[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Ansamycin antibiotics that target heat shock protein 90 function are being developed as anticancer agents but are also known to be dose limiting in patients due to hepatotoxicity. Herein, to better understand how the normal tissue toxicity of geldanamycins could be ameliorated to improve the therapeutic index of these agents, we examined the interactions of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) and the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in hepatocytes and fibroblasts. DCA and 17AAG interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause hepatocyte cell death within 2 to 6 h of coadministration. As single agents DCA, but not 17AAG, enhanced the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, AKT, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Combined exposure of cells to DCA and 17AAG further enhanced JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activity. Inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK, but not activator protein-1, suppressed the lethality of 17AAG and of 17AAG and DCA. Constitutive activation of AKT, but not MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2, suppressed 17AAG- and DCA-induced cell killing and reduced activation of JNK1/2. DCA and 17AAG exposure promoted association of BAX with mitochondria, and functional inhibition of BAX or caspase-9, but not of BID and caspase-8, suppressed 17AAG and DCA lethality. DCA and 17AAG interacted in a greater than additive fashion to promote and prolong the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-quenching agents, inhibition of mitochondrial function, expression of dominant-negative thioredoxin reductase, or expression of dominant-negative apoptosis signaling kinase 1 suppressed JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation and reduced cell killing after 17AAG and DCA exposure. The potentiation of DCA-induced ROS production by 17AAG was abolished by Ca(2+) chelation and ROS generation, and cell killing following 17AAG and DCA treatment was abolished in cells lacking expression of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Thus, DCA and 17AAG interact to stimulate Ca(2+)-dependent and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-dependent ROS production; high levels of ROS promote intense activation of the p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways that signal to activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
Full-text Article · Mar 2007 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Modulation of ERBB and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor function is recognized as a potential mechanism to inhibit tumor growth. We and others have shown that inhibition of ERBB1 can enhance bile acid toxicity. Herein, we extend our analyses to examine the impact of insulin/IGF-1 receptor inhibition on primary hepatocyte survival when exposed to the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) and compare the impact inhibition of this receptor has on bile acid toxicity effects to that of ERBB1/MEK1/2 inhibition. The insulin/IGF-1 receptor inhibitor NVP-ADW742 at concentrations which inhibit both the insulin and IGF-1 receptors had a modest negative impact on hepatocyte viability, and strongly potentiated DCA-induced apoptotic cell death. Identical data were obtained expressing a dominant negative IGF-1 receptor in hepatocytes; a receptor which acts to inhibit both the IGF-1 receptor and the insulin receptor in trans. Inhibition of ERBB1 function using Iressa (gefitinib) or the tyrphostin AG1478 had more modest effects at enhancing DCA lethality than inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor function. In contrast, over-expression of a dominant negative ERBB1 protein had pleiotropic effects on multiple signaling pathways in an apparently non-specific manner. These findings suggest that novel therapeutic kinase inhibitors, targeted against growth factor receptors, have the potential to promote bile acid toxicity in hepatocyte when bile flow may be impaired.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Interactions between the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 and the farnesyltransferase inhibitor L744832 were examined in human leukemia cells. Combined exposure of U937 cells to subtoxic concentrations of UCN-01 and L744832 resulted in a dramatic increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and loss of clonogenicity. Similar interactions were noted in other leukemia cells (HL-60, Raji, Jurkat) and primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Coadministration of L744832 blocked UCN-01-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK), leading to down-regulation of phospho-cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element-binding protein (phospho-CREB) and -p90(RSK) and activation of p34(cdc2) and stress-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SEK/JNK). Combined treatment also resulted in pronounced reductions in levels of phospho-Akt, -glycogen synthase kinase-3 (-GSK-3), -p70(S6K), -mammalian target of rapamycin (-mTOR), -forkhead transcription factor (-FKHR), -caspase-9, and -Bad. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL but not dominant-negative caspase-8 blocked UCN-01/L744832-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis but did not prevent activation of p34(cdc2) and JNK or inactivation of MEK/ERK and Akt. Enforced expression of myristoylated Akt but not constitutively active MEK significantly attenuated UCN-01/L744832-induced apoptosis. However, dual transfection with Akt and MEK resulted in further protection from UCN-01/L744832-mediated lethality. Finally, down-regulation of JNK1 by siRNA significantly reduced the lethality of the UCN-01/L744832 regimen. Together, these findings suggest that farnesyltransferase inhibitors interrupt the cytoprotective Akt and MAPK pathways while reciprocally activating SAPK/JNK in leukemia cells exposed to UCN-01 and, in so doing, dramatically increase mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The abilities of mutated active K-RAS and H-RAS proteins, in an isogenic human carcinoma cell system, to modulate the activity of signaling pathways following exposure to ionizing radiation is unknown. Loss of K-RAS D13 expression in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells blunted basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 activity. Deletion of the allele to express K-RAS D13 also enhanced expression of ERBB1, ERBB3, and heregulin but nearly abolished radiation-induced activation of all signaling pathways. Expression of H-RAS V12 in HCT116 cells lacking an activated RAS molecule (H-RAS V12 cells) restored basal ERK1/2 and AKT activity to that observed in parental cells but did not restore or alter basal c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 activity. In parental cells, radiation caused stronger ERK1/2 pathway activation compared with that of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which correlated with constitutive translocation of Raf-1 into the plasma membrane of parental cells. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK1/2, but not PI3K, radiosensitized parental cells. In H-RAS V12 cells, radiation caused stronger PI3K/AKT pathway activation compared with that of the ERK1/2 pathway, which correlated with H-RAS V12-dependent translocation of PI3K into the plasma membrane. Inhibition of PI3K, but not mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK1/2, radiosensitized H-RAS V12 cells. Radiation-induced activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in H-RAS V12 cells 2 to 24 hours after exposure was dependent on heregulin-stimulated ERBB3 association with membrane-localized PI3K. Neutralization of heregulin function abolished radiation-induced AKT activation and reverted the radiosensitivity of H-RAS V12 cells to those levels found in cells lacking expression of any active RAS protein. These findings show that H-RAS V12 and K-RAS D13 differentially regulate radiation-induced signaling pathway function. In HCT116 cells expressing H-RAS V12, PI3K-dependent radioresistance is mediated by both H-RAS-dependent translocation of PI3K into the plasma membrane and heregulin-induced activation of membrane-localized PI3K via ERBB3.
Article · Mar 2005 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated in hepatocytes that deoxycholic acid (DCA) promotes inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) and activation of ERBB1 and the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway. The present studies have determined the biochemical mechanism(s) through which these events occur. DCA and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (100 micromol/L) caused activation of ERBB1, insulin receptor, and the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways in primary rodent hepatocytes. DCA- and TDCA-induced receptor and signaling pathway activations were blocked by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Trolox (TX), as well as by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA). DCA activated the ERK1/2 pathway in HuH7 human hepatoma cells that was blocked by the incubation of cells with an ERBB1 inhibitor, NAC, TX, CsA, or BKA. DCA did not activate the ERK1/2 pathway in mitochondria-defective HuH7 Rho 0 cells. In HuH7 cells and primary hepatocytes, DCA enhanced the production of ROS, an effect that was abolished in Rho 0 cells and by prior incubation of cells with CsA or BKA. In hepatocytes and HuH7 cells, DCA inhibited PTPase activity. Incubation of hepatocytes with either CsA or BKA prevented DCA-induced inhibition of PTPase activity. Loss of mitochondrial function in Rho 0 cells also abolished the inhibitory effects of DCA on PTPase activity. In conclusion, DCA and TDCA cause ROS generation in hepatocytes that is dependent on metabolically active mitochondria. The generation of ROS is essential for PTPase inactivation, receptor tyrosine kinase activation, and enhanced signaling down the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated that deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced ERK1/2 and AKT signaling in primary hepatocytes is a protective response. In the present study, we examined the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase/AKT/glycogen synthase (kinase) 3 (GSK3)/glycogen synthase (GS) pathway by bile acids. In primary hepatocytes, DCA activated ERBB1 (the epidermal growth factor receptor), ERBB2, and the insulin receptor, but not the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor. DCA-induced activation of the insulin receptor correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, effects that were both blocked by the insulin receptor inhibitor AG1024 and by expression of the dominant negative IGF-1 receptor (K1003R), which inhibited in trans. Expression of the dominant negative IGF-1 receptor (K1003R) also abolished DCA-induced AKT activation. Bile acid-induced activation of AKT and phosphorylation of GSK3 were blunted by the ERBB1 inhibitor AG1478 and abolished by AG1024. Bile acids caused activation of GS to a similar level induced by insulin (50 nM); both were blocked by inhibition of insulin receptor function and the PI3 kinase/AKT/GSK3 pathway. In conclusion, these findings suggest that bile acids and insulin may cooperate to regulate glucose storage in hepatocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Taxol (paclitaxel) and Taxotere (docetaxel) are considered as two of the most important anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs. The cytotoxic action of these drugs has been linked to their ability to inhibit microtubule depolymerization, causing growth arrest and subsequent cell death. Studies by a number of laboratories have also linked suppression of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling to enhanced Taxol toxicity. The present study examined the interactions of the semi-synthetic taxane Taxotere with MEK1/2 inhibitors in epithelial tumor cells. Concurrent treatment of MDA-MB-231 mammary and DU145 prostate carcinoma cells with Taxotere and MEK1/2 inhibitor resulted in protection from the anti-proliferative effects of Taxotere in MTT assays. In contrast, in MCF-7 mammary cells, concurrent Taxotere and MEK1/2 inhibitor treatment weakly enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of the taxane. Sequential treatment of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells with Taxotere followed by MEK1/2 inhibitor also enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of the taxane in MTT assays. However, no enhancement was observed in DU145 or PC-3 cells. Colony formation assays, including isobologram analyses, provided a more definitive demonstration that MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were sensitized to the toxic effects of Taxotere by U0126. Similar data were observed using Laulimalide, which binds to tubulin at a different site to Taxotere. The enhancement in Taxotere anti-proliferative effects by U0126 correlated with increased cell killing, 48-72h after treatment of cells that was blocked by inhibition of caspase 9, but not caspase 8, function. This observation was associated with prolonged suppression of ERK1/2 and AKT activity, without alteration in either p38 or JNK1/2 activity. Collectively these findings demonstrate that sequential administration of Taxotere followed by MEK1/2 inhibition can lead to increased cell death and loss of reproductive capacity in some, but not all, human tumor cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previously, we have demonstrated that deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in primary hepatocytes is a protective response. In the present study, we examined the roles of the ERK and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, and downstream transcription factors, in the survival response of hepatocytes. DCA caused activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways. Inhibition of either DCA-induced ERK1/2 or DCA-induced JNK1/2 signaling enhanced the apoptotic response of hepatocytes. Further analyses demonstrated that DCA-induced JNK2 signaling was cytoprotective whereas DCA-induced JNK1 signaling was cytotoxic. DCA-induced ERK1/2 activation was responsible for increased DNA binding of C/EBPbeta, CREB, and c-Jun/AP-1. Inhibition of C/EBPbeta, CREB, and c-Jun function promoted apoptosis following DCA treatment, and the level of apoptosis was further increased in the case of CREB and c-Jun, but not C/EBPbeta, by inhibition of MEK1/2. The combined loss of CREB and c-Jun function or of C/EBPbeta and c-Jun function enhanced DCA-induced apoptosis above the levels resulting from the loss of either factor individually; however, these effects were less than additive. Loss of c-Jun or CREB function correlated with increased expression of FAS death receptor and PUMA and decreased expression of c-FLIP-(L) and c-FLIP-(S), proteins previously implicated in the modulation of the cellular apoptotic response. Collectively, these data demonstrate that multiple DCA-induced signaling pathways and transcription factors control hepatocyte survival.
Full-text Article · Jun 2003 · Molecular and Cellular Biology