Salvador Soler

Instituto Universitario de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (35)52.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants with the Tsw resistance gene showing unusually severe symptoms consisting of local lesions, chlorosis, stunting and systemic necrosis on the apical leaves were found in a commercial field in north eastern Spain in 2009. The presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was confirmed in all diseased plants. After mechanical inoculation of Nicotiana glutinosa with infected field samples, biological clones of the virus were isolated from individual local lesions. These biological clones produced two different types of symptoms after inoculation on Tsw resistant pepper plants: (i) typical symptoms caused by resistance-breaking (RB) isolates characterized by chlorosis and stunting, and (ii) severe symptoms as observed in the field plants. Similar symptoms in pepper plants carrying the Tsw resistance gene were reproduced under controlled conditions, after simultaneous inoculation of RB and non-resistance-breaking (NRB) isolates. The NRB isolate was detected in a low proportion in the apical uninoculated leaves, whereas NRB isolates could not infect resistant pepper when inoculated alone. Co-infection by NRB and RB isolates induced disease synergism with systemic necrosis on the apical leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a synergic interaction between isolates of the same virus has been described, which has the ability to overcome a natural genetic resistance. This finding could have epidemiological implications for the management of TSWV.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Phytoparasitica
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes economically important losses in many crops, worldwide. In pepper (Capsicum annuum), the best method for disease control has been breeding resistant cultivars by introgression of gene Tsw from Capsicum chinense. However, this resistance has two drawbacks: (a) it is not efficient if plants are infected at early growth stages and under prolonged high temperatures, and (b) it is rapidly overcome by TSWV evolution. In this work, we selected and evaluated a new accession from Capsicum baccatum, named PIM26-1, using a novel approach consisting in measuring how three parameters related to virus infection changed over time, in comparison to a susceptible pepper variety (Negral) and a resistant (with Tsw) accession (PI-159236): (a) The level of resistance to virus accumulation was estimated as an opposite to absolute fitness, W=er, being r the viral multiplication rate calculated by quantitative RT-PCR; (b); the level of resistance to virus infection was estimated as the Kaplan–Meier survival time for no infection using DAS-ELISA to identify TSWV-infected plants; (c) the level of tolerance was estimated as the Kaplan–Meier survival time for no appearance of severe symptoms. Our results showed that the levels of both resistance parameters against TSWV wild type (WT) and Tsw-resistance breaking (TBR) isolates were higher in PIM26-1 than in the susceptible pepper variety Negral and similar to the resistant variety PI-159236 against the TBR isolate. However, PIM26-1 showed a very high tolerance (none of the plants developed severe symptoms) to the WT and TBR isolates in contrast to Negral for WT and TBR or PI-159236 for TBR (most TSWV-inoculated plants developed severe symptoms). All this indicate that the new accession PIM26-1 is a good candidate for breeding programmes to avoid damages caused by TSWV TBR isolates in pepper.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of Applied Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) occurs worldwide and causes production losses in many important horticultural crops such as tomato and pepper. Breeding resistant cultivars has been the most successful method so far for TSWV disease control, but only two genes have been found to confer resistance against a wide spectrum of TSWV isolates: Sw-5 in tomato and Tsw in pepper. However, TSWV resistance-breaking isolates have emerged in different countries a few years after using resistant cultivars. In this paper, we report the first complete nucleotide sequences of three Spanish TSWV isolates with different biotypes according to their abilities to overcome resistance: LL-N.05 (wild type, WT), Pujol1TL3 (Sw-5 resistance breaking, SBR) and PVR (Tsw resistance-breaking, TBR). The genome of these TSWV isolates consisted of three segments: L (8913-8914 nt), M (4752-4825 nt) and (S 2924-2961 nt). Variations in nucleotide sequences and genomic RNA lengths among the different virus biotypes are reported here. Phylogenetic analysis of the five TSWV open reading frames showed evidence of reassortment between genomic segments of LL-N.05 and Pujol1TL3, which was supported by analysis with different recombination-detecting algorithms.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Archives of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) local varieties are having an increasing demand. We characterized 69 local tomato accessions from eight cultivar groups for proximate composition traits, major sugars, acids and antioxidants. A large diversity was found, with differences among accessions of almost tenfold for lycopene. Significant differences were found among cultivar group means for most traits. The Cherry and Penjar groups generally presented higher dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, taste index, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity that the other groups. Wide ranges of variation were found within each cultivar group. Positive correlations were found between proximate traits related to taste and antioxidants. The multivariate principal components analysis confirms the distinct profile of the Cherry and Penjar groups and the large variation within groups. The results will be useful for the differentiation, enhancement and selection of local tomato varieties with improved organoleptic properties and functional quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) descriptors are of great utility for gross morphological characterization but may not be practical for the precise fruit description required for distinguishing closely related cultivar groups. Tomato Analyzer is a new phenomics tool that provides multiple fruit morphology data from scanned images of fruit sections. We characterized 69 accessions of local tomato varieties from the region of València (Spain) corresponding to eight cultivar groups (Borseta, Cherry, Cor, Penjar, Plana, Pruna, Redona, and Valenciana) with 64 conventional and 38 Tomato Analyzer descriptors. Significant differences were found among accessions for all traits except for five monomorphic conventional descriptors, revealing a large diversity in the collection. Significant differences were also found among cultivar groups for 36 conventional and 37 Tomato Analyzer descriptors. The groups Borseta, Cherry, Penjar, Plana, and Pruna were clearly distinct and each of them presented many significant differences with the rest of groups. Conventional descriptors did not differentiate well the Cor, Redona, and Valenciana cultivar groups, but Tomato Analyzer descriptors clearly distinguish Valenciana from Cor and Redona groups. A multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) showed that with the exception of six (8.7 %) accessions, the different cultivar groups (including the very similar Cor and Redona) plotted in separate areas of the PCA graph. The results have shown that combined conventional and Tomato Analyzer descriptors in conjunction with PCA analysis are a powerful tool for characterization and classification of local tomato varieties, as well as for distinguishing between related cultivar groups. This has important implications for the enhancement and protection of local tomato varieties.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: Vegetable crops contain signi􀏐icant amounts of many bioactive compounds which prevent and/or protect against chronic diseases. Consumers increasingly demand vegetables with improved bioactive properties and this is stimulating the development of new cultivars with enhanced content in bioactive compounds. Generally, breeding programmes of speci􀏐ic crops are aimed at increasing the most relevant bioactive compounds of each crop. The success of these breeding programmes depends on the availability of sources of variation for bioactive compounds. Traditional varieties and wild relatives collections are generally very variable for these compounds and in many cases it is possible to identify sources of variation of great interest among these materials. There are several breeding strategies for improving the content in bioactive compounds, including conventional strategies based on phenotyping, as well as modern strategies that rely on marker assisted selection or genetic transformation. Breeding for the enhancement of bioactive compounds may affect vegetables in a positive (e.g., extended shelflife) or negative (e.g., browning, bitterness) way other relevant traits for the success of a cultivar. The negative side effects may be circumvented by using complementary breeding strategies aimed at reducing or removing the negative impact on the characteristics and performance of a new cultivar. In summary, breeding can contribute to the development of a new generation of vegetable crops with enhanced bioactive properties and therefore to the development of the horticultural sector
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes serious diseases of many economically important crops. Disease control has been achieved by breeding tomato and pepper cultivars with the resistance genes Sw-5 and Tsw, respectively. However, TSWV isolates overcoming these genetic resistances have appeared in several countries. To evaluate the risk of spread of these resistance-breaking isolates, we tested their ability of transmission by the main vector of TSWV, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. We compared the transmission rate by thrips of six TSWV isolates of different biotype (able or unable to overcome this resistance in pepper and tomato), and with divergent genotype (A and B). Our results indicate that the transmission rate was related to the amount of virus accumulated in thrips but not to virus accumulation in the source plants on which thrips acquired the virus. No correlation was found between transmission efficiency by thrips and the genotype or between transmission efficiency and the ability of overcoming both resistances. This result suggests that resistance-breaking isolates have the same potential to be transmitted as the isolates unable to infect resistant tomato and pepper cultivars.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Annals of Applied Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), among other diseases, has been reported in Solanum peruvianum PI 126944. Introgression lines (ILs) from S. peruvianum PI 126944 into the genetic background of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) are being developed. Several generations were derived from three interspecific hybrids previously obtained. A lot of crosses and embryo rescue were required until the third backcross, due to the high degree of incompatibility existing between tomato and PI 126944. Crosses between F1 plants were made to obtain a pseudo-F2 generation. The same procedure was followed up to the pseudo-F6 generation. Additional crosses between plants of different generations were made in order to increase progeny. Of 263 molecular markers tested, 105 were polymorphic between tomato and PI 126944. This set of polymorphic markers consisted of 90 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 15 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS). The amount of the S. peruvianum genome was reduced in advancing generations and this was coupled in some cases with a reduction of incompatibility. However, the S. peruvianum genome was almost completely represented among the different plants of the most advanced generations. ILs will be basically developed from them. Some of the generations developed were resistant to TYLCV and TSWV.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Euphytica
  • Salvador Soler · Carmelo Lopez · Jaime Prohens · Fernando Nuez
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    ABSTRACT: Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) disease causes important losses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield around the world. In order to find new sources of resistance to this virus, a collection of accessions from different relatives of tomato was screened against PepMV infection. All accessions of S. peruvianum were 100% systemically infected and showed the characteristic disease symptoms. Although some accessions of S. peruvianum contained low concentrations of the virus, the associated symptoms were moderate to severe. In two accessions of S. chilense, some plants with low virus concentration and without symptoms were detected. Accessions of S. lycopersicoides performed best. A variable percentage of plants developed systemic symptoms. All plants of four accessions of S. lycopersicoides, and some selected plants of three more accessions, remained free of PepMV infection. This indicates that S. lycopersicoides is the most promising source of resistance to PepMV and its use in breeding programmes may allow the development of commercial varieties of tomato resistant to PepMV.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection -New Series-
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) procedure using a general primer set and three TaqMan(®)MGB probes was developed for general and genotype-specific detection and quantitation of the genomic M segment of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Standard curves using RNA transcripts homologous to the three probes allowed reproducible quantitative assays with a wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(10) TSWV M segment RNA copies/ng of total RNA) and high sensitivity. This protocol was assayed with a battery of TSWV isolates, covering the range of the present known genetic variation, in single and/or mix infections in three plant hosts, as well as in the thrips vector Frankliniella occidentalis. This quantitative detection assay will be a valuable tool for molecular biology and epidemiology studies, diagnosis and disease control.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of virological methods
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    ABSTRACT: Viral diseases are a serious limitation to the tomato crop in the region of València, Spain. A survey of tomato viruses in open field cultivation plots was made in the three provinces of this region. A total of 228 plots classified according to the origin of the seed (farmer seed plots or commercial seed plots) were surveyed, from which 1300 individual plants were sampled and tested for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and for the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Virus infection was detected in 58.9% of the plants sampled and in 86.0% of the plots surveyed. All these viruses were detected, and the most prevalent were ToMV and PVY (34.1% and 27.1% of infected plants, respectively), but PMoV and TYLCD were the less prevalent (1.2% and 1.3% of infected plants, respectively). Differences among provinces and seed origin were found for most of the viruses studied. In particular, both ToMV and PVY had a higher level of infection in plants from farmer seed plots than in commercial seed plots, which accounts for the higher percentage of virus-infected plants in the former (64.2%) when compared to the latter (49.1%). Single and multiple infections were found in 42.38% and 16.54% of the samples, respectively. The most common multiple infection was of ToMV, PVY or both. These results show that the percentage of infected plants and plots in open field cultivation is very high in this region and the origin of the seed is an important factor in the incidence of virus infection. In this respect, preventive measures, including virus-free seed, resistant cultivars and improved cultural practices, could reduce the incidence of virus infection.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Phytopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of General Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) typically occurs at the edge of tomato and pepper crops in north-eastern Spain. Studies were conducted on PMoV transmission both by pollen and by seven insect species of the orders Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. The presence of PMoV was detected by indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) in symptomatic tomato and pepper plants collected from commercial fields. All weed species collected in the area surrounding these crops were symptomless. However, the virus was detected by I-ELISA in pollen extracts from Parietaria officinalis plants and transmitted mechanically to other species, including tomato and pepper. PMoV was transmitted to other hosts using several insect species and P. officinalis plants as a pollen source. Transmission was non-persistent, not very efficient, and it was rare if flowers of infected P. officinalis plants had previously been removed or when alternative hosts that produced smaller quantities of pollen were used. In addition, 36% of the seedlings derived from seed of infected P. officinalis plants were shown to be infected with PMoV. Overall, our results suggest that eliminating PMoV-infected P. officinalis plants that surround tomato and pepper crops could help restraining virus spread.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
  • J. Aramburu · L. Galipienso · S. Soler · C. López
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance-breaking (RB) isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Sw-5 gene in tomato have had only a limited spread since they were first detected in north-eastern Spain in 2002. Symptom expression, homogeneity, stability and the transmission capacity of RB and non-resistance breaking (NRB) isolates were biologically compared. The fitness of both types of isolates infecting tomato plants was determined in competition assays. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in a wide range of plant species, except RB isolates in tomato carrying the Sw-5 resistance gene and pepper carrying the Tsw resistance gene. The mechanical transmission of RB isolates to tomato plants with the Sw-5 gene failed in some trials, although NRB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when tested with the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biological clones from individual local lesions obtained by mechanically inoculating Nicotiana glutinosa in some TSWV field samples showed that they were biologically homogeneous. Mixed infections of RB and wilt-type isolates were not found. The RB isolates were relatively stable because no reversion to NRB isolates was seen after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants. In competition assays between RB and NRB isolates, after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants, the prevalence of a particular isolate was not related to its capacity to overcome Sw-5 gene resistance. The low spread of the RB isolates in Spain does not seem to be related to a loss of fitness in tomato plants or to differences in transmission capacity by thrips, but it could be related to the reduction of the selection pressure of RB isolates as consequence of the gradual replacement of susceptible tomato plants by resistant tomato plants by growers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Phytopathologia Mediterranea
  • S. Soler · M.J. Díez · S. Roselló · F. Nuez
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    ABSTRACT: Resistant Capsicum chinense accessions PI-152225 and PI-159236 and the susceptible cultivar ‘Negral’ of Capsicum annuum were used in three experiments to characterize the resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in these materials. In the first experiment viral movement in the whole plant was studied at two growth stages (2- and 4-leaf stage). In the second experiment the movement within the inoculated leaf was analysed at three growth stages (2-, 3-, and 4-leaf stage). Two techniques were used in this assay: double antibody sandwich – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS–ELISA) and direct tissue blotting (DTB). In the latter experiment viral accumulation in different types of samples was evaluated by DAS–ELISA. The DTB technique showed that viral movement within the inoculated leaf is restricted in the resistant plants. The inoculated area was not totally infected in resistant accessions and slower viral movement within the inoculated area was observed. Detection of weak ELISA positives in inoculated and adjacent areas in resistant plants might not be caused by a lower viral replication, but may result from a low foliar area affected by the virus, as viral movement was restricted in certain areas around the necrotic lesions. However, ELISA absorbance values of the necrotic lesions were similar to the values of infected tissue of ‘Negral’. These observations point to a restricted viral cell-to-cell movement in the resistant accessions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The genome of a Spanish isolate of Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) obtained from tomato (strain PMoV-T) was completely sequenced. Protein motifs conserved for RNA viruses were identified: the p1 protein contained a metyltransferase domain in its N-terminal half and a triphosphatase/ helicase domain in its C-terminal half, the p2 protein contained a RNA polymerase domain; the 3a protein contained a RNA-binding domain with α-helix and β-sheet secondary structures. In addition, stem-loop structures with potential capacity of protein interactions were predicted on the untranslated terminal regions. Comparison with the other sequenced PMoV isolate showed nucleotide identities of 93, 90, and 93% for genomic RNAs 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and amino acid identities ranging from 88 to 97% for the different proteins. A cytosine deletion was detected at position 1,366 of RNA 3, involving a start codon for the coat protein (CP) gene different from the other PMoV isolate, resulting in a CP 16 amino acids shorter. Comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations revealed different selective constraints along the genome.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Virus Genes
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant DNA technology was used to raise a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein (CP) of Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV). The CP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion to a 6xHis tag and purified by affinity chromatography. Recombinant purified protein was used as antigen to raise a polyclonal antiserum. This polyclonal antiserum consistently detected PMoV specifically infected tomato plants from different commercial tomato crops by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and direct tissue-printing immunoassay (DTBIA).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Phytopathology
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    ABSTRACT: A polyprobe for the simultaneous detection by non-isotopic molecular hybridisation has been developed to detect any of the following six viruses causing important economic losses in tomato crops: Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato mosaic virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato Y virus and Parietaria mottle virus. The polyprobe detected all six viruses with similar sensitivity to that obtained using individual riboprobes. In addition, we evaluated the possible use of the tissue-printing as a sample preparation technique applied to routine diagnosis of tomato plants with the polyprobe.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · European Journal of Plant Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The Genebank at the COMAV holds nearly 3500 accessions belonging to the Lycopersicon genus. The COMAV coordinates the organization of the genetic resources of vegetable plants in Spain through successive projects funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research. Different collecting missions were carried out in Peru, Ecuador and Mexico, in collaboration with the Universities of Loja (Ecuador) and Piura (Perú) and 387 accessions of I. pimpinellifolium, 140 of L. peruvianum, 139 of L. hirsutum, 66 of L. parviflorum, approximately 30 of L. cheesmanii, L. chilense and L. pennellii and 13 of L. chmielewskii were collected. The seeds are held in the abovementioned Universities. A large proportion of L. esculentum accessions have been collected in Spain, including the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands. The seeds at the COMAV Genebank are stored in climatic chambers at 3°C and dried with silicagel. Safety duplicates are stored in black boxes at the "Plant Genetic Resources Center" in Madrid (Spain) and at the "Vegetable Genebank" in Zaragoza (Spain). A large number of accessions have been regenerated and morphologically characterized. The data are published in a Catalogue. Molecular characterization has been performed on a large number of accessions of L. pimpinellifolium, L. esculentum, L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, L. cheesmanii and L. hirsutum, coming from Ecuador and Perú, by using AFLPs, SRAPs and microsatellite markers. Wild species have been characterized for their resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Pepino mosaic virus and for some internal quality characteristics, such as content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, acids, carotenoids and vitamins. The accessions selected have been introduced in the ongoing research lines at the COMAV.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Acta horticulturae

Publication Stats

282 Citations
52.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2015
    • Instituto Universitario de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 1999-2015
    • Universitat Politècnica de València
      • • Institute for the Preservation and Improvement of Valencian Agro-diversity (COMAV)
      • • Department of Biotechnology
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2001-2014
    • University of Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain