulin resistance, obesity, and an over-accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, making it an excellent model for studying NAFLD. In db/db mice, intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation plus thymus transplantation (IBM-BMT+TT) improves type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) by normalizing the T-cell imbalance. We hypothesized that this approach would improve Sirt1 expression in the liver and benefit liver development.
The db/db mice were treated with IBM-BMT+TT, and plasma MCP-1, IL-6, adiponection, LDL, Sirt1, and HO-1 levels were then assessed. Stem cell transplantation decreased the levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines and LDL while it increased the expression of Sirt1 and HO-1, resulting in decreased progression of fatty liver. Moreover, Sirt1 and HO-1 expression were both detected in the thymus and many HO-1-positive cells were observed in the bone marrow.
This is the first report of stem cell transplantation improving the antioxidant function in the liver, thymus, and bone marrow of db/db mice by increasing the levels of Sirt1 and HO-1. This approach may prove useful in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and its clinical manifestations.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International journal of biological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived cells enter the brain in a non-inflammatory condition through the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Neurodegenerative conditions may be associated with altered immune-brain interaction. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) undergoes earlier onset neurodegeneration than C57BL/6 (B6) strain. We hypothesized that the dynamics of immune cells migrating from the bone marrow to the brain is perturbed in SAMP10 mice. We created 4 groups of radiation chimeras by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation using 2-month-old (2 mo) and 10 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice as recipients with GFP transgenic B6 mice as donors, and analyzed histologically 4 months later. In the [B6 → 10 mo SAMP10] chimeras, more ramified marrow-derived cells populated a larger number of discrete brain regions than the other chimeras, especially in the diencephalon. Multiplex cytokine assays of the diencephalon prepared from non-treated 3 mo and 12 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice revealed that 12 mo SAMP10 mice exhibited higher tissue concentrations of CXCL1, CCL11, G-CSF, CXCL10 and IL-6 than the other groups. Immunohistologically, choroid plexus epithelium and ependyma produced CXCL1, while astrocytic processes in the attachments of choroid plexus expressed CCL11 and G-CSF. The median eminence produced CXCL10, hypothalamic neurons G-CSF and tanycytes CCL11 and G-CSF. These brain cytokine profile changes in 12 mo SAMP10 mice were likely to contribute to acceleration of the dynamics of marrow-derived cells to the diencephalon. Further studies on the functions of ramified marrow-derived myeloid cells would enhance our understanding of the brain-bone marrow interaction.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Brain Structure and Function
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SKG/Jcl (SKG) mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis and may be an effective model for studying human rheumatoid arthritis. We sought to confirm that arthritis in SKG mice was caused by stem cell disorders. We induced systemic arthritis in normal C57/BL6 (B6) mice (H-2(b) type) by injecting lineage-negative (lin(-)) immature cells isolated from bone marrow cells (BMCs) of SKG mice (H-2(d) type) directly into bone cavities. Twenty weeks later, we analyzed arthritis scores, hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in ankle joints, H-2 type of hematolymphoid and osteoblast-like cells, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and percentages of CD4(+) T cells and osteoblast-like cells expressing receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in recipient mice. Donor-derived hematolymphoid cells and osteoblast-like cells had completely replaced donor-derived cells in the recipients (H-2(b) to H-2(d)). All recipients showed severe joint swelling with hyperemia and developed hypertrophic synovitis with lymphocytes accumulated around joints. All recipients also had higher TNF-α and IL-6 levels than untreated B6 controls. Furthermore, the percentages of CD4(+) T cells and osteoblast-like cells expressing RANKL and the number of TRAP(+) cells were greater in treated animals. Donor-derived hematolymphoid cells and osteoblast-like cells persisted in these recipients and promoted autoimmune arthritis and an increase in osteoclasts. Because autoimmune arthritis may be associated with abnormal lin(-) immature cells, patients with intractable autoimmune arthritis may be treated by replacing these cells with direct injection of lin(-) immature cells isolated from normal BMCs.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder that induces dementia in older people. It was first reported in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer, who characterized the disease as causing memory loss and cognitive impairment. Pathologic characteristics of AD are β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neurodegeneration. Current therapies only target the relief of symptoms using various drugs, and do not cure the disease. Recently, stem cell therapy has been shown to be a potential approach to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, and in this review, we focus on stem cell therapies for AD.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases (ADs) and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT) has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but also mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and adipose tissue. MSCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of BM-derived-MSCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Other than that in the duodenum, adenocarcinoma in the small bowel is rare. The present study describes a case of adenocarcinoma with adenoma in the jejunum. A 70-year-old male was admitted to hospital due to dehydration induced by abdominal discomfort and difficulty with oral intake. Computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper side of the jejunum, which was subsequently resected. The tumor contained adenocarcinoma and adenoma. The protein expression of p53 and Ki-67 was analyzed in the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The number of epithelial cells expressing p53 and Ki-67 was found to increase in the adenoma tissue compared with that in the normal mucosa. In the adenocarcinoma tissue, the number of cells expressing p53 and Ki-67 further increased, suggesting that an adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence may occur in the small bowel, similar to that observed in the large bowel.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of B-cell lymphoma characterized by selective growth of clonal B-cells in the lumen of the small vessels of various organs including the liver, spleen, lungs, skin, brain, and kidney. An 86-year-old male presented with weight loss, fever and night sweats (known as B symptoms). Blood examination revealed pancytopenia, high lactate dehydrogenase and high soluble interleukin-2 receptor, suggesting hematopoietic malignancy. However, there were no abnormal hematopoietic cells in the peripheral blood. No lymph node swelling was identified on examination by whole-body computed tomography scan. Therefore, IVLBCL was suspected, and random skin biopsies and a skin biopsy from a senile hemangioma were carried out. A small number of large atypical lymphoid cells resided in the small blood vessels in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the random skin biopsies, and numerous atypical lymphoid cells were identified in the small vessels of the senile hemangioma. These results suggest the usefulness of skin biopsy from senile hemangiomas in the diagnosis of IVLBCL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that allogeneic intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) plus thymus transplantation (TT) is effective in treating recipients with malignant tumors. Although TT increases the percentage of T cells in the early term after BMT, the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are still the dominant population. We used the Gr-1 Ab to deplete the granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in tumor-bearing mice that had received BMT+TT. Two weeks after the BMT, the mice injected with Gr-1 Ab showed smaller tumors than those in the control group. In addition, Gr-1 Ab significantly increased the percentages and numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and decreased the percentages and numbers of MDSCs and G-MDSCs. No side effects of the Gr-1 Ab on recipient or donor thymus were observed. These findings indicate that Gr-1 Ab administered after BMT+TT may enhance the effectiveness of tumor suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (SH) is an uncommon benign or low-grade malignant tumor. Multicentric SH and SH with lymph node metastasis have rarely been reported. The present report describes a case of pulmonary SH with lymph node metastasis in a middle-aged female. A nodule was found incidentally in the lower left lung. The patient underwent left lower pulmonary lobectomy and lymph node dissection. Histologically, the nodule demonstrated the characteristic features of SH and one of the resected lymph nodes contained a metastasis of this tumor. Thus, pulmonary SH has the potential to metastasize, a potential not suggested by histological features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a common chronic disease in children, characterized by a loss of β cells, which results in defects in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Curative therapies mainly include diet and insulin administration. Although hyperglycemia can be improved by insulin administration, exogenous insulin injection cannot successfully mimic the insulin secretion from normal β cells, which keeps blood glucose levels within the normal range all the time. Islet and pancreas transplantation achieves better glucose control, but there is a lack of organ donors. Cell based therapies have also been attempted to treat T1DM. Stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue stem cells (TSCs) such as bone marrow-, adipose tissue-, and cord blood-derived stem cells, have been shown to generate insulin-producing cells. In this review, we summarize the most-recently available information about T1DM and the use of TSCs to treat T1DM.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology