Luke I Szweda

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

Are you Luke I Szweda?

Claim your profile

Publications (154)

  • Clair Crewe · Christopher Schafer · Irene Lee · [...] · Luke I Szweda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac metabolic inflexibility is driven by robust up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) within a single day of feeding mice a high fat diet. In the current study, we have discovered that PDK4 is a short-lived protein (t1/2 ~1 h) and is specifically degraded by the mitochondrial protease, Lon. Lon does not rapidly degrade PDK1 and 2 indicating specificity toward the PDK isoform that is a potent modulator of metabolic flexibility. Moreover, PDK4 degradation appears regulated by dissociation from the PDH complex dependent on the respiratory state and energetic substrate availability of mouse heart mitochondria. Finally, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of PDK4 promotes PDK4 degradation in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal a novel strategy to manipulate PDH activity by selectively targeting PDK4 content through dissociation and proteolysis.
    Article · Nov 2016 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adult mammalian heart is incapable of regeneration following cardiomyocyte loss, which underpins the devastating impact of cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has become clear that the mammalian heart is not a post-mitotic organ. For example, the neonatal heart is capable of regenerating lost myocardium(1), and the adult heart is capable of modest self-renewal(2,3). In both these scenarios, cardiomyocyte renewal occurs through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and is regulated by aerobic respiration-mediated oxidative DNA damage(4,5). Therefore, we reasoned that systemic hypoxemia inhibits aerobic respiration and alleviates oxidative DNA damage, thereby inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation in adult mammals. Here we report that gradual exposure to severe systemic hypoxemia, where inspired oxygen is gradually decreased by 1% and maintained at 7% for two weeks, results in inhibition of oxidative metabolism, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative DNA damage, and reactivation of cardiomyocyte mitosis. Intriguingly, we found that exposure to hypoxemia 1 week after induction of myocardial infarction induces a robust regenerative response with decreased myocardial fibrosis and improvement of left ventricular systolic function. Finally, genetic fate mapping confirmed that the newly formed myocardium is derived from pre-existing cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that the endogenous regenerative properties of the adult mammalian heart can be reactivated by exposure to gradual systemic hypoxemia, and highlight the potential therapeutic role of hypoxia in regenerative medicine.
    Article · Oct 2016 · Nature
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that catalase content in mouse cardiac mitochondria is selectively elevated in response to high dietary fat, a nutritional state associated with oxidative stress and loss in insulin signaling. Catalase and various isoforms of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin each catalyze the consumption of H2O2 Catalase, located primarily within peroxisomes and to a lesser extent mitochondria, has a low binding affinity for H2O2 relative to glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin. As such, the contribution of catalase to mitochondrial H2O2 consumption is not well understood. In the current study, using highly purified cardiac mitochondria challenged with micromolar concentrations of H2O2, we found that catalase contributes significantly to mitochondrial H2O2 consumption. In addition, catalase is solely responsible for removal of H2O2 in non-respiring or structurally disrupted mitochondria. Finally, in mice fed a high fat diet, mitochondrial-derived H2O2 is responsible for diminished insulin signaling in the heart as evidenced by reduced insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation. While elevated mitochondrial catalase content (~50%) enhanced the capacity of mitochondria to consume H2O2 in response to high dietary fat, the selective increase in catalase did not prevent H2O2-induced loss in cardiac insulin signaling. Taken together, our results indicate that mitochondrial catalase likely functions to preclude the formation of high levels of H2O2 without perturbing redox-dependent signaling.
    Article · Sep 2016 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
  • Timothy M Griffin · Kenneth M Humphries · Michael Kinter · [...] · Luke I Szweda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A central feature of obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases is the impaired ability to transition between fatty acid and glucose metabolism. This impairment, referred to as "metabolic inflexibility", occurs in a number of tissues, including the heart. Although the heart normally prefers to metabolize fatty acids over glucose, the inability to upregulate glucose metabolism under energetically demanding conditions contributes to a pathological state involving energy imbalance, impaired contractility, and post-translational protein modifications. This review discusses pathophysiologic processes that contribute to cardiac metabolic inflexibility and speculates on the potential physiologic origins that lead to the current state of cardiometabolic disease in an obesogenic environment.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Biochimie
  • File available · Data · Aug 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes are essential mediators of immunity that are produced by the thymus in proportion to its size. The thymus atrophies rapidly with age, resulting in progressive diminution of new T cell production. This decreased output is compensated by duplication of existing T cells, but it results in gradual dominance by memory T cells and decreased ability to respond to new pathogens or vaccines. Here, we show that accelerated and irreversible thymic atrophy results from stromal deficiency in the reducing enzyme catalase, leading to increased damage by hydrogen peroxide generated by aerobic metabolism. Genetic complementation of catalase in stromal cells diminished atrophy, as did chemical antioxidants, thus providing a mechanistic link between antioxidants, metabolism, and normal immune function. We propose that irreversible thymic atrophy represents a conventional aging process that is accelerated by stromal catalase deficiency in the context of an intensely anabolic (lymphoid) environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2015 · Cell Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High throughput proteomics studies have identified several thousand acetylation sites on over one thousand proteins. Mitochondrial aconitase, the Krebs cycle enzyme that converts citrate to isocitrate, has been identified in many of these reports. Acetylated mitochondrial aconitase has also been identified as a target for sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) catalyzed deacetylation. However, the functional significance of mitochondrial aconitase acetylation has not been determined. Using in vitro strategies, mass spectrometric analyses, and an in vivo mouse model of obesity, we found a significant acetylation-dependent activation of aconitase. Isolated heart mitochondria subjected to in vitro chemical acetylation with either acetic anhydride or acetyl-CoA resulted in increased aconitase activity that was reversed with SIRT3 treatment. Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to measure acetylation at 21 lysine residues and found significant increases with both in vitro treatments. A high fat diet (60% kcal from fat) was used as an in vivo model and also showed significantly increased mitochondrial aconitase activity without changes in protein expression. The high fat diet also produced increased aconitase acetylation at multiple sites as measured by the quantitative mass spectrometry assays. Treatment of isolated mitochondria from these mice with SIRT3 abolished the high fat diet-induced activation of aconitase and reduced the acetylation. Finally, kinetic analyses found that the increase in activity was a result of increased maximal velocity and molecular modeling suggests the potential for acetylation at K144 to perturb the tertiary structure of the enzyme. The results of this study reveal a novel activation of mitochondrial aconitase by acetylation.
    Article · Jun 2015 · Biochemistry
  • Article · Apr 2015 · Gynecologic Oncology
  • File available · Data · Jan 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed on adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but its role in this tissue remains unknown. We evaluated whether deficiency in either adipocyte or myeloid leukocyte CXCR4 affects body weight (BW) and adiposity in a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We found that ablation of adipocyte, but not myeloid leukocyte, CXCR4 exacerbated obesity. The HFD-fed adipocyte-specific CXCR4-knockout (AdCXCR4ko) mice, compared to wild-type C57BL/6 control mice, had increased BW (average: 52.0 g vs. 35.5 g), adiposity (average: 49.3 vs. 21.0% of total BW), and inflammatory leukocyte content in white adipose tissue (WAT), despite comparable food intake. As previously reported, HFD feeding increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression (fold increase: 3.5) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the C57BL/6 control mice. However, no HFD-induced increase in UCP1 expression was observed in the AdCXCR4ko mice, which were cold sensitive. Thus, our study suggests that adipocyte CXCR4 limits development of obesity by preventing excessive inflammatory cell recruitment into WAT and by supporting thermogenic activity of BAT. Since CXCR4 is conserved between mouse and human, the newfound role of CXCR4 in mouse adipose tissue may parallel the role of this chemokine receptor in human adipose tissue.-Yao, L., Heuser-Baker, J., Herlea-Pana, O., Zhang, N., Szweda, L. I., Griffin, T. M., Barlic-Dicen, J. Deficiency in adipocyte chemokine receptor CXCR4 exacerbates obesity and compromises thermoregulatory responses of brown adipose tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.
    Full-text available · Article · Jul 2014 · The FASEB Journal
  • Article · May 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian heart has a remarkable regenerative capacity for a short period of time after birth, after which the majority of cardiomyocytes permanently exit cell cycle. We sought to determine the primary postnatal event that results in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We hypothesized that transition to the oxygen-rich postnatal environment is the upstream signal that results in cell-cycle arrest of cardiomyocytes. Here, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative DNA damage, and DNA damage response (DDR) markers significantly increase in the heart during the first postnatal week. Intriguingly, postnatal hypoxemia, ROS scavenging, or inhibition of DDR all prolong the postnatal proliferative window of cardiomyocytes, whereas hyperoxemia and ROS generators shorten it. These findings uncover a protective mechanism that mediates cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest in exchange for utilization of oxygen-dependent aerobic metabolism. Reduction of mitochondrial-dependent oxidative stress should be an important component of cardiomyocyte proliferation-based therapeutic approaches.
    Full-text available · Article · Apr 2014 · Cell
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an a-arrestin family member involved in redox sensing and metabolic control. Growing evidence links TXNIP to mitochondrial function, but the molecular nature of this relationship has remained poorly defined. Herein, we employed targeted metabolomics and comprehensive bioenergetic analyses to evaluate oxidative metabolism and respiratory kinetics in mouse models of total body (TKO) and skeletal muscle-specific (TXNIPSKM-/-) Txnip deficiency. Compared to littermate controls, both TKO and TXNIPSKM-/- mice had reduced exercise tolerance in association with muscle-specific impairments in substrate oxidation. Oxidative insufficiencies in TXNIP null muscles were not due to perturbations in mitochondrial mass, the electron transport chain or emission of reactive oxygen species. Instead, metabolic profiling analyses led to the discovery that TXNIP deficiency causes marked deficits in enzymes required for catabolism of branched chain amino acids, ketones and lactate, along with more modest reductions in enzymes of β-oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The decrements in enzyme activity were accompanied by comparable deficits in protein abundance without changes in mRNA expression, implying dysregulation of protein synthesis or stability. Considering that TXNIP expression increases in response to starvation, diabetes and exercise, these findings point to a novel role for TXNIP in coordinating mitochondrial fuel switching in response to nutrient availability.
    Full-text available · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Source
    Clair Crewe · Michael Kinter · Luke I Szweda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac function depends on the ability to switch between fatty acid and glucose oxidation for energy production in response to changes in substrate availability and energetic stress. In obese and diabetic individuals, increased reliance on fatty acids and reduced metabolic flexibility are thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms by which cardiac mitochondria contribute to diet-induced metabolic inflexibility were investigated. Mice were fed a high fat or low fat diet for 1 d, 1 wk, and 20 wk. Cardiac mitochondria isolated from mice fed a high fat diet displayed a diminished ability to utilize the glycolytically derived substrate pyruvate. This response was rapid, occurring within the first day on the diet, and persisted for up to 20 wk. A selective increase in the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase are responsible for the rapid suppression of pyruvate utilization. An important consequence is that pyruvate dehydrogenase is sensitized to inhibition when mitochondria respire in the presence of fatty acids. Additionally, increased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 preceded any observed diet-induced reductions in the levels of glucose transporter type 4 and glycolytic enzymes and, as judged by Akt phosphorylation, insulin signaling. Importantly, diminished insulin signaling evident at 1 wk on the high fat diet did not occur in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 knockout mice. Dietary intervention leads to a rapid decline in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 levels and recovery of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity indicating an additional form of regulation. Finally, an overnight fast elicits a metabolic response similar to that induced by high dietary fat obscuring diet-induced metabolic changes. Thus, our data indicate that diet-induced inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase may be an initiating event in decreased oxidation of glucose and increased reliance of the heart on fatty acids for energy production.
    Full-text available · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Article · Jul 2013
  • Paul M Rindler · Clair L Crewe · Jolyn Fernandes · [...] · Luke I Szweda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity enhances the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Loss in insulin sensitivity and diminished ability of muscle to take up and utilize glucose is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Paradoxically, regulatory mechanisms that promote utilization of fatty acids appear to initiate diet-induced insulin insensitivity. In this review, we discuss recent findings implicating increased mitochondrial production of the pro-oxidant, H2O2, due to enhanced utilization of fatty acids, as a signal to diminish reliance on glucose and its metabolites for energy. In the short term, the ability to preferentially utilize fatty acids may be beneficial, promoting a metabolic shift that ensures use of available fat by skeletal muscle and heart while preventing intracellular glucose accumulation and toxicity. However, with prolonged consumption of high dietary fat and ensuing obesity, the near exclusive dependence on fatty acid oxidation for production of energy by the mitochondria drives insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
    Article · Jun 2013 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates as well as protein which forces cells to rely on lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration rather than glycolysis for energy metabolism. Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) are believed to exist in a state of chronic oxidative stress mediated by mitochondrial metabolism. The current study tests the hypothesis that ketogenic diets enhance radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by enhancing oxidative stress. Experimental design: Mice bearing NCI-H292 and A549 lung cancer xenografts were fed a ketogenic diet (KetoCal 4:1 fats: proteins+carbohydrates) and treated with either conventionally fractionated (1.8-2 Gy) or hypofractionated (6 Gy) radiation as well as conventionally fractionated radiation combined with carboplatin. Mice weights and tumor size were monitored. Tumors were assessed for immunoreactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-(4HNE)-modified proteins as a marker of oxidative stress as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and γH2AX as indices of proliferation and DNA damage, respectively. Results: The ketogenic diets combined with radiation resulted in slower tumor growth in both NCI-H292 and A549 xenografts (P < 0.05), relative to radiation alone. The ketogenic diet also slowed tumor growth when combined with carboplatin and radiation, relative to control. Tumors from animals fed a ketogenic diet in combination with radiation showed increases in oxidative damage mediated by lipid peroxidation as determined by 4HNE-modified proteins as well as decreased proliferation as assessed by decreased immunoreactive PCNA. Conclusions: These results show that a ketogenic diet enhances radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by a mechanism that may involve increased oxidative stress.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Lipid peroxidation generates reactive aldehydes, most notably hydroxynonenal (HNE), which covalently binds amino acid residue side chains leading to protein inactivation and insolubility. Specific adducts of lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to be intimately associated with pathological lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), suggesting oxidative stress is a major component in the disease. Here, we examined the HNE-crosslinking modifications by using an antibody specific for a lysine-lysine crosslink. Since in a prior study we noted no immunolabeling of neuritic plaques or neurofibrillary tangles but instead found strong labeling of axons, we focused this study on axons. Axonal labeling was examined in mouse sciatic nerve, and immunoblotting showed the crosslink was restricted to neurofilament heavy and medium subunit, which while altering migration, did not indicate larger NF aggregates, indicative of intermolecular crosslinks. Examination of mice at various ages showed the extent of modification remaining relatively constant through the lifespan. These findings demonstrate lipid-crosslinking peroxidation primarily involves lysine rich neurofilaments and is restricted to intramolecular crosslinks.
    Full-text available · Article · Apr 2013 · Free Radical Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) is reversibly inhibited when rat heart mitochondria are exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2-induced inhibition occurs through the formation of a mixed disulfide between a protein sulfhydryl and glutathione. Upon consumption of H2O2, glutaredoxin can rapidly remove glutathione resulting in regeneration of enzyme activity. KGDH is a key regulatory site within the Krebs cycle. Glutathionylation of the enzyme may therefore represent an important means to control mitochondrial function in response to oxidative stress. We have previously provided indirect evidence that glutathionylation occurs on lipoic acid, a cofactor covalently bound to the E2 subunit of KGDH. However, lipoic acid contains two vicinal sulfhydryls and rapid disulfide exchange might be predicted to preclude stable glutathionylation. The current study sought conclusive identification of the site and chemistry of KGDH glutathionylation and factors that control the degree and rate of enzyme inhibition. We present evidence that, upon reaction of free lipoic acid with oxidized glutathione in solution, disulfide exchange occurs rapidly producing oxidized lipoic acid and reduced glutathione. This prevents the stable formation of a glutathione-lipoic acid adduct. Nevertheless, 1:1 lipoic acid-glutathione adducts are formed on KGDH because the second sulfhydryl on lipoic acid is unable to participate in disulfide exchange in the enzyme's native conformation. The maximum degree of KGDH inhibition that can be achieved by treatment of mitochondria with H2O2 is 50%. Results indicate that this is not due to glutathionylation of a subpopulation of the enzyme but, rather, the unique susceptibility of lipoic acid on a subset of E2 subunits within each enzyme complex. Calcium enhances the rate of glutathionylation by increasing the half-life of reduced lipoic acid during enzyme catalysis. This does not, however, alter the maximal level of inhibition providing further evidence that specific lipoic acid residues within the E2 complex are susceptible to glutathionylation. These findings offer chemical information necessary for the identification of mechanisms and physiological implications of KGDH glutathionylation.
    Article · Apr 2013 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Most current knowledge of pancreatic islet pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus has come from animal models. Even though islets from humans are readily available, only a few come from diabetic donors. We had the uncommon opportunity to acquire islets from humans with type 2 diabetes and used it to perform a study not previously done with human or animal islets.Objectives:Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for impaired β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Lipid peroxides caused by reactive oxygen species are damaging to body tissues. The objective was to determine whether lipid peroxide-protein adducts occur in pancreatic islets of humans with type 2 diabetes.Design:Immunoblots with two antibodies to hydroxynonenal and 2 other antibodies we generated against reactive small aliphatic compounds were used to detect lipid peroxide-protein adducts in islets of patients with type 2 diabetes and controls.Results:The antibodies reacted strongly to ≥5 islet proteins. The major hydroxynonenal adduct in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients was a 52-kDa protein seen with all 4 antibodies that was also seen in islets of nondiabetic humans, rat islets, and insulinoma cells and in mitochondria of various rat tissues. Nano-LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight) analysis identified the protein as the β-chain of the mitochondrial F-ATP synthase, an enzyme responsible for 95% of ATP formed in tissues.Conclusions:Lipid peroxide-protein adducts occur in β-cells in the nondiabetic state and in diabetes. Lipid peroxidation is thought to be damaging to tissues. Analogous to various other unhealthy characteristics, the presence in nondiabetic individuals of lipid peroxide-protein adducts does not necessarily indicate they are not detrimental.
    Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Publication Stats

9k Citations


  • 2015
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2011
    • Cape Peninsula University of Technology
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2010
    • University of São Paulo
      • Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva (IB) (Sao Paulo)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
    • University of Oklahoma
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Coimbra
      Coímbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • 2004-2006
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Physiology and Biophysics
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Kentucky
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 2003
    • Gannon University
      Erie, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain