[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were imaged monthly over a six-month (ie, seven monthly magnetic resonance images [MRI]) natural history period (NHP). Thereafter, patients were randomized to receive 11 or 33 mug of subcutaneously injected interferon beta 1a (IFNp-1 a) with imaging monthly for nine months and at months 12, 18 and 24 of therapy phase (TP). In the present exploratory post hoc analysis, the authors evaluated IFNbeta-1a dose effect on reducing the size of contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs). MRIs performed at months 0, 3 and 6 of NHP and at months 3, 6, 9, 18 and 24 of TP were analysed. While a significant reduction in mean number of CELs was observed in both treatment groups of patients, the mean total volume and size of CELs was reduced only in patients undergoing therapy with 33 mug of IFNbeta-1a. The latter suggests a significant dose effect exerted by IFNbeta-1a in the evolution of CELs' dimensions during therapy.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Multiple Sclerosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 is associated with a chronic progressive neurologic disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) that affects 0.2% to 3% of HTLV-1-infected people. The authors aimed at exploring, in vivo, whether brain volume reduction occurs in patients with HAM/TSP through the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T1 pre/postcontrast spin echo-weighted images (WIs) and T2WIs of the brain were obtained in 19 HAM/TSP patients and 14 age-and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Both patients and healthy individuals were imaged at a 1.5-Tesla magnet by employing a conventional head coil. Focal T1 and T2 abnormalities were calculated and two measurements of brain parenchyma fraction (BPF) were obtained by using SIENAx (Structural Image Evaluation,using Normalisation, of Atrophy; University of Oxford, Oxford, UK) and MIPAV (Medical Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA) from T1WIs. No significant differences in BPF were found between patients and healthy subjects when using either SIENAx or MIPAV. Analysis of individual patients detected that BPF was lower by 1 standard deviation (SD) relative to patients' average BPF in one patient. The authors conclude that reductions in BPF do not occur frequently in patients with HAM/TSP. However, the authors believe that one individual case of significant brain atrophy raises the question as to whether atrophy selectively targets the spinal cord of HAM/TSP patients or may involve the brain as well. A larger patient population analyzing regional brain volume changes could be helpful in determining whether brain atrophy is a marker of disease in patients with HAM/TSP.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of NeuroVirology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-beta (IFNbeta) reduces the number and load of new contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the ability of IFNbeta to reduce lesion sizes and re-enhancements of pre-existing CELs has not been examined extensively. Activity of contrast re-enhancing lesions (Re-CELs) and contrast single-enhancing lesions (S-CELs) were monitored in ten patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. These patients underwent monthly post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) for an 18-month natural history phase and an 18-month therapy phase with subcutaneous IFNbeta-1b, totaling 37 images per patient. The activity was analysed using the first image as a baseline and registering subsequent active monthly images to the baseline. There was a 76.4% reduction in the number of CELs with IFNbeta therapy. The decrease was greater (P = 0.003) for S-CELs (82.3%) than for Re-CELs (57.4%). S-CELs showed no changes in durations of enhancement and maximal lesion sizes with treatment. Exclusively for Re-CELs, IFNbeta-1b significantly decreased maximal lesion sizes, total number of enhancement periods and total months of enhancement. Thus, IFNbeta appears to be effective in reducing the degree of severity of inflammation among Re-CELs, as reflected by their reduced maximal lesion sizes and durations of enhancement.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Multiple Sclerosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo detection of cortical lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by MR imaging is hampered by several factors. Among them is the low contrast between small cortical lesions and surrounding cortical gray matter offered by present techniques.
T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (SPGR) volumes and 2D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 22 patients with MS who had 12 monthly brain MR imaging examinations at 1.5T, using a quadrature head coil, were retrospectively analyzed. These serial studies were coregistered and averaged to generate a single high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) mean image, which was used to identify cortical lesions. The means of 12 FLAIRs and SPGRs from 14 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed as well.
No cortical lesions were found on images of healthy subjects. Eighty-six cortical lesions were identified in 13 (59.1%) patients, predominantly in the frontal lobe (73.3%); 23.3% of cortical lesions lay entirely in the cortex, whereas the remaining lesions invaded the white matter underneath.
Averaging multiple SPGRs created a single high SNR volume, allowing identification of cortical lesions. Because data were obtained monthly for 1 year, the average image does not account for transient lesion activity. However, for cortical lesions that remained stable during this time, the findings are valid in demonstrating the importance of high SNR images for detecting cortical brain abnormalities in MS.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · American Journal of Neuroradiology