Shaker R Dakhil

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (155)1611.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: In the SWOG S0226 trial the combination of anastrozole plus fulvestrant (n=349) was superior to anastrozole alone (n=345) in hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Here we report a pharmacokinetic subset analysis investigating a possible drug interaction between anastrozole and fulvestrant. Methods: Post-menopausal patients with HR-positive metastatic breast cancer were randomized to anastrozole with or without concurrent fulvestrant. Blood samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months, just prior to receiving the next dose of anastrozole and fulvestrant. Drug concentrations were measured via LC/MS-MS. Anastrozole concentration was compared in patients on anastrozole alone vs. patients on concomitant fulvestrant. Comparisons were made at each time point using parametric tests and over time using a linear mixed effects model. Results: A total of 483 anastrozole concentration measurements, 224 samples from 64 patients on the anastrozole alone arm and 259 from 73 patients on the combination arm. The mean anastrozole concentration in the combination arm was significantly lower than that in the anastrozole alone arm at each sample collection time (all p<0.01) and in the mixed effects model (an estimated difference of 9.85 ng/mL(95% CI: 5.69-14.00 ng/mL ), p<0.001). Conclusion: A significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction was detected, in which the addition of fulvestrant to anastrozole treatment decreases the trough anastrozole concentration. Further research is needed to verify whether this interaction affects treatment efficacy and to determine the pharmacological mechanism by which this interaction occurs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: REVEL demonstrated that ramucirumab + docetaxel (RAM + DTX) improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and objective response rate in patients with advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with progression after platinum-based chemotherapy. This analysis examined quality of life (QoL) as assessed by the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and clinician-reported functional status. Across all assessments, LCSS compliance was approximately 75% and balanced across arms. The mean (SD) baseline LCSS total score was 27.3 mm (17.08 mm) on the RAM + DTX arm and 29.6 mm (17.59 mm) on the PL + DTX arm. At 30-day follow-up, the mean (SD) LCSS total score was 32.0 (19.03) on the RAM + DTX arm and 32.5 (19.87) on the PL + DTX arm. The TtD for all LCSS scores was similar between treatment arms. Stratified HRs (95% CI) for LCSS total score and ASBI were HR = 0.99 (0.81, 1.22), p = 0.932 and HR = 0.93 (0.75, 1.15), p = 0.514 with approximately 70% of patients censored. TtD to PS ≥ 2 was similar between treatment arms (HR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.85, 1.26], p = 0.743) with approximately two-thirds of the patients censored. •In addition to improvement of clinical efficacy outcomes demonstrated in REVEL, these results suggest that adding ramucirumab to docetaxel did not impair patient QoL, symptoms, or functioning. Abstract Objectives REVEL demonstrated that ramucirumab + docetaxel (RAM + DTX) improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and objective response rate in patients with advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with progression after platinum-based chemotherapy. This analysis examined quality of life (QoL) as assessed by the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and clinician-reported functional status. Materials and Methods The LCSS includes 6 symptom and 3 global items measured on a 0–100-mm scale; higher scores represent greater symptom burden. LCSS and ECOG PS data were collected at baseline, every 3-week cycle, the summary visit, and at the 30-day follow-up. LCSS total score and Average Symptom Burden Index (ASBI) were calculated. The primary analysis compared time to deterioration (TtD) between treatment arms for all individual items and summary scores, defined as increase from baseline by ≥15 mm using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. TtD to ECOG PS ≥2 was analyzed. Results There were 1253 patients randomized to receive RAM + DTX or placebo + docetaxel (PL + DTX). Across all assessments, LCSS compliance was approximately75% and balanced across arms. The mean (SD) baseline LCSS total score was 27.3 mm (17.08 mm) on RAM + DTX and 29.6 mm (17.59 mm) on PL + DTX. At 30-day follow-up, mean (SD) LCSS total score was 32.0 (19.03) on RAM + DTX and 32.5 (19.87) on PL + DTX. The TtD for all LCSS scores was similar between treatment arms. Stratified HRs (95% CI) for LCSS total score and ASBI were HR = 0.99 (0.81, 1.22), p = 0.932 and HR = 0.93 (0.75, 1.15), p = 0.514 with approximately 70% of patients censored. TtD to PS ≥ 2 was similar between treatment arms (HR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.85, 1.26], p = 0.743) with approximately two-thirds of the patients censored. Conclusion In addition to improvement of clinical efficacy outcomes demonstrated in REVEL, these results suggest that adding ramucirumab to docetaxel did not impair patient QoL, symptoms, or functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of modafinil on depression via a secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial of modafinil for fatigue in cancer patients. The primary aim is to elucidate factors that contributed to the effectiveness of modafinil in the parent trial. Methods: Five hundred forty-one cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and experiencing fatigue (Brief Fatigue Inventory [BFI] item 3 of ≥3) were randomized to receive 200 mg modafinil (n = 260) or placebo (n = 281) daily from baseline (cycle 2) to posttest (cycle 4). Patients completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and Profile of Mood States depression-dejection subscale at baseline and posttest. We used linear regression to address the hypothesis that modafinil would be associated with reduced depression, particularly in those experiencing severe fatigue (BFI ≥7). Results: Modafinil did not have a significant effect on depression, even for those patients with severe fatigue. However, for subjects with severe fatigue (BFI ≥7), those receiving modafinil had lower depression scores than did control subjects. Modafinil significantly moderated the relationship between baseline fatigue and CES-D total scores (P = 0.04) and was marginally significant as a moderator for the relationship between baseline fatigue and Profile of Mood States depression-dejection subscale scores (P = 0.07). Modafinil also significantly moderated the relationship between baseline fatigue and CES-D positive affect subscale scores (P = 0.003), but not CES-D somatic, negative affect, or interpersonal subscale scores. Conclusions: Modafinil differentially impacts depression based on a patient's level of fatigue and reduced depressive symptoms only in those with extreme fatigue. This effect may be driven by increases in positive affective symptoms. These results have significant implications for intervention; in patients with high levels of fatigue, modafinil might also reduce depression. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To explore the genetic landscape of tumors from patients enrolled on the BOLERO-2 trial to identify potential correlations between genetic alterations and efficacy of everolimus treatment. The BOLERO-2 trial has previously demonstrated that the addition of everolimus to exemestane prolonged progression-free survival by more than twofold in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Patients and methods: Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze genetic status of cancer-related genes in 302 archival tumor specimens from patients representative of the BOLERO-2 study population. Correlations between the most common somatic alterations and degree of chromosomal instability, and treatment effect of everolimus were investigated. Results: Progression-free survival benefit with everolimus was maintained regardless of alteration status of PIK3CA, FGFR1, and CCND1 or the pathways of which they are components. However, quantitative differences in everolimus benefit were observed between patient subgroups defined by the exon-specific mutations in PIK3CA (exon 20 v 9) or by different degrees of chromosomal instability in the tumor tissues. Conclusion: The data from this exploratory analysis suggest that the efficacy of everolimus was largely independent of the most commonly altered genes or pathways in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. The potential impact of chromosomal instabilities and low-frequency genetic alterations on everolimus efficacy warrants further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer-related dyspnea is a common, distressing, and difficult-to-manage symptom in cancer patients, resulting in diminished quality of life and poor prognosis. Buspirone, a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic which does not suppress respiration and has proven efficacy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, has been suggested to relieve the sensation of dyspnea in patients with COPD. The main objective of our study was to evaluate whether buspirone alleviates dyspnea in cancer patients. We report on a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 432 patients (mean age 64, female 51 %, lung cancer 62 %) from 16 participating Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) sites with grade 2 or higher dyspnea, as assessed by the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale. Dyspnea was assessed by the Oxygen Cost Diagram (OCD; higher scores are better) and anxiety by the state subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S; lower scores are better) at baseline and after the 4-week intervention (post-intervention). Mean scores from baseline to post-intervention for buspirone were OCD 8.7 to 9.0 and STAI-S 40.5 to 40.1 and for placebo were OCD 8.4 to 9.3 and STAI-S 40.9 to 38.6 with raw improvements over time on both measures being greater in the placebo group. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for baseline scores showed no statistically significant difference between groups for OCD (P = 0.052) or STAI-S (P = 0.062). Buspirone did not result in significant improvement in dyspnea or anxiety in cancer patients. Thus, buspirone should not be recommended as a pharmacological option for dyspnea in cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Supportive Care in Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Given that the clinical course of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is not well defined, the current study was performed to better understand clinical parameters associated with its presentation. Acute and chronic neuropathy was evaluated in patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) on study N08CB (North Central Cancer Treatment Group, Alliance). Acute neuropathy was assessed by having patients complete daily questionnaires for 6 days with each cycle of FOLFOX. Before each dose of FOLFOX and as long as 18 months after chemotherapy cessation, chronic neurotoxicity was assessed with use of the 20-item, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Three hundred eight (89%) of the 346 patients had at least one symptom of acute neuropathy with the first cycle of FOLFOX; these symptoms included sensitivity to touching cold items (71%), sensitivity to swallowing cold items (71%), throat discomfort (63%), or muscle cramps (42%). Acute symptoms peaked at day 3 and improved, although they did not always resolve completely between treatments. These symptoms were about twice as severe in cycles 2 through 12 as they were in cycle 1. For chronic neurotoxicity, tingling was the most severe symptom, followed by numbness and then pain. During chemotherapy, symptoms in the hands were more prominent than they were in the feet; by 18 months, symptoms were more severe in the feet than they were in the hands. Patients with more severe acute neuropathy during the first cycle of therapy experienced more chronic sensory neurotoxicity (P < .0001). Acute oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy symptoms do not always completely resolve between treatment cycles and are only half as severe on the first cycle as compared with subsequent cycles. There is a correlation between the severities of acute and chronic neuropathies. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Previous pilot data suggested that venlafaxine could prevent acute and chronic oxaliplatin-related neuropathy. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded pilot study was to obtain additional data to support conducting a phase III trial to test the use of venlafaxine to prevent oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. Fifty patients, scheduled to undergo oxaliplatin-based therapy (FOLFOX) for stages II-III (67 %) or stage IV (33 %) colon cancer, were randomized to receive venlafaxine extended release (37.5 mg) or placebo, twice daily, through their last dose of oxaliplatin and then titrated off. Neurotoxicity was evaluated via several patient- and physician-reported measures, including the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 (EORTC QLQ-CIPN20) instrument. Baseline patient characteristics were equivalent for the two arms, with a median age of 60 years. There was a trend toward benefit for the venlafaxine arm, when evaluated by the oxaliplatin-specific neuropathy scale and by acute neuropathy measures of throat discomfort and discomfort swallowing cold liquids, the latter only for the first two oxaliplatin doses. These trends were outweighed by a lack of any such trends in all other measurements including the following: (1) the CIPN20 sensory subscale (P = 0.55, primary endpoint), physician-completed NCI CTCAE assessment, or cumulative administered oxaliplatin doses (median 716 vs 631 mg for placebo and venlafaxine, respectively, P = 0.34). The present study neither supports the use of venlafaxine for preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in clinical practice nor the initiation of a phase III trial to investigate venlafaxine in this setting.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Supportive Care in Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) epoetin alfa (EA) and darbepoetin alfa (DA) increase hemoglobin (Hb) levels and reduce red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements in patients with cancer chemotherapy-associated anemia (CAA). Extended-interval ESA dosing (administration less than once weekly) is common with DA, but previous studies suggested that EA might also be administered less often than weekly. In this multicenter prospective trial, 239 CAA patients with Hb <10.5 g/dL were randomized to receive EA 40,000 Units subcutaneously once weekly ("40K" arm), EA 80,000 Units every 3 weeks ("80K"), EA 120,000 Units every 3 weeks ("120K" arm), or DA 500 mcg every 3 weeks ("DA"), for 15 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving Hb ≥ 11.5 g/dL or increment of Hb > 2.0 g/dL from baseline without transfusion. Secondary endpoints included transfusion requirements, adverse events (AEs), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). There were no significant differences between treatment arms in the proportion of patients achieving Hb response (68.9% for 40K, 61.7% for 80K, 65.5% for 120K, and 66.7% for DA; p>0.41 for all comparisons) or requiring RBC transfusion, but the median Hb increment from baseline was higher in the 40K and DA arms compared to the 2 extended dosing EA arms, and Hb response was achieved soonest in the weekly EA arm. There were no differences in PROs or AEs. The FDA-approved schedules tested - weekly EA 40,000 Units, and every 3 week DA 500 mcg - are reasonable standards for CAA therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal symptoms are the most common adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and can result in decreased quality of life and discontinuation of therapy. Omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FAs) can be effective in decreasing arthralgia resulting from rheumatologic conditions and reducing serum triglycerides. Women with early-stage breast cancer receiving an AI who had a worst joint pain/stiffness score ≥ 5 of 10 using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) were randomly assigned to receive either O3-FAs 3.3 g or placebo (soybean/corn oil) daily for 24 weeks. Clinically significant change was defined as ≥ 2-point drop from baseline. Patients also completed quality-of-life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Endocrine Symptoms) and additional pain/stiffness assessments at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 24. Serial fasting blood was collected for lipid analysis. Among 262 patients registered, 249 were evaluable, with 122 women in the O3-FA arm and 127 in the placebo arm. Compared with baseline, the mean observed BPI-SF score decreased by 1.74 points at 12 weeks and 2.22 points at 24 weeks with O3-FAs and by 1.49 and 1.81 points, respectively, with placebo. In a linear regression adjusting for the baseline score, osteoarthritis, and taxane use, adjusted 12-week BPI-SF scores did not differ by arm (P = .58). Triglyceride levels decreased in patients receiving O3-FA treatment and remained the same for those receiving placebo (P = .01). No between-group differences were seen for HDL, LDL, or C-reactive protein. We found a substantial (> 50%) and sustained improvement in AI arthralgia for both O3-FAs and placebo but found no meaningful difference between the groups. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors are at an increased risk of bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report described the 5-year follow-up results. A total of 551 postmenopausal women with breast cancer who completed tamoxifen treatment and were undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to either upfront (274 patients) or delayed (277 patients) ZA at a dose of 4 mg intravenously every 6 months. In the patients on the delayed treatment arm, ZA was initiated for a postbaseline bone mineral density T-score of <-2.0 or fracture. The incidence of a 5% decrease in the total lumbar spine bone mineral density at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront treatment arm versus 41.2% in the delayed treatment arm (P<.0001). A total of 41 patients in the delayed treatment arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased NCI Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the patients treated on the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia among those in the delayed treatment arm, there were no significant differences observed between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront treatment arm (2 vs 8 cumulative cases), although this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront treatment arm versus 25 patients in the delayed treatment arm. Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women receiving letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not found to be significantly different between treatment arms. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess efficacy, safety, and predictors of response to iniparib in combination with gemcitabine and carboplatin in early-stage triple-negative and BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. This single-arm phase II study enrolled patients with stage I to IIIA (T ≥ 1 cm) estrogen receptor-negative (≤ 5%), progesterone receptor-negative (≤ 5%), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative or BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. Neoadjuvant gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously [IV] on days 1 and 8), carboplatin (area under curve of 2 IV on days 1 and 8), and iniparib (5.6 mg/kg IV on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) were administered every 21 days for four cycles, until the protocol was amended to six cycles. The primary end point was pathologic complete response (no invasive carcinoma in breast or axilla). All patients underwent comprehensive BRCA1/2 genotyping, and homologous recombination deficiency was assessed by loss of heterozygosity (HRD-LOH) in pretreatment core breast biopsies. Among 80 patients, median age was 48 years; 19 patients (24%) had germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations; clinical stage was I (13%), IIA (36%), IIB (36%), and IIIA (15%). Overall pathologic complete response rate in the intent-to-treat population (n = 80) was 36% (90% CI, 27 to 46). Mean HRD-LOH scores were higher in responders compared with nonresponders (P = .02) and remained significant when BRCA1/2 germline mutations carriers were excluded (P = .021). Preoperative combination of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and iniparib is active in the treatment of early-stage triple-negative and BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. The HRD-LOH assay was able to identify patients with sporadic triple-negative breast cancer lacking a BRCA1/2 mutation, but with an elevated HRD-LOH score, who achieved a favorable pathologic response. Confirmatory controlled trials are warranted. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ovarian failure is a common toxic effect of chemotherapy. Studies of the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists to protect ovarian function have shown mixed results and lack data on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We randomly assigned 257 premenopausal women with operable hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer to receive standard chemotherapy with the GnRH agonist goserelin (goserelin group) or standard chemotherapy without goserelin (chemotherapy-alone group). The primary study end point was the rate of ovarian failure at 2 years, with ovarian failure defined as the absence of menses in the preceding 6 months and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the postmenopausal range. Rates were compared with the use of conditional logistic regression. Secondary end points included pregnancy outcomes and disease-free and overall survival. Results: At baseline, 218 patients were eligible and could be evaluated. Among 135 with complete primary end-point data, the ovarian failure rate was 8% in the goserelin group and 22% in the chemotherapy-alone group (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.97; two-sided P=0.04). Owing to missing primary end-point data, sensitivity analyses were performed, and the results were consistent with the main findings. Missing data did not differ according to treatment group or according to the stratification factors of age and planned chemotherapy regimen. Among the 218 patients who could be evaluated, pregnancy occurred in more women in the goserelin group than in the chemotherapy-alone group (21% vs. 11%, P=0.03); women in the goserelin group also had improved disease-free survival (P=0.04) and overall survival (P=0.05). Conclusions: Although missing data weaken interpretation of the findings, administration of goserelin with chemotherapy appeared to protect against ovarian failure, reducing the risk of early menopause and improving prospects for fertility. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; POEMS/S0230 number, NCT00068601.).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Second-line treatment with chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies improves outcomes in patients with wild type Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The choice of biological agent in second-line mCRC remains unclear. In this randomized, phase II estimation trial, we compared FOLFIRI (irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) in combination with panitumumab or bevacizumab in patients with disease progression during oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab. One hundred eighty-two patients were randomized to FOLFIRI with panitumumab or bevacizumab. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. PFS was similar between arms, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.50; P = .97). Median PFS was 7.7 months (95% CI, 5.7-11.8) in the panitumumab arm and 9.2 months (95% CI, 7.8-10.6) in the bevacizumab arm. OS was also similar between arms, with an HR of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.75-1.49; P = .75). Median OS was 18.0 months (95% CI, 13.5-21.7) in the panitumumab arm and 21.4 months (95% CI, 16.5-24.6) in the bevacizumab arm. ORR was 32% (95% CI, 23%-43%) in the panitumumab arm and 19% (95% CI, 11%-29%) in the bevacizumab arm. Skin disorders, diarrhea, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, dehydration, and hypotension were more frequent in the panitumumab arm. Neutropenia was more frequent in the bevacizumab-containing arm. Panitumumab or bevacizumab with FOLFIRI as second-line treatment had efficacy similar in patients whose disease progressed during oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with bevacizumab, with expected toxicities. The development of more accurate biomarkers might help caregivers and patients to better choose between therapies for individual patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Colorectal Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Hot flashes are a common symptom in breast cancer survivors that can negatively impact quality of life. Preliminary data suggested that magnesium might be used as an effective low-cost treatment of hot flashes with minimal adverse effects. A four-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted. Postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer and bothersome hot flashes were randomized into treatment groups of magnesium oxide 800 or 1,200 mg daily or corresponding placebo groups at a 2:2:(1:1) ratio. Hot flash frequency and hot flash score (number × mean severity) were measured using a validated hot flash diary. A 1-week baseline period preceded initiation of study medication. The primary endpoint was intrapatient difference in mean hot flash score between baseline and treatment periods, comparing each magnesium group with the combined placebo groups using a gatekeeping procedure. Results were analyzed using repeated-measures and growth curve models on weekly hot flash scores based on a modified intent-to-treat principle. Two hundred eighty-nine women enrolled between December 2011 and March 2013. Study groups were well balanced for baseline characteristics. Mean hot flash scores, mean hot flash frequencies, and associated changes during the treatment period were similar for each group. An increased incidence of diarrhea and a corresponding lower incidence of constipation were reported in magnesium arms compared with placebo. No statistically significant difference in other toxicities or quality-of-life measures was observed. The results of this trial do not support the use of magnesium oxide for hot flashes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prior economic analysis that compared the 12-gene assay to published patterns of care predicted the assay would improve outcomes while lowering medical costs for stage II, T3, mismatch-repair-proficient (MMR-P) colon cancer patients. This study assessed the validity of those findings with real-world adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) recommendations from the US third-party payer perspective. Methods: Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients using guideline-compliant, state-transition probability estimation methods in a Markov model. A study of 141 patients from 17 sites in the Mayo Clinic Cancer Research Consortium provided aCT recommendations before and after knowledge of the 12-gene assay results. Progression and adverse events data with aCT regimens were based on published literature. Drug and administration costs for aCT were obtained from 2014 Medicare Fee Schedule. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the drivers and robustness of the primary outcomes. Results: After receiving the 12-gene assay results, physician recommendations in favor of aCT decreased 22 %; fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and FOLFOX recommendations each declined 11 %. Average per-patient drugs, administration, and adverse events costs decreased $US2,339, $US733, and $US3,211, respectively. Average total direct medical costs decreased $US991. Average patient well-being improved by 0.114 QALYs. Savings are expected to persist even if the cost of oxaliplatin drops by >75 % due to generic substitution. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that real-world changes in aCT recommendations due to the 12-gene assay are likely to reduce direct medical costs and improve well-being for stage II, T3, MMR-P colon cancer patients.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · PharmacoEconomics

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: Ramucirumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus ramucirumab or placebo as second-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) after platinum-based therapy. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial (REVEL), we enrolled patients with squamous or non-squamous NSCLC who had progressed during or after a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) with a centralised, interactive voice-response system (stratified by sex, region, performance status, and previous maintenance therapy [yes vs no]) to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and either ramucirumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo on day 1 of a 21 day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was overall survival in all patients allocated to treatment. We assessed adverse events according to treatment received. This study is registered with, number NCT01168973. FINDINGS: Between Dec 3, 2010, and Jan 24, 2013, we screened 1825 patients, of whom 1253 patients were randomly allocated to treatment. Median overall survival was 10·5 months (IQR 5·1-21·2) for 628 patients allocated ramucirumab plus docetaxel and 9·1 months (4·2-18·0) for 625 patients who received placebo plus docetaxel (hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·75-0·98; p=0·023). Median progression-free survival was 4·5 months (IQR 2·3-8·3) for the ramucirumab group compared with 3·0 months (1·4-6·9) for the control group (0·76, 0·68-0·86; p<0·0001). We noted treatment-emergent adverse events in 613 (98%) of 627 patients in the ramucirumab safety population and 594 (95%) of 618 patients in the control safety population. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (306 patients [49%] in the ramucirumab group vs 246 [40%] in the control group), febrile neutropenia (100 [16%] vs 62 [10%]), fatigue (88 [14%] vs 65 [10%]), leucopenia (86 [14%] vs 77 [12%]), and hypertension (35 [6%] vs 13 [2%]). The numbers of deaths from adverse events (31 [5%] vs 35 [6%]) and grade 3 or worse pulmonary haemorrhage (eight [1%] vs eight [1%]) did not differ between groups. Toxicities were manageable with appropriate dose reductions and supportive care. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus docetaxel improves survival as second-line treatment of patients with stage IV NSCLC.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: The Oncotype DX colon cancer assay is a clinically validated predictor of recurrence risk in stage II colon cancer patients. This prospective study evaluated the impact of recurrence score (RS) results on physician recommendations regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in T3, mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) stage II colon cancer patients.Patients and Methods.Stage IIA colon cancer patients were enrolled in 17 centers. Patient tumor specimens were assessed by the RS test (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and mismatch repair (immunohistochemistry). For each patient, the physician's recommended postoperative treatment plan of observation, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy, or combination therapy with oxaliplatin was recorded before and after the RS and mismatch repair results were provided.Results.Of 221 enrolled patients, 141 patients had T3 MMR-P tumors and were eligible for the primary analysis. Treatment recommendations changed for 63 (45%; 95% confidence interval: 36%-53%) of these 141 T3 MMR-P patients, with intensity decreasing for 47 (33%) and increasing for 16 (11%). Recommendations for chemotherapy decreased from 73 patients (52%) to 42 (30%), following review of RS results by physician and patient. Increased treatment intensity was more often observed at higher RS values, and decreased intensity was observed at lower values (p = .011).Conclusion.Compared with traditional clinicopathological assessment, incorporation of the RS result into clinical decision making was associated with treatment recommendation changes for 45% of T3 MMR-P stage II colon cancer patients in this prospective multicenter study. Use of the RS assay may lead to overall reduction in adjuvant chemotherapy use in this subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Oncologist
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    ABSTRACT: The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

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12k Citations
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  • 2014
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005-2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Oncology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2009-2010
    • University of California, Davis
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Davis, California, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Sioux Falls
      Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States
    • John Wayne Cancer Institute
      Santa Monica, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Geisinger Medical Center
      Danville, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002-2004
    • US Oncology
      The Woodlands, Texas, United States
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
    • Scottsdale Community College
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2003
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1992-1997
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Neuro Oncology
      Houston, Texas, United States