[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits.
Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age.
The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort "Rhea" study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12weeks, SD: 0.7). A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements.
Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81), central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49), and greater fat mass by 5.10mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71) at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20) at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45), and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86) at 4 years of age.
Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AKT-mTOR pathway is activated in diabetic nephropathy. Renin-angiotensin system modulators exert beneficial effects on the diabetic kidney. We explored the action of losartan on AKT-mTOR phosphorylation in glomeruli and podocytes. Diabetes mellitus was induced to Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Five months later, the rats were commenced on losartan and euthanized 2 months later. Kidneys were processed for immunofluorescence studies. Glomeruli were isolated for Western blot analysis. Diabetes increased activated forms of AKT and mTOR both in glomeruli and podocytes. In diabetic rats, losartan decreased phosphorylated/activated forms of AKT (Thr308) and mTOR (Ser2448) in glomeruli but decreased only activated mTOR in podocytes. However, in both glomeruli and podocytes of healthy animals, an inverse pattern was evident. In conclusion, a new body of evidence indicates the differential activation of AKT-mTOR in glomeruli and podocytes of healthy and diabetic animals in response to losartan.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe a rare case of occult (<1 cm in diameter) medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a 45-year-old woman, presenting as an asymptomatic mediastinal mass.
The diagnostic methodology included laboratory measurements of relevant biochemical and hormonal parameters including calcitonin (CT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and chromogranin A, and imaging techniques including ultrasound (U/S), computed tomography (C/T), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radio labeled somatostatin analog ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide).
Chest CT revealed a mediastinal mass measuring 5 cm in diameter abutting the right thyroid lobe. CEA was elevated and an association with thyroid malignancies was considered. CT was found to be markedly elevated, pointing to the diagnosis of MTC metastatic to the mediastinum. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection and removal of the mediastinal mass. Histological examination revealed MTC of the right thyroid lobe measuring 0.5 cm, metastatic to regional and superior mediastinal lymph nodes.
Occult MTC can infrequently present as an asymptomatic mediastinal mass. Elevated serum CT and CEA along with imaging techniques leads to the correct diagnosis and surgical management of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several instruments have been developed for the assessment of emotional distress in patients with diabetes. The Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) is a brief self-report scale that evaluates diabetes-related distress.• There is a lack of validated instruments for the evaluation of psychological aspects in patients with diabetes in Greek language.• The current study was conducted to translate and adapt the PAID scale in Greek language and to evaluate the psychometric properties in two different study populations of patients with diabetes.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe our 3-year experience in the long-term efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), as an alternative to surgery for the management of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (p-HPT).
Prospective study with a mean follow-up of 19.6 +/- 10.6 months.
Our study population included 19 consecutive high risk patients with p-HPT, who met the criteria for surgery.
Under ultrasonic guidance, ethanol (95%) was injected into parathyroid glands with a volume of >or= 0.15 cm(3). With the aim of normalizing intact parathormone (iPTH) values, repeated ethanol injections were carried out, in an interval of 2 weeks, until normalization of iPTH was reached or until no residual blood supply was detected by ultrasound in the gland. Biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study.
At 6-month follow-up, normalization of iPTH levels (10-65 ng/l) was achieved in 11 (58%) patients (responders). Of the eight remaining patients (nonresponders), six patients had reduced (but not normalized) iPTH levels and two patients required parathyroid surgery. Seventeen (11 responders and 6 nonresponders) of the 19 patients (89.5%) became normocalcaemic (serum Ca <or= 2.57 mmol/l) and remained so for a mean follow-up of 21 months (8-39 months). The odds ratio (P < 0.05) of response vs. no response to PEIT was 16.7-fold for pretreatment iPTH < 200 vs. > 200 ng/l. The only complication was a transient dysphonia noticed in three patients.
PEIT is a safe and effective nonsurgical treatment for patients with p-HPT, who are unsuitable for surgical intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in developed countries, but in Greece national figures on its prevalence are lacking.
The aim of this study was to identify the burden of known diabetes mellitus through its estimation in the area of responsibility of the Spili Health Centre, based on the health information system that had been established in Primary Health Care in rural Crete.
The diagnosis of diabetes was retrospectively documented by reviewing all medical records (n = 47151) at the Spili Health Centre and its five regional outposts during the period 1/6/1988-1/7/1993. The diagnostic criteria of WHO were used to establish the diagnosis.
After excluding the patients who had died, we found 210 patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty cases were evaluated with OGTT because of mild but not diagnostic elevations of fasting plasma glucose, on more than one occasion. The prevalence of diabetes after age and sex standardization of that for the European population was estimated at 1.52% (1.31% in males and 1.68 in females).
Our study shows that: 1) the role of the GPs and one appropriate information system in measuring the prevalence of known diabetes mellitus are now considered important within the Greek context; 2) diabetes mellitus seems not to be a rare disease in rural Crete. The estimated prevalence appears to be similar to the prevalence rates reported in other areas of rural Greece.