S Y Kang

National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (10)13.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This article presents an outcome study of the Family Rehabilitation Program (FRP), a unique network of community-based programs in New York City that provides comprehensive services to families with drug-dependent parents, most caring for prenatally cocaine-exposed newborns. An admission sample of 173 mothers in 17 FRP sites was studied for one year; substance use was assessed by hair analysis and self-report. Mean length of retention was 10 months; half the clients were still active in the program at follow-up. Mothers completing or still active in FRP had higher rates of abstinence and substantially lower average levels of cocaine in their hair at follow-up than those exiting prematurely. The percent of families with children out of their homes did not increase significantly between admission and follow-up, and completing or remaining active in the program were associated with less out-of-home placement at follow-up.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Journal of psychoactive drugs
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to replicate Ball and Ross's benchmark research, which was the first to identify a set of program quality factors for methadone maintenance programs and relate them to patient outcomes. Ball and Ross's treatment domain variables were measured in a new and larger sample of methadone clinics, and eight candidate program quality factors were derived. Both studies found that program factors defined by more frequent counseling contacts, higher director involvement with treatment, and more director experience were associated with lower drug use by patients during treatment. Several patient and counselor characteristics also were associated with drug-use outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Substance Use & Misuse
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of 1,038 patients newly admitted to 15 methadone clinics in New York City were studied for up to three years in treatment or until discharge. Cluster analysis identified distinct patient groups with very different heroin and cocaine usage patterns during treatment. About 80% either started in or transitioned to a low heroin use group and 50% either started in or transitioned to a low cocaine use group during treatment. One-third of patients used cocaine extensively during treatment. Other "high risk" groups, such as those not recently employed, younger, or involved with criminal justice, could benefit from special interventions very early in treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Substance Use & Misuse
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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric comorbidity was examined for a sample of 212 methadone patients dually addicted to opiates and cocaine, focusing on gender differences. Diagnoses were determined by the SCID for DSM-III-R. Men displayed more lifetime (but not current) substance use disorders, while women displayed more lifetime and current non-substance use disorders. There were several significant interactions among psychiatric disorders and gender. Women were more likely than men to present with concurrent mood and anxiety disorders. Women with ASPD were unlikely to have alcohol use disorder, but likely to have opioid use disorder. Men with anxiety were likely to be diagnosed with ASPD. Treatment implications of the findings are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of Addictive Diseases
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    S Magura · S Y Kang
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    ABSTRACT: Self-reports of drug use are extensively employed in research on drug use and in evaluations of drug abuse treatment and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions. The chapter first summarizes recent research addressing the validity of drug use self-reports in high-risk populations. The results of two self-report validity studies are then compared, one for a sample of patients in methadone maintenance and the other for a sample of criminally involved young adults. Cocaine use was more accurately reported by the methadone patients; the possible reasons for this are explored.
    Preview · Article · Feb 1997 · NIDA research monograph
  • Stephen Magura · S Y Kang
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    ABSTRACT: Research involving drug users and treatment evaluations continue to rely extensively on self-reports of drug use. This paper presents a meta-analytical review of 24 studies published since 1985 that examined the validity of drug self-reports in high risk populations. Only studies employing a biological criterion of validity (e.g., urinalysis, hair analysis) are included. Coefficients of chance-corrected agreement between self-reports and the validity criteria are calculated from published data to facilitate cross-study comparisons. The median conditional kappa (kappa c) was .42, considerably below the level of kappa c = .80 that represents acceptable reporting accuracy. The magnitude of drug use underreporting documented in this review could seriously bias prevalence estimates and treatment outcome studies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1996 · Substance Use & Misuse
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports outcome evaluation results of an AIDS education program for drug-using women in jail, of whom the majority were current drug injectors, had high-risk sexual partners, and never used condoms for insertive sex. The women participated in four small-group health/HIV education sessions. Education participants and controls were followed-up 7 months after their release from jail; the two groups did not differ significantly on drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors at follow-up. However, being in drug dependency treatment (primarily methadone maintenance) at follow-up was associated with reduced heroin use, crack use, drug dealing, and criminal activity. Although improved HIV education in jail is important, better networks of community resources, including more accessible community drug dependency treatment, also must be developed to support drug-dependent women after their release from jail.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · The International journal of the addictions
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    ABSTRACT: Inner-city male adolescents in jail in New York City (N = 427) were interviewed to examine correlates of cocaine or crack use. Twenty-three percent had used cocaine or crack in the month before arrest and 32% reported lifetime use. Substantial rates of robbery, murder, other violent crime, weapons possession, and drug dealing were found. However, type of crime, including violent crime, was not related either to cocaine/crack use or to drug dealing. Current cocaine/crack users were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and intranasal heroin; to have multiple previous arrests; to be out of school; to be psychologically distressed; to have been sexually molested as a child; to have substance abusing parents; and to have cocaine/crack-using friends. They were also more likely to have frequent sex with girls, to be gay or bisexual, and to engage in anal intercourse. The findings should be considered in developing more effective drug abuse prevention and treatment interventions, and HIV prevention education, for incarcerated at-risk adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to conduct and evaluate an intensive AIDS education program for incarcerated male adolescent drug users. The study was conducted in New York City's main jail facility for detained and sentenced male youths aged 16-19 years. A four-session, group-oriented AIDS education program based on Problem-Solving Therapy was conducted. The program was voluntary and all youths on designated dormitories were invited to participate. The evaluation compared youths participating in the AIDS education with waiting list controls who were discharged or transferred before they could be offered the education. Behavioral outcomes for AIDS education participants and controls were determined at a five month follow-up after release from jail. Behaviors were measured through personal interviews at baseline and follow-up. High rates of HIV risk behaviors were documented, including alcohol, marijuana and cocaine/crack use that may predispose youths to sexual risk-taking: practice of heterosexual anal sex; multiple and high-risk sexual partnerships; and no, or inconsistent, use of condoms. Education participants as compared with controls were significantly more likely to increase their condom use, to increase positive attitudes towards condoms, and possibly to decrease high-risk sexual partnerships. However, other sexual risk variables and substance use were unchanged. Intensive AIDS education provided in jail can be useful in reducing certain HIV risk behaviors of criminally-involved male adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Journal of Adolescent Health
  • S Magura · J L Shapiro · S Y Kang
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    ABSTRACT: Condom use was studied for 421 sexually active, minority male adolescents who were currently in jail in New York City. Over three-quarters of the youths were users of alcohol and marijuana and about one-quarter were users of cocaine or crack, but drug injectors were rare. In the six months before arrest they had multiple sexual partners and about one-third had engaged in anal intercourse. Inconsistent condom use was the norm, with 17% reporting that they never used condoms and only 15% reporting that they used condoms every time for insertive sex. In multivariate analysis, more frequent condom use was independently predicted by gay/bisexual preference, greater acceptability and accessibility of condoms, partners' receptivity to use, self-initiation of use, and self-efficacy of avoiding AIDS. Condoms were used less frequently with steady than with causual partners, and rarely for anal or oral sex. AIDS prevention curricula addressing these factors should be delivered to high risk adolescents while they are temporarily accessible in jail.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · AIDS Care