[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution is a growing health problem for urban populations in emerging economies. The present study examines the (cross-sectional) relation between blood pressure and particulate air pollution in schoolchildren of Lahore (Pakistan).
We recruited a sample of 8-12 year-old children (mean age 9.9 years; 45% girls) from two schools in Lahore situated in areas with low (n = 79) and high (n = 100) air pollution, respectively. During the study period (January-April 2009) particulate pollution [PM(10) and PM(2.5) i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm or 2.5 μm, respectively] was measured at the school sites with a laser operated device (Metone Aerocet 531). Blood pressure was measured, after 5 minutes of sitting rest, using an automated device (average of 5 consecutive measurements). Spot urine samples were also collected and concentrations of Na and K were measured.
Mean daily values of PM2.5 were 28.5 μg/m(3) (SD: 10.3) and 183 μg/m(3) (SD: 30.2), in the low and high pollution areas, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in children living in the high pollution area (115.9/70.9 mm Hg) than in the low pollution area (108.3/66.4 mm Hg), independently of age, gender, height, weight, socio-economic status, passive smoking and the urinary concentrations of Na, K, and creatinine.
In 8-12 year-old children, exposure to (traffic-related) air pollution was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These findings, if they persist, might have clinical relevance at older age.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: There is no general agreement as to whether particulate air pollution increases arterial blood pressure (BP) in adults and no studies so far have been conducted in children. We examined the relation between blood pressure and particulate air pollution (particulate
matter PM2.5 ) in healthy school children of Lahore (Pakistan). We
recruited 179 subjects (mean age, 9.8 yr; 45% girls) from 2 urban schools
in a low (n = 79) and a high (n = 100) pollution area. Methods: BP was measured, after 5 minutes of sitting rest, 5 times consecutively using an automated device placed around the left arm. Particulate air pollution was measured at the school sites with a laser-operated device (Metone Aerocet 531), which was standardized against European air pollution monitoring stations. Spirometry was also performed. Results: Mean systolic/diastolic BP was 108.2/67.1 mmHg in children
living in the less polluted area (mean, 24 hours PM2.5 28.7 [ SD 9.7 ]
g/m3] vs. 115.6/70.7 mm Hg) in the high polluted area [ mean, 24 hours
PM2.5 163.0 (SD 34.5) g/m3] . The mean differences in systolic BP [7.4
mm Hg; P = < 0.0001 and in diastolic BP [ 3.6 mm Hg; P = 0.002 ] were independent of age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status and the urinary concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium. There were no differences in spirometric indices. Conclusion: Urban school children living and going to school in an area with high levels of particulate air pollution had substantially higher systolic and diastolic BP than those from a less polluted urban area. These findings might have clinical relevance for their future cardiovascular health.