[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated during hepatic reperfusion, and JNK inhibitors are known to protect other major organs from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We attempted to determine the effect of SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, on hepatic I/R injury using a partial ischemia model in mice. Compared to a vehicle-treated group, the SP600125- treated group showed a greater increase in serum ALT levels 24 h after reperfusion with more severe parenchymal destruction and leukocyte infiltration. Similarly, tissue myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were higher in the SP600125-treated group, and chemokine expression was also higher in the SP600125-treated group. These data, which are contradictory to previous results, indicate that JNK inhibition by SP600125 may be harmful in hepatic I/R injury. Therefore, care must be taken when investigating the therapeutic use of JNK inhibitors in hepatic I/R injury, especially in the context of the effects of JNK inhibition on inflammatory infiltration.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cigarette smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, structural and functional derangements are characterized by parenchymal destruction and pulmonary hypertension. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors that have been used as lipid-lowering agents. These drugs also have additional pharmacologic properties, including antiinflammation, scavenging reactive oxygen species, restoring endothelial function, and antithrombogenesis, all of which can counteract the harmful effects of cigarette smoking.
We performed assays to determine whether simvastatin could attenuate lung damage induced by chronic cigarette smoking in rats.
In Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to cigarette smoke for 16 weeks, morphologic changes in the lungs and pulmonary arterial pressure were examined.
Simvastatin inhibited lung parenchymal destruction and development of pulmonary hypertension, and also inhibited peribronchial and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in lung tissue. Simvastatin additionally prevented pulmonary vascular remodeling and the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression induced by smoking. In human lung microvascular endothelial cells, simvastatin increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA.
Simvastatin ameliorated the structural and functional derangements of the lungs caused by cigarette smoking, partly by suppressing inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction and preventing pulmonary vascular abnormality. These findings indicate that statins may play a role in the treatment of cigarette smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine