[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was averted in 2004, many novel coronaviruses have been recognized from different species, including humans. Bats have provided the most diverse assemblages of coronaviruses, suggesting that they may be the natural reservoir. Continued virological surveillance has proven to be the best way to avert this infectious disease at the source. Here we provide the first description of a previously unidentified coronavirus lineage detected from wild Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) and Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) during virological surveillance in southern China. Partial genome analysis revealed a typical coronavirus genome but with a unique putative accessory gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the envelope, membrane, and nucleoprotein structural proteins and the two conserved replicase domains, putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase, of these novel coronaviruses were most closely related to those of group 3 coronaviruses identified from birds, while the spike protein gene was most closely related to that of group 1 coronaviruses from mammals. However, these viruses always fell into an outgroup phylogenetic relationship with respect to other coronaviruses and had low amino acid similarity to all known coronavirus groups, indicating that they diverged early in the evolutionary history of coronaviruses. These results suggest that these viruses may represent a previously unrecognized evolutionary pathway, or possibly an unidentified coronavirus group. This study demonstrates the importance of systematic virological surveillance in market animals for understanding the evolution and emergence of viruses with infectious potential.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronaviruses can infect a variety of animals including poultry, livestock, and humans and are currently classified into three groups. The interspecies transmissions of coronaviruses between different hosts form a complex ecosystem of which little is known. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recent identification of new coronaviruses have highlighted the necessity for further investigation of coronavirus ecology, in particular the role of bats and other wild animals. In this study, we sampled bat populations in 15 provinces of China and reveal that approximately 6.5% of the bats, from diverse species distributed throughout the region, harbor coronaviruses. Full genomes of four coronavirues from bats were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses of the spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleoprotein structural proteins and the two conserved replicase domains, putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase, revealed that bat coronaviruses cluster in three different groups: group 1, another group that includes all SARS and SARS-like coronaviruses (putative group 4), and an independent bat coronavirus group (putative group 5). Further genetic analyses showed that different species of bats maintain coronaviruses from different groups and that a single bat species from different geographic locations supports similar coronaviruses. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that bats may play an integral role in the ecology and evolution of coronaviruses.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Life history parameters in two generations of endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae (Uchida) were examined using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae feeding on B. thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac. In the laboratory, Bt toxin was fed to Bt-resistant host larvae continuously in case of Bt treatment and only before or after the host larvae were parasitized in Bt–P and P–Bt treatments, respectively. C. chlorideae pupae developed faster in Bt treatment than non-Bt treatment. The shortened pupal stage duration was mainly because of the feeding of host larvae on Bt-diet before being parasitized. Body length of adult male C. chlorideae developed inside Bt-treated Bt-resistant (Bt–Bt) H. armigera larvae significantly decreased, especially in host larvae feeding on Bt-diet after being parasitized. However, survival, pupal mortality and adult longevity of C. chlorideae were almost unaffected in Bt-resistant H. armigera larvae feeding on Bt-toxin. Furthermore, Bt-treated host larvae had the same effect on the F1 progeny of C. chlorideae as the previous generation, and there was no significant difference between generations. This experiment suggests that there is very limited effect on the life history parameters in two generations of C. chlorideae parasitizing Bt–Bt H. armigera larvae. But both generations of C. chlorideae are affected when Bt-resistant H. armigera larvae fed on Bt toxin for different durations.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Journal of Applied Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propylaea japonica is an important predatory insect of common cotton pests. To assess the ecological effects of transgenic Bt cotton, expressing Cry1Ac toxin, on this predator, we examined the life history parameters of P. japonica for two generations by feeding them with Bt-resistant Helicoverpa armigera. After ingesting Bt-treated Bt-resistant H. armigera larvae in the third and fourth instar, the body mass and body length of adult P. japonica decreased, a combined effect of poor prey quality and Cry1Ac Bt-toxin may account for these effects. However, larval survivorship and development in these two instars, pupal mortality, fecundity and adult longevity of P. japonica were not affected in both the generations. These results suggest that ingesting Bt-toxin Cry1Ac-treated pests in advanced larval stage might have no significant effect on the fitness of predator P. japonica.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of Applied Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus has become endemic in poultry in southeast Asia since 2003 and constitutes a major pandemic threat to humans. Here we describe cases of disease caused by H5N1 and transmission of the virus among migratory geese populations in western China. This outbreak may help to spread the virus over and beyond the Himalayas and has important implications for developing control strategies.