[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have monitored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgA antibody levels of 39 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases for up to 15 years before clinical onset of NPC, and assessed preclinical serologic status of another 68 cases. Our results identify a serologic window preceding diagnosis when antibody levels are raised and sustained. This window can persist for as long as 10 years, with a mean duration estimated to as 37+/-28 months. Ninety-seven of these 107 NPC cases exhibited such a window. Cases that did not may reflect individual antibody response to EBV. Serologic screening at enrollment identified those cases who had already entered the window and became clinically manifested earlier (median=28 months) than those who entered the window after enrollment (median=90 months). The former account for 19 of 21 cases diagnosed within 2 years of screening. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk levels among seropositive subjects were also highest during this period. Both prediction rates and risk levels declined thereafter; cases detected at later times were composed of increasing proportions of individuals who entered the serological window after screening. Our findings establish EBV antibody as an early marker of NPC and suggest that repeated screening to monitor cases as they enter this window has considerable predictive value, with practical consequences for cancer treatment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunosensors based on the microgravimetric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique have been developed for the detection of Salmonella species from serogroups A, B and D. Salmonella serogroup-specific murine monoclonal antibodies, respectively, raised against these serogroups were immobilized onto the silver electrodes of piezoelectric (PZ) crystals by cross-linkage via glutaraldehyde (GA) to the electrode surfaces pre-coated with thin polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer. The specific immunosensors developed gave responses in linear ranges from 10(5) to 5x10(8) cells per ml with no significant interference from other strains of Salmonella and Escherichia coli up to 10(8) cells per ml. They showed good repeatability and excellent linear range, achieving detection limits down to 10(4) cells per ml with ability to distinguish different strains of Salmonella. These biosensors exhibited an exquisite specificity evidenced by their ability to discriminate antigens, the structures of which differ only by the isomeric form of di-deoxyhexose. The antibody-modified crystals showed no loss in activity over 4 days under storage at 4 degrees C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum samples were taken from 57 patients with sporadic non-A, -B, and -C (Non A, B, C) acute hepatitis at different times after onset of the disease and tested for the presence of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA, IgM, and low avidity IgG antibodies. The viral antibodies were detected using two ELISA. One assay (GL) was produced using a mixture of recombinant peptides specified by ORF2 and ORF3 of the viral genome. The other was produced with an ORF2 specified peptide, pE2. The latter occurs naturally as homodimer, it is recognized strongly in its dimeric form by human sera and, in the primate model, it confers protection against experimental HEV infection. Nineteen samples were positive for one or more of these acute markers of HEV infection, 14 of which were acute sera with elevated ALT levels and 5 were convalescent sera with normal ALT level. The results showed that icteric phase of sporadic hepatitis lasts for about 17 days and it coincides with a period when viremia is subsiding as HEV antibodies are developing. Viremia was intermittent and all but one of the 5 instances were confined to the icteric phase with elevated ALT levels. On two of these occasions, viremia preceded detection of HEV antibody, on another 2 occasions it was concurrent with the detection of pE2 specific IgM and/or low avidity IgG and only in one case of protracted viremia was the viral genome detected concurrently with avid pE2 IgG antibody. Ten (71%) of the 14 acute sera were reactive for pE2 IgM, eight (57%) were reactive for low avidity pE2 IgG, and six (43%) for the GL IgM. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E may be increased to 87% by combining pE2 IgM and viremia. GL IgM was detected later, but persisted for a longer period of time than the pE2 antibodies, and it was the only acute antibody detected in the convalescent sera.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody (MAb), MO15, was raised against the lipopolysaccharide antigen of an epsilon15-lysogenized serogroup E(1) Salmonella strain. The O factor 15-specific MAb MO15, together with another serogroup E-specific MAb, can differentiate among phage lysogenization variants in serogroup E salmonellae. Their epitope specificities in relation to conventional O-antigenic structures are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To design efficient culture strategies for use with immunoassays to detect Salmonella in food, the growth of these organisms was investigated according to the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) and enrichment-immunoassay (EI) culture procedures. The cultures were further evaluated using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The BAM procedure includes pre-enrichment in nutrient broth (NB) for 16 h followed by selective enrichment in either Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) or tetrathionate brilliant green (TBG) broth for 16 h. The EI procedure includes pre-enrichment in NB for 4 h, selective enrichment in RV for 16 h and post-enrichment in NB for 4 h. The effects of different incubation times for pre- and post-enrichment, and different culture media for selective enrichment (TBG and RV) and post-enrichment in NB and Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI) on the growth of the bacteria and ELISA titers in the EI procedure were also investigated. Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium inoculated at different initial concentrations between 0.1 and 35 CFU/ml grew to similar concentrations of 10(7) to 10(8) colony forming unit (CFU)/ml in pure culture and generally 2 to 4 fold lower concentrations (P<0.05) in mixed culture using spiked chicken rinse. In the BAM procedure, the concentration of Salmonella cultured in RV was higher (P<0.01) than that in TBG. The cultures in TBG showed positive results for ELISA, but those in RV were generally negative. In the EI procedure, the ELISA titers from cultures post-enriched in NB or BHI were higher (P<0.01) when TBG, as compared to RV, was used for selective enrichment. Post-enrichment in BHI yielded higher numbers of Salmonella and higher ELISA titers than those in NB (P<0.05) for post-enrichment. This study demonstrated that in both culture procedures small numbers of Salmonella could be increased to at least 10(7) CFU/ml which is detectable by most ELISAs, and that the type of the culture media used may have a significant impact on ELISA results.
No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously described an enrichment-immunoassay utilizing a T6 monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Here we evaluated it for the rapid screening for Salmonella in fishmeal obtained from the national Animal and Plant Quarantine service in the People's Republic of China. In this method, the number of Salmonella present is first expanded by appropriate enrichment cultures, and the pathogens are then directly detected by the T6 immunoassay. In a total of 94 enrichment cultures of fishmeal, we obtained an overall concordance of 98% between the results obtained in parallel by this method and by conventional test method. The positive prediction by this method was 92% and the negative prediction was 100%. The turn around time for the new test was 27 h which is a significant improvement from the turn around time exceeding 96 h required for the conventional test method. This test proved to be compatible with the routine work flow in the practical setting of a quarantine laboratory.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Journal of Rapid Methods & Automation in Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously described an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which makes use of monoclonal antibody T6, which recognizes an epitope on the outer core polysaccharide of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide molecules that is common to almost all Salmonella serovars. In this paper, we show that this assay can detect between 10(5) and 10(7) Salmonella cells per ml even in the presence of excess Escherichia coli. A total of 153 of 154 (99%) serogroup A to E strains and 51 of 78 (71%) serogroup F to 67 strains were reactive as determined by this assay. This corresponds to a detection rate of approximately 98% of all salmonellae known to affect humans. None of the 65 strains of non-Salmonella bacteria tested positive. Taking advantage of the O-factor polysaccharides also present on the antigen captured by the immobilized T6 antibody, we showed that 136 of 154 Salmonella serogroup A to E strains (88%) were correctly differentiated according to their serogroups by use of enzyme conjugates of a panel of O-factor-specific monoclonal antibodies. We evaluated this assay for the detection and serogroup differentiation of salmonellae directly from enrichment cultures of simulated food, eggs, pork, and infant formula milk. All 26 samples which had been contaminated with Salmonella spp. were detected by T6 (100% sensitivity), with only one false-positive result from 101 samples not contaminated by Salmonella spp. (99% specificity). The detection time was substantially reduced to between 17 and 29 h, depending on the enrichment methods used. Since there were no false-negative results, we concluded that this enrichment-immunoassay method can afford rapid screening for Salmonella spp. in food samples.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1996 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology