[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most reports on the effectiveness and side effects of oral versus parenteral calcitriol or alfacalcidol in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism show no advantage of parenteral treatment. The efficacy and safety of intravenous doxercalciferol (1alphaD(2)) were studied in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (plasma intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH]: range, 266 to 3,644 pg/mL; median, 707 pg/mL). These results were compared with those of a previous trial using intermittent oral 1alphaD(2); the same 70 patients were entered onto both trials, and 64 patients completed both trials per protocol. Twelve weeks of open-label treatment in both trials were preceded by identical 8-week washout periods. Degrees of iPTH suppression from baseline were similar in the two trials, with iPTH level reductions less than 50% in 89% and 78% of patients during oral and intravenous treatment, respectively. Grouping patients according to entry iPTH levels (<750 and >/=750 pg/mL) showed similar but more rapid iPTH suppression in the low-iPTH groups, whereas longer treatment and larger doses were required by the high-iPTH groups. Highest serum calcium levels averaged 9.82 +/- 0.14 and 9.67 +/- 0.11 mg/dL during oral and intravenous 1alphaD(2) treatment, respectively (P: = not significant [NS]). Prevalences of serum calcium levels greater than 11.2 mg/dL during oral and intravenous treatment were 3.62% and 0.86% of calcium measurements, respectively (P: < 0.001). Highest serum phosphorus levels during oral and intravenous treatment averaged 5.82 +/- 0.21 and 5.60 +/- 0.21 mg/dL, respectively (P: = NS). The percentage of increments in serum phosphorus levels during oral treatment exceeded that during intravenous treatment during 5 of 12 treatment weeks. Thus, intermittent oral and intravenous therapy with 1alphaD(2) reduced iPTH levels effectively and similarly, hypercalcemia was less frequent, and serum phosphorus levels increased less during intravenous than oral 1alphaD(2) therapy, suggesting that intravenous 1alphaD(2) therapy may be advantageous in patients prone to hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia frequently necessitate vitamin D withdrawal in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. In short-term trials, doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2) [1alphaD(2)]) suppressed intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) effectively with minimal increases in serum calcium and phosphorus (P) levels. This modified, double-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of 1alphaD(2) use in 138 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism by using novel dose titration; 99 patients completed the study. Hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled onto this study, consisting of washout (8 weeks), open-label 1alphaD(2) treatment (16 weeks), and randomized, double-blinded treatment with 1alphaD(2) or placebo (8 weeks). Oral 1alphaD(2) was administered at each hemodialysis session, with doses titrated to achieve target iPTH levels of 150 to 300 pg/mL. Baseline iPTH levels (897 +/- 52 [SE] pg/mL) decreased by 20% +/- 3.4% by week 1 (P: < 0.001) and by 55% +/- 2.9% at week 16; iPTH levels returned to baseline during placebo treatment but remained suppressed with 1alphaD(2) treatment. In 80% of the patients, iPTH level decreased by 70%, reaching the target level in 83% of the patients. Grouping patients by entry iPTH level (<600, 600 to 1,200, and >1,200 pg/mL) showed rapid iPTH suppression in the group with the lowest level; greater doses and longer treatment were required in the group with the highest level. During open-label treatment, serum calcium and P levels were 9.2 +/- 0.84 (SD) to 9.7 +/- 1.05 mg/dL and 5.4 +/- 1.10 to 5.9 +/- 1.55 mg/dL, respectively. During double-blinded treatment, serum calcium levels were slightly greater with 1alphaD(2) than placebo, but P levels did not differ. During double-blinded treatment, 3.26% and 0.46% of serum calcium measurements exceeded 11.2 mg/dL with 1alphaD(2) and placebo, respectively (P: < 0.01); median level was 11.6 mg/dL during hypercalcemia. Intermittent oral 1alphaD(2) therapy effectively suppresses iPTH in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, with acceptable mild hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases