David A Calderwood

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (85)610.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The six serine/threonine kinases in the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family are important regulators of cell adhesion, motility and survival. PAK6, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer, was recently reported to localize to cell-cell adhesions and to drive epithelial cell colony escape. Here we report that PAK6 targeting to cell-cell adhesions occurs via its N-terminus, requiring both its Cdc42/Rac Interactive Binding (CRIB) domain and an adjacent polybasic region for maximal targeting efficiency. We find PAK6 localization to cell-cell adhesions is Cdc42-dependent, as Cdc42 knockdown inhibits PAK6 targeting to cell-cell adhesions. We further find the ability of PAK6 to drive epithelial cell colony escape requires kinase activity and is disrupted by mutations that perturb PAK6 cell-cell adhesion targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that all type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5 and PAK6) target to cell-cell adhesions, albeit to differing extents, but PAK1 (a type I PAK) does not. Notably, the ability of a PAK isoform to drive epithelial colony escape correlates with its targeting to cell-cell adhesions. We conclude that PAKs have a broader role in the regulation of cell-cell adhesions than previously appreciated.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Cell Science
  • Daniel V Iwamoto · David A Calderwood
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment and bidirectionally relay signals across the cell membrane. These processes are critical for cell attachment, migration, differentiation, and survival, and therefore play essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and pathology. Integrin-mediated adhesions are regulated by diverse factors, including the conformation-specific affinities of integrin receptors for their extracellular ligands, the clustering of integrins and their intracellular binding partners into discrete adhesive structures, mechanical forces exerted on the adhesion, and the intracellular trafficking of integrins themselves. Recent advances shed light onto how the interaction of specific intracellular proteins with the short cytoplasmic tails of integrins controls each of these activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Current opinion in cell biology
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the essential adaptor proteins CCM2 or CCM3 lead to cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), vascular lesions that most frequently occur in the brain and are strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and other neurological disorders. CCM2 binds CCM3, but the molecular basis of this interaction, and its functional significance, have not been elucidated. Here, we used x-ray crystallography and structure-guided mutagenesis to show that an α-helical LD-like motif within CCM2 binds the highly conserved “HP1” pocket of the CCM3 focal adhesion targeting (FAT) homology domain. By knocking down CCM2 or CCM3 and rescuing with binding-deficient mutants, we establish that CCM2–CCM3 interactions protect CCM2 and CCM3 proteins from proteasomal degradation and show that both CCM2 and CCM3 are required for normal endothelial cell network formation. However, CCM3 expression in the absence of CCM2 is sufficient to support normal cell growth, revealing complex-independent roles for CCM3.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are heterodimeric α/β extracellular matrix adhesion receptors that couple physically to the actin cytoskeleton and regulate kinase signaling pathways to control cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion complex formation and disassembly. β1 integrins signal through the Abl2/Arg nonreceptor tyrosine kinase to control fibroblast cell motility, neuronal dendrite morphogenesis and stability, and cancer cell invasiveness, but the molecular mechanisms by which integrin β1 activates Arg are unknown. We report here that the Arg kinase domain interacts directly with a lysine- rich membrane proximal segment in the integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail, that Arg phosphorylates the membrane proximal Y783 tyrosine in the β1 tail, and that the Arg SH2 domain then engages this phosphorylated region in the tail. We show that these interactions mediate direct binding between integrin β1 and Arg in vitro and in cells and activate Arg kinase activity. These findings provide a model for understanding how β1- containing integrins interact with and activate Abl family kinases. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular remodeling is essential for tissue repair and is regulated by multiple factors including thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) and hypoxia/VEGF-induced activation of Akt. In contrast to TSP2 knockout (KO) mice, Akt1 KO mice have elevated TSP2 expression and delayed tissue repair. To investigate the contribution of increased TSP2 to Akt1 KO mice phenotypes, we generated Akt1/TSP2 double KO (DKO) mice. Full thickness excisional wounds in DKO mice healed at an accelerated rate when compared to Akt1 KO mice. Isolated dermal Akt1 KO fibroblasts expressed increased TSP2 and displayed altered morphology and defects in migration and adhesion. These defects were rescued in DKO fibroblasts or after TSP2 knockdown. Conversely, addition of exogenous TSP2 to WT cells induced cell morphology and migration rates that were similar to Akt1 KO cells. Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced adhesion to fibronectin with manganese stimulation when compared to WT and DKO cells, revealing an Akt1-dependent role for TSP2 in regulating integrin-mediated adhesions, however, this effect was not due to changes in β1 integrin surface expression or activation. Consistent with these results, Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced Rac1 activation that was dependent upon expression of TSP2 and could be rescued by a constitutively active Rac mutant. Our observations show that repression of TSP2 expression is a critical aspect of Akt1 function in tissue repair.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS Genetics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Kindlins are essential FERM domain-containing focal adhesion (FA) proteins required for proper integrin activation and signaling. Despite the widely accepted importance of each of the three mammalian kindlins in cell adhesion, the molecular basis for their function has yet to be fully elucidated, and the functional differences between isoforms have generally not been examined. Here we report functional differences between kindlin-2 and -3; GFP-tagged kindlin-2 localizes to FA while kindlin-3 does not, and kindlin-2, but not kindlin-3, can rescue α5β1 integrin activation defects in kindlin-2-knockdown fibroblasts. Using chimeric kindlins, we show that the relatively uncharacterized kindlin-2 F2 subdomain drives FA targeting and integrin activation. We find that the integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-PINCH-parvin complex binds strongly to the kindlin-2 F2 subdomain, but poorly to that of kindlin-3. Using a point-mutated kindlin-2 we establish that efficient kindlin-2-mediated integrin activation and FA targeting require binding to the ILK complex. Thus, ILK-complex binding is crucial for normal kindlin-2 function and differential ILK binding contributes to kindlin isoform specificity.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of FAs is critical for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating FA dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the TRIpartite Motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of FAs. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other FA proteins, TRIM15 is a stable FA component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and FA disassembly rates in addition to enlarged FAs. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of FA turnover and cell migration.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Development
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    ABSTRACT: Here we show that dynamin 2 (Dnm2) is essential for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In cultured endothelial cells lacking Dnm2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and receptor levels are augmented whereas cell migration and morphogenesis are impaired. Mechanistically, the loss of Dnm2 increases focal adhesion size and the surface levels of multiple integrins and reduces the activation state of β1 integrin. In vivo, the constitutive or inducible loss of Dnm2 in endothelium impairs branching morphogenesis and promotes the accumulation of β1 integrin at sites of failed angiogenic sprouting. Collectively, our data show that Dnm2 uncouples VEGF signaling from function and coordinates the endocytic turnover of integrins in a manner that is crucially important for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Development
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    ABSTRACT: Podocytes are specialized actin-rich epithelial cells that line the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. The interface between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane requires integrins, and defects in either α3 or β1 integrin, or the α3β1 ligand laminin result in nephrotic syndrome in murine models. The large cytoskeletal protein talin1 is not only pivotal for integrin activation, but also directly links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we found that mice lacking talin1 specifically in podocytes display severe proteinuria, foot process effacement, and kidney failure. Loss of talin1 in podocytes caused only a modest reduction in β1 integrin activation, podocyte cell adhesion, and cell spreading; however, the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes was profoundly altered by the loss of talin1. Evaluation of murine models of glomerular injury and patients with nephrotic syndrome revealed that calpain-induced talin1 cleavage in podocytes might promote pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of calpain activity following glomerular injury substantially reduced talin1 cleavage, albuminuria, and foot process effacement. Collectively, these findings indicate that podocyte talin1 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and provide insight into the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of clinical investigation
  • Kyle M Draheim · Oriana S Fisher · Titus J Boggon · David A Calderwood
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding KRIT1 (also known as CCM1), CCM2 (also known as OSM and malcavernin) or PDCD10 (also known as CCM3) cause cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). These abnormalities are characterized by dilated leaky blood vessels, especially in the neurovasculature, that result in increased risk of stroke, focal neurological defects and seizures. The three CCM proteins can exist in a trimeric complex, and each of these essential multi-domain adaptor proteins also interacts with a range of signaling, cytoskeletal and adaptor proteins, presumably accounting for their roles in a range of basic cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, polarity and apoptosis. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current models of CCM protein function focusing on how known protein-protein interactions might contribute to cellular phenotypes and highlighting gaps in our current understanding.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Cell Science
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    Elizabeth M Morse · Nina N Brahme · David A Calderwood
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors essential for multicellular life. They connect cells to the extracellular environment and transduce chemical and mechanical signals to and from the cell. Intracellular proteins that bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail regulate integrin engagement of extracellular ligands as well as integrin localization and trafficking. Cytoplasmic integrin-binding proteins also function downstream of integrins, mediating links to the cytoskeleton and to signaling cascades that impact cell motility, growth, and survival. Here, we review key integrin-interacting proteins and their roles in regulating integrin activity, localization, and signaling.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochemistry

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Angiogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effectors of Rho-family small GTPases. The PAK family consists of two groups, type I and type II, which have different modes of regulation and signaling. PAK6, a type II PAK, influences behavior and locomotor function in mice and has an ascribed role in androgen receptor signaling. Here we show that PAK6 has a peptide substrate specificity very similar to the other type II PAKs, PAK4 and PAK5 (PAK7). We find that PAK6 catalytic activity is inhibited by a peptide corresponding to its N-terminal pseudosubstrate. Introduction of a melanoma-associated mutation, P52L, into this peptide reduces pseudosubstrate autoinhibition of PAK6, and increases phosphorylation of its substrate PACSIN1 (Syndapin I) in cells. Finally we determine two co-crystal structures of PAK6 catalytic domain in complex with ATP-competitive inhibitors. We determined the 1.4 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with the type II PAK inhibitor PF-3758309, and the 1.95 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with sunitinib. These findings provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of PAK6 and may facilitate development of PAK6 targeted therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesions (FAs), sites of tight adhesion to the extracellular matrix, are composed of clusters of transmembrane integrin adhesion receptors and intracellular proteins that link integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and signaling pathways. Two integrin-binding proteins present in FAs, kindlin-1 and kindlin-2, are important for integrin activation, FA formation and signaling. Migfilin, originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for kindlin-2-interacting proteins, is a LIM domain-containing adaptor protein found in FAs and implicated in control of cell adhesion, spreading and migration. By binding filamin, migfilin provides a link between kindlin and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, using a combination of kindlin knockdown, biochemical pulldown assays, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we have established that the C-terminal LIM domains of migfilin dictate its FA localization, shown that these domains mediate an interaction with kindlin in vitro and in cells, and demonstrated that kindlin is important for normal migfilin dynamics in cells. We also show that when the C-terminal LIM domain region is deleted, then the N-terminal filamin-binding region of the protein, which is capable of targeting migfilin to actin-rich stress fibers, is the predominant driver of migfilin localization. Our work details a correlation between migfilin domains that drive kindlin binding and those that drive FA localization as well as a kindlin dependence on migfilin FA recruitment and mobility. We therefore suggest that the kindlin interaction with migfilin LIM domains drives migfilin FA recruitment, localization and mobility.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Filamins are actin-binding and cross-linking proteins that organize the actin cytoskeleton, anchor transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and scaffold signaling pathways. During hematopoietic cell differentiation, transient expression of ASB2α, the specificity subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex, triggers acute proteasomal degradation of filamins. This led to the proposal that ASB2α regulates hematopoietic cell differentiation by modulating cell adhesion, spreading, and actin remodeling through targeted degradation of filamins. Here, we show that the caplonin homology domain 1 (CH1), within the filamin A (FLNa) actin-binding domain, is the minimal fragment sufficient for ASB2α-mediated degradation. Combining an in-depth flow cytometry analysis with mutagenesis of lysine residues within CH1, we find that arginine substitution at each of a cluster of 3 lysines (K42, K43 and K135), renders FLNa resistant to ASB2α-mediated degradation without altering ASB2α binding. These lysines lie within previously predicted actin-binding sites and the ASB2α-resistant filamin mutant is defective in targeting to F-actin rich structures in cells. However, by swapping CH1 with that of α-actinin1, which is resistant to ASB2α-mediated degradation, we generated an ASB2α-resistant chimeric FLNa with normal subcellular localization. Notably, this chimera fully rescues the impaired cell spreading induced by ASB2α expression. Our data therefore reveal ubiquitin acceptor sites in FLNa, and establish that ASB2α-mediated effects on cell spreading are due to loss of filamins.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • David A Calderwood · Iain D Campbell · David R Critchley
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin receptors provide a dynamic, tightly-regulated link between the extracellular matrix (or cellular counter-receptors) and intracellular cytoskeletal and signalling networks, enabling cells to sense and respond to their chemical and physical environment. Talins and kindlins, two families of FERM-domain proteins, bind the cytoplasmic tail of integrins, recruit cytoskeletal and signalling proteins involved in mechanotransduction and synergize to activate integrin binding to extracellular ligands. New data reveal the domain structure of full-length talin, provide insights into talin-mediated integrin activation and show that RIAM recruits talin to the plasma membrane, whereas vinculin stabilizes talin in cell-matrix junctions. How kindlins act is less well-defined, but disease-causing mutations show that kindlins are also essential for integrin activation, adhesion, cell spreading and signalling.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The heterotrimeric protein complex containing the integrin linked kinase (ILK), parvin, and PINCH proteins, termed the IPP complex, is an essential component of focal adhesions, where it interacts with many proteins to mediate signaling from integrin adhesion receptors. Here we conduct a biochemical and structural analysis of the minimal IPP complex, comprising full-length human ILK, the LIM1 domain of PINCH1, and the CH2 domain of a-parvin. We provide a detailed purification protocol for IPP and show that the purified IPP complex is stable and monodisperse in solution. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we also conduct the first structural characterization of IPP, which reveals an elongated shape with dimensions 120660640 Å . Flexibility analysis using the ensemble optimization method (EOM) is consistent with an IPP complex structure with limited flexibility, raising the possibility that inter-domain interactions exist. However, our studies suggest that the inter-domain linker in ILK is accessible and we detect no inter-domain contacts by gel filtration analysis. This study provides a structural foundation to understand the conformational restraints that govern the IPP complex.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

7k Citations
610.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2013
    • Ocean University of China
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2006-2013
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2000-2003
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      La Jolla, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States