Stefan Müller

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (34)167.86 Total impact

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    Dataset: Brain 2010

    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We identified the first homozygous and hence recessive mutation in the myotilin gene (MYOT) in a family affected by a severe myofibrillar myopathy (MFM). MFM is a rare, progressive and devastating disease of human skeletal muscle with distinct histopathological pattern of protein aggregates and myofibrillar degeneration. So far, only heterozygous missense mutations in MYOT have been associated with autosomal dominant myofibrillar myopathy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A and distal myopathy. Myotilin itself is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is localized at the Z-disc and therefore interacts in sarcomere assembly. We performed whole-exome sequencing in a German family clinically diagnosed with MFM and identified a homozygous mutation in exon 2, c.16C > G (p.Arg6Gly). Using laser microdissection followed by quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the myotilin protein as one component showing the highest increased abundance in the aggregates in the index patient. We suggest that the combined approach has a high potential as a new tool for the confirmation of unclassified variants which are found in whole-exome sequencing approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Neurogenetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: TFF2 is a secretory peptide (106 amino acid residues) of the gastric mucosa, the porcine exocrine pancreas as well as immune cells and the CNS. It was the aim of this study to compare gastric and pancreatic TFF2. Methods: TFF2 was purified from the porcine stomach and pancreas, respectively, by size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography and then analyzed by Western blots as well as mass spectrometry. Results: Gastric and pancreatic TFF2 differed markedly, i.e. gastric TFF2 was exclusively associated with the high molecular mass mucus fraction, whereas pancreatic TFF2 appeared as a low molecular mass product. Unexpectedly, the latter predominantly formed a non-covalently linked homodimer resistant to boiling SDS. In contrast, gastric TFF2 is an integral mucus constituent predominantly binding to the mucin MUC6 in a non-covalent fashion. Conclusion: The non-covalent interaction of TFF2 with the mucin MUC6 is typical of a "link peptide" which is perfectly suited to assemble and stabilize the laminated structure of gastric mucus and to modulate its rheological properties. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Myopathies associated with mutations in FHL1 are rare X-linked dominant myofibrillar myopathies. By clinical examination, histopathology, Sanger sequencing, and laser microdissection combined with quantitative mass spectrometry, we were able to identify the causative gene mutation and protein aggregate composition in two brothers with a late-onset X-linked scapulo-axio-peroneal myopathy. The severely progressive course of the disease revealed a remarkable intrafamilial variability of the clinical presentation. Protein aggregation and reducing bodies were observed in the muscle biopsy. Using quantitative mass spectrometry we identified the FHL1 protein as the component showing highest increased abundance in the aggregates in both patients, however strikingly in a different absolute amount in both brothers. Furthermore, we identified the causative C224W mutation in the fourth LIM-domain of FHL1 in both. Thus, of note is the striking evidence of reducing bodies in the muscle biopsy in both adults, and our proteomic data confirm the underlying gene defect with an intrafamilial variability by the ratio of the total protein content in the aggregates. We suggest that our combined approach has a high potential as a new tool for identification of causative gene mutations and raises hints on possibly intrafamilial variability in protein aggregation disorders. As all clinical subtypes and mutations in each exon of the FHL1 gene are associated with myofibrillar alterations and reducing bodies, we would like to suggest terming the whole group as FHL1-associated myopathies.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Neuromuscular Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The PACSIN (protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons) adapter proteins couple components of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery with regulators of actin polymerization and thereby regulate the surface expression of specific receptors. The brain-specific PACSIN 1 is enriched at synapses and has been proposed to affect neuromorphogenesis and the formation and maturation of dendritic spines. In studies of how phosphorylation of PACSIN 1 contributes to neuronal function, we identified serine 358 as a specific site used by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylated PACSIN 1 was found in neuronal cytosol and membrane fractions. This localization could be modulated by trophic factors such as BDNF. We further show that expression of a phospho-negative PACSIN 1 mutant, S358A, or inhibition of CK2 drastically reduces spine formation in neurons. We identified a novel protein complex containing the spine regulator Rac1, its GAP neuron-associated developmentally-regulated protein (NADRIN) and PACSIN 1. CK2 phosphorylation of PACSIN 1 leads to a dissociation of the complex upon BDNF-treatment and induces Rac1-dependent spine formation in dendrites of hippocampal neurons. These findings suggest that upon BDNF signaling PACSIN 1 is phosphorylated by CK2 which is essential for spine formation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are histopathologically characterized by desmin-positive protein aggregates and myofibrillar degeneration. While about half of all MFM are caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric and extra-sarcomeric proteins (desmin, filamin C, plectin, VCP, FHL1, ZASP, myotilin, αB-crystallin, and BAG3), the other half of these diseases is due to still unresolved gene defects. The present study aims at the proteomic characterization of pathological protein aggregates in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with MFM-causing gene mutations. The technical strategy is based on the dissection of plaque- vs. plaque-free tissue areas from the same individual patient by laser dissection microscopy, filter-aided sample preparation, iTRAQ-labeling and analysis on the peptide level using offline nano-LC and MALDI-TOF-TOF tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification and quantification. The outlined workflow overcomes limitations of merely qualitative analyses, which cannot discriminate contaminating non-aggregated proteins. Dependent on the MFM causing mutation different sets of proteins were revealed as genuine (accumulated) plaque components in independent technical replicates: (1) αB-crystallin, desmin, filamin A/C, myotilin, PRAF3, RTN1, SQSTM, XIRP1 and XIRP2 (patient with defined MFM mutation distinct from FHL1) or (2) desmin, FHL1, filamin A/C, KBTBD10, NRAP, SQSTM, RL40, XIRP1 and XIRP2 (patient with FHL1 mutation). The results from differential proteomics indicate that plaques from different patients exhibit protein compositions with partial overlap, on the one hand, and mutation-dependent protein contents on the other. The FHL1 mutation-specific pattern was validated for four patients with respect to desmin, SQSTM, and FHL1 by immunohisto- chemistry.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Distinct types of vesicles are formed in eukaryotic cells that conduct a variable set of functions depending on their origin. One subtype designated circulating microvesicles (MVs) provides a novel form of intercellular communication and recent work suggested the release and uptake of morphogens in vesicles by Drosophila cells. In this study, we have examined cells of the hemocyte-like cell lines Kc167 and S2 and identified secreted vesicles in the culture supernatant. The vesicles were isolated and found to have characteristics comparable to exosomes and plasma membrane MVs released by mammalian cells. In wingless-transfected cells, the full-length protein was detected in the vesicle isolates. Proteomics analyses of the vesicles identified 269 proteins that include various orthologs of marker proteins and proteins with putative functions in vesicle formation and release. Analogous to their mammalian counterparts, the subcellular origin of the vesicular constituents of both cell lines is dominated by membrane-associated and cytosolic proteins with functions that are consistent with their localization in MVs. The analyses revealed a significant overlap of the Kc167 and S2 vesicle proteomes and confirmed a close correlation with non-mammalian and mammalian exosomes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ, releasing signaling and mediator proteins, termed adipokines, via which adipose tissue communicates with other organs. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity alters adipokine secretion, which may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Although recent profiling studies have identified numerous adipokines, the amount of overlap from these studies indicates that the adipokinome is still incompletely characterized. Therefore, we conducted a complementary protein profiling on concentrated conditioned medium derived from primary human adipocytes. SDS-PAGE/liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem MS and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight MS identified 347 proteins, 263 of which were predicted to be secreted. Fourty-four proteins were identified as novel adipokines. Furthermore, we validated the regulation and release of selected adipokines in primary human adipocytes and in serum and adipose tissue biopsies from morbidly obese patients and normal-weight controls. Validation experiments conducted for complement factor H, αB-crystallin, cartilage intermediate-layer protein, and heme oxygenase-1 show that the release and expression of these factors in adipocytes is regulated by differentiation and stimuli, which affect insulin sensitivity, as well as by obesity. Heme oxygenase-1 especially reveals to be a novel adipokine of interest. In vivo, circulating levels and adipose tissue expression of heme oxygenase-1 are significantly increased in obese subjects compared with lean controls. Collectively, our profiling study of the human adipokinome expands the list of adipokines and further highlights the pivotal role of adipokines in the regulation of multiple biological processes within adipose tissue and their potential dysregulation in obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the human adipocyte secretome identified dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a novel adipokine. This study assessed the functional implications of the adipokine DPP4 and its association to the metabolic syndrome. Human adipocytes and skeletal and smooth muscle cells were used to monitor DPP4 release and assess the effects of soluble DPP4 on insulin signaling. In lean and obese subjects, depot-specific expression of DPP4 and its release from adipose tissue explants were determined and correlated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Fully differentiated adipocytes exhibit a substantially higher release of DPP4 compared with preadipocytes or macrophages. Direct addition of DPP4 to fat and skeletal and smooth muscle cells impairs insulin signaling. A fivefold higher level of DPP4 protein expression was seen in visceral compared with subcutaneous fat of obese patients, with no regional difference in lean subjects. DPP4 serum concentrations significantly correlated with adipocyte size. By using adipose tissue explants from lean and obese subjects, we observed a twofold increase in DPP4 release that strongly correlated with adipocyte volume and parameters of the metabolic syndrome and was decreased to the lean level after weight reduction. DPP4 released from adipose tissue correlated positively with an increasing risk score for the metabolic syndrome. DPP4 is a novel adipokine that may impair insulin sensitivity in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, DPP4 release strongly correlates with adipocyte size, potentially representing an important source of DPP4 in obesity. Therefore, we suggest that DPP4 may be involved in linking adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein gene cause autosomal-dominant inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia. We identified strumpellin as a novel valosin-containing protein binding partner. Strumpellin mutations have been shown to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia. We demonstrate that strumpellin is a ubiquitously expressed protein present in cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum cell fractions. Overexpression or ablation of wild-type strumpellin caused significantly reduced wound closure velocities in wound healing assays, whereas overexpression of the disease-causing strumpellin N471D mutant showed no functional effect. Strumpellin knockdown experiments in human neuroblastoma cells resulted in a dramatic reduction of axonal outgrowth. Knockdown studies in zebrafish revealed severe cardiac contractile dysfunction, tail curvature and impaired motility. The latter phenotype is due to a loss of central and peripheral motoneuron formation. These data imply a strumpellin loss-of-function pathogenesis in hereditary spastic paraplegia. In the human central nervous system strumpellin shows a presynaptic localization. We further identified strumpellin in pathological protein aggregates in inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia, various myofibrillar myopathies and in cortical neurons of a Huntington's disease mouse model. Beyond hereditary spastic paraplegia, our findings imply that mutant forms of strumpellin and valosin-containing protein may have a concerted pathogenic role in various protein aggregate diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Brain
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic assimilatory nitrate reductase (NR) is a dimeric multidomain molybdo-heme-flavo protein that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the nitrate assimilation of plants, algae, and fungi. Nitrate reduction takes place at the N-terminal molybdenum cofactor-containing domain. Reducing equivalents are derived from NADH, which reduce the C-terminal FAD domain followed by single-electron transfer steps via the middle heme domain to the molybdenum center. In plants, nitrate reduction is post-translationally inhibited by phosphorylation and subsequent binding of 14-3-3 protein to a conserved phosphoserine located in the surface-exposed hinge between the catalytic and heme domain. Here we investigated Arabidopsis thaliana NR activity upon phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding by using a fully defined in vitro system with purified proteins. We demonstrate that among different calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs), CPK-17 efficiently phosphorylates Ser534 in NR. Out of eight purified Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins, isoforms ω, κ, and λ exhibited the strongest inhibition of NR. The kinetic parameters of noninhibited, phosphorylated NR (pNR) and pNR in a complex with 14-3-3 were investigated. An 18-fold reduction in k(cat) and a decrease in the apparent K(M)(nitrate) (from 280 to 141 μM) were observed upon binding of 14-3-3 to pNR, suggesting a noncompetitive inhibition with a preferential binding to the substrate-bound state of the enzyme. Recording partial activities of NR demonstrated that the transfer of electrons to the heme is not affected by 14-3-3 binding. The Ser534Ala variant of NR was not inhibited by 14-3-3 proteins. We propose that 14-3-3 binding to Ser534 blocks the transfer of electrons from heme to nitrate by arresting the domain movement via hinge 1.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first differential expression proteomics study on a human syngeneic cellular in vitro progression model of the colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the anchorage-dependent non-tumorigenic adenoma derived cell line AA/C1 and the derived anchorage-independent and tumorigenic carcinoma cell line AA/C1/SB10C. The study is based on quantitative 2-DE and is complemented by Western blot validation. Excluding redundancies due to proteolysis and post-translational modified isoforms of over 2000 protein spots, 13 proteins were revealed as regulated with statistical variance being within the 95th confidence level and were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting in MALDI MS. Progression-associated proteins belong to the functional complexes of anaerobic glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, steroid biosynthesis, prostaglandin biosynthesis, the regulation and maintenance of the cytoskeleton, protein biosynthesis and degradation, the regulation of apoptosis or other functions. Partial but significant overlap was revealed with previous proteomics and transcriptomics studies in colorectal carcinoma. Among upregulated proteins we identified 3-HMG-CoA synthase, protein phosphatase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, villin 1, annexin A1, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoserine aminotransferase 1, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), while glucose-regulated protein 78, cathepsin D, lamin A/C and quinolate phosphoribosyltransferase were downregulated.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: TFF3 is a secretory peptide belonging to the trefoil factor family with a predicted size of 59 amino acid residues containing seven cysteine residues. It is predominantly expressed in intestinal goblet cells where it plays a key role in mucosal regeneration and repair processes. In the course of these studies, human colonic TFF3 was shown to exist mainly as a high molecular weight heteromer. Purification of this heteromer and characterization by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified the IgG Fc binding protein (FCGBP) as the disulfide-linked partner protein of TFF3. FCGBP is a constituent of intestinal mucus secreted by goblet cells. Furthermore, low amounts of TFF3/monomer and only little TFF3/dimer were detected in human colonic extracts. Here, we show that these TFF3 forms can be released from the purified TFF3-FCGBP heteromer complex in vitro by reduction with hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Such a mechanism would be in line with the high H(2)S concentrations reported to occur in the lumen of the colon. Of special note, this points to intestinal mucus as a reservoir for a biologically active peptide. Also proteolytic processing of FCGBP was observed which is in line with multiple autocatalytic cleavages as proposed earlier by Johansson et al. (J. Proteome Res. 2009 , 8 , 3549 - 3557).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    ABSTRACT: The matrilins are a family of multidomain extracellular matrix proteins with adapter functions. The oligomeric proteins have a bouquet-like structure and bind to a variety of different ligands whereby the avidity of their interactions is dependent on the number of subunits and domains present. Here we show the contribution of post-translational proteolytic processing to the heterogeneity of matrilins seen in tissue extracts and cell culture supernatants. A cleavage site after two glutamate residues in the hinge region close to the C-terminal coiled-coil oligomerization domain is conserved among the matrilins. Cleavage at this site yields molecules that lack almost complete subunits. The processing is least pronounced in matrilin-1 and particularly complex in matrilin-2, which contains additional cleavage sites. Replacement of the hinge region in matrilin-4 by the matrilin-1 hinge region had no marked effect on the processing. A detailed study revealed that matrilin-4 is processed already in the secretory pathway and that the activation of the responsible enzymes is dependent on proprotein convertase activity. Matrilin-3 and -4, but not matrilin-1 subunits present in matrilin-1/-3 hetero-oligomers, were identified as substrates for ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, whereas ADAMTS1 did not cleave any matrilin. A neo-epitope antibody raised against the N terminus of the C-terminal cleavage product of matrilin-4 detected processed matrilin-4 in cultures of primary chondrocytes as well as on cartilage sections showing that the conserved cleavage site is used in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a cyclic on-column procedure for the sequential degradation of complex O-glycans on proteins or peptides by periodate oxidation of sugars and cleavage of oxidation products by elimination. Desialylated glycoproteins were immobilized to alkali-stable, reversed-phase Poros 20 beads followed by two degradation cycles and the eluted apoproteins were either separated by SDS gel electrophoresis or digested with trypsin prior to LC/ESI-MS. We demonstrate on the peptide and protein level that even complex glycan moieties are removed under mild conditions with only minimal effects on structural integrity of the peptide core by fragmentation, dehydration or by racemization of the Lys/Arg residues. The protocol is applicable on gel-immobilized glycoproteins after SDS gel electrophoresis. Conversion of O-glycoproteins into their corresponding apoproteins should result in facilitated accessibility of tryptic cleavage sites, increase the numbers of peptide fragments, and accordingly enhance protein coverage and identification rates within the subproteome of mucin-type O-glycoproteins.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Proteomics
  • Franz-Georg Hanisch · Stefan Müller
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    ABSTRACT: The structural diversity of mucin-type O-glycans (O-GalNAc core-based) exceeds that of N-linked glycans by far. Structural analysis of this type of protein modification is hampered, however, by the unavailability of specific endo-acetylgalactosaminidases that would cleave the intact oligosaccharide from threonine or serine residues. Chemical cleavage is either performed by hydrazinolysis resulting in reducing glycans ready for terminal labeling reactions or by the classical reductive beta-elimination, which yields the chemically inert alditols. Composition and sequence of the O-glycans can be analyzed by mass spectrometry using FAB-, MALDI-, or ESI-ionization technology. A significant increase in sensitivity and a facilitated fragmentation of the sugar chains can be achieved by methylation of free hydroxyl groups according to a modified procedure based on NaOH/DMSO and methyl iodide. Permethylated glycan alditols are readily separated on reversed-phase capillary columns under conditions similar to those used in peptide chromatography, and their sequences can be deduced from MS/MS spectra registered after collision-induced fragmentation of parental proton or sodium adduct ions using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Methods in Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: AMACO (VWA2 protein) is an extracellular matrix protein of unknown function associated with certain basement membranes in skin, lung, and kidney. AMACO is a member of the von Willebrand factor A-like (VWA) domain containing protein superfamily and in addition to three VWA domains it also contains two epidermal growth factor-like domains. One of these contains the rare, overlapping consensus sequences for both O-glucosylation and O-fucosylation. In earlier studies of other proteins the attachment of either core glucose and fucose moieties or of the respective elongated glycans starting with these monosaccharides has been described. By a detailed mass spectrometric analysis we show that both elongated O-glucosylated (Xyl1–3Xyl1–3Glc) and elongated O-fucosylated glycan chains (NeuAc2–3Gal1–4GlcNAc1–3Fuc) can be attached to AMACO in close proximity on the same epidermal growth factor-like domain. It has been reported that the lack of O-fucosylation can markedly decrease secretion of proteins. However, the secretion of AMACO is not significantly affected when the glycosylation sites are mutated. The number of extracellular matrix proteins carrying the overlapping consensus sequence is very limited and it could be that these modifications have a new, yet unknown function.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most frequent genetic cause of early childhood lethality. In rare instances, however, individuals are asymptomatic despite carrying the same SMN1 mutations as their affected siblings, thereby suggesting the influence of modifier genes. We discovered that unaffected SMN1-deleted females exhibit significantly higher expression of plastin 3 (PLS3) than their SMA-affected counterparts. We demonstrated that PLS3 is important for axonogenesis through increasing the F-actin level. Overexpression of PLS3 rescued the axon length and outgrowth defects associated with SMN down-regulation in motor neurons of SMA mouse embryos and in zebrafish. Our study suggests that defects in axonogenesis are the major cause of SMA, thereby opening new therapeutic options for SMA and similar neuromuscular diseases.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Science
  • Franz-Georg Hanisch · Stefan Müller
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    ABSTRACT: The term proteome refers to the highly fluctuating totality of expressed proteins in a particular cell, in subcellular fractions, or in body fluids, which varies qualitatively and quantitatively with the cellular state and the active functional networks. The definition of a functional proteome is performed in differential approaches and requires the iden- tification of proteins and the quantification of the relative state-dependent abundances of each protein. In many cases, identification refers to posttranslationally modified versions of the proteins, which actually represent the functionally active or inactive isoforms in a regulated system (i.e., phosphorylation, β-glucosaminylation, ubiquiti- nylation, and so on). Hence, not only the protein itself, but the “frozen state” of its fluctuating modification pattern (type and site) need to be defined on the molecular level and in the respective functional context. An example of this type can be seen in notch signaling, which is regulated by β-6-glucosaminylation of Fuc-O-Ser in the epi- dermal growth factor (EGF) domain of the protein (1).
    No preview · Chapter · Sep 2007

Publication Stats

1k Citations
167.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2014
    • University of Cologne
      • • Institute for Biochemistry II
      • • Center for Molecular Medicine (CMMC)
      • • Institute of Human Genetics
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1999
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Physics and Biophysics
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany