S C Lee

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (20)39.46 Total impact

  • G A Kim · T H Rim · S C Lee · S H Byeon · H J Koh · S S Kim · C S Lee
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo investigate factors associated with good response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients.Methods We retrospectively reviewed 42 eyes of CSC patients of symptom duration more than 3 months who received a single or multiple successive IVBs on an as-needed basis (0.05 ml, 1.25 mg). High responders (HRs) were defined as complete resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Moderate responders (MRs) were defined as SRF resolution of 50-99% of pretreatment volume and poor responders (PRs) as SRF resolution <50%. Clinical, SD-OCT, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography findings were analyzed to find factors associated with HR. Descriptive statistics for all demographic and clinical variables were calculated, and comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched-pairs signed-rank test, the Mann-Whitney U-test for means with continuous data, Pearson's χ(2) test, and Fisher's exact test for categorical data.ResultsThe mean number of IVB was 1.9. At postoperative 1 month, there were 10 (24%) HRs, 18 (43%) MRs, and 14 (33%) PRs. At the last follow-up (the mean 8.6 months), there were 25 HRs (60%), 9 MRs (21%), and 8 PRs (19%). Thicker subfoveal choroid (P=0.036), smaller lesion diameter (P=0.019), and better baseline best-corrected visual acuity (P=0.002) predicted HRs at postoperative 1 month. HR at the last follow-up was associated with classic pattern fluorescein angiography finding.Conclusions Suboptimal effects of IVB on persistent CSC suggest primary IVB on selective cases with better vision, smaller lesion, and thicker choroid at baseline.Eye advance online publication, 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.58.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Eye (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · May 2012 · Retina
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    W K Song · S S Kim · J-H Yi · S H Byeon · H J Koh · S C Lee · O W Kwon
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship of axial length (AXL), intraoperatively assessed posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) status, and surgical outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy. Retrospective, consecutive case series. Clinical records were reviewed for 115 eyes (50 males, 65 females) with more than a 6-month follow-up who underwent diabetic vitrectomy from a single surgeon. Thirty-three eyes had vitreous haemorrhage, 37 had tractional retinal detachment (TRD) threatening the macula, 43 had TRD involving the macula, and two had neovascular glaucoma. AXL was measured preoperatively by ultrasonography, and PVD status was classified intraoperatively: broad vitreo-retinal adhesion as no PVD, PVD at the macular area with attachment at the disc as incomplete PVD, and complete PVD. Forty-four eyes had no PVD, 23 had incomplete PVD, and 48 had complete PVD. A majority of the no PVD group had macula off TRD (97.7%), whereas vitreous haemorrhage (68.7%) predominated in the complete PVD group. Longer AXLs were noted in the complete PVD group compared with the no PVD and incomplete PVD groups (ANOVA in three groups P=0.0001). Univariate analysis showed that AXL had an influence on anatomical success (P=0.02). Multiple logistic regression analysis yielded that PVD status is a significant predictor of the final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)>20/100, and BCVA>20/40 (P=0.01, P=0.02). Intraoperatively assessed PVD status is a prognostic factor for functional outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy. Shorter AXL was associated with lesser PVD. In eyes with a lack of PVD, careful timing and decision of surgery are mandatory.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Eye (London, England)
  • H C Kim · YJ Cho · C W Ahn · K S Park · J C Kim · J S Nam · Y S Im · J E Lee · S C Lee · H K Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Low serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels have been reported in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), but the role of NGF in the development of neuropathy is unclear. Thus, we investigated the associations of serum NGF level and NGF receptor activity with the presence and severity of DPN. One hundred and thirty-six patients with Type 2 diabetes were included in this cross-sectional study. Serum NGF levels were measured by ELISA. Expressions of NGF receptors (TrkA and p75(NTR)) were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The presence and severity of DPN were assessed by neuropathy disability score (NDS) and by corneal nerve fibre length (cNFL) and nerve branch density (cNBD) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Patients with DPN had higher serum NGF levels (56-451 pg/ml) than patients without DPN (4-54 pg/ml). However, in DPN patients, serum NGF was negatively associated with neuropathy severity (mild 222 +/- 64 pg/ml; moderate 114 +/- 17 pg/ml; severe 89 +/- 20 pg/ml). This negative association was consistent in all severity indices (NDS, P < 0.001; cNFL, P < 0.001; cNBD P = 0.010) even after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, insulin use, fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Although NGF receptor activities had significantly (P < 0.05) negative associations with the presence and severity of neuropathy, these associations were not significant when adjusted for other factors. Serum NGF level was positively associated with the presence of DPN but negatively associated with neuropathy severity in DPN patients. The change in serum NGF might be a consequence of, rather than a contributor to, the early development of DPN.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Diabetic Medicine
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    J H Bae · S C Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Eye (London, England)
  • W K Song · S H Byeon · S S Kim · O W Kwon · S C Lee

    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The British journal of ophthalmology
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    W K Song · W I Yang · S C Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Eye (London, England)
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    J Lee · S-H Chung · S C Lee · H J Koh

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Eye
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    S C Lee · J H Song · E J Chung · O W Kwon

    Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Eye
  • Y.W. Lee · S.C. Lee · H.S. Kim · C.Y. Joung · C. Degueldre
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    ABSTRACT: Modification of thermo-mechanical properties of simulated (SiC) silicon carbide-, (ZrO2) zirconia- and (MgAl2O4) spinel-based inert matrix nuclear fuels after cyclic thermal shock was analyzed in terms of Vickers hardness (HV), fracture toughness (KIC) and thermal conductivity. Three different simulated specimens were used for the experiment; a solid solution of yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria (composition: Er0.07Y0.10Ce0.15Zr0.68O1.915, 92.0% TD, specimen hereafter called Ce–ZrO2), a CeO2-dispersed Mg-spinel (composition: 15wt%CeO2–MgAl2O4, 93.7% TD, specimen hereafter called Ce-spinel) and a CeO2-dispersed silicon carbide (composition: 80.8 wt% SiC, 6.9 wt% Al2O3, 5.1 wt% Y2O3 and 5.0 wt% CeO2, specimen hereafter called Ce–SiC), CeO2 being surrogate materials for PuO2. Cyclic thermal shock experiment and thermal conductivity measurements were simultaneously carried out by heating disc-shaped specimens up to maximum temperature ranging from 1073 to 1673 K and then cooling down to 343 K with Ar gas during 20–25 min. The Vickers hardness of the three different thermally shocked specimens showed nearly constant values with increasing number of cycles, except for the specimen heated at 1673 K. The KIC values of the corresponding specimens increased with the increasing number of cyclic thermal shock at 1673 K. For Ce–ZrO2 heated at 1673 K, however, it decreases considerably due to the combined effects of formation of second phase and modification of the matrix composition thereby. The calculated thermal conductivity of Ce-spinel decreases as the number of cycles in thermal shock increases in the temperature range between 1073 and 1673 K, and Ce–SiC slightly decreased with the number of cycles in cyclic thermal shock and the variations in thermal conductivity are almost the same for the temperature increases of 1073 and 1373 K, whereas, in Ce–ZrO2, it remains nearly constant.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Nuclear Materials
  • YW Lee · S. C. Lee · C. Y. Joung · H. S. Kim · H. L. Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The response of UO2 and (U-Ce)O2 nuclear fuel material to thermal stress was analyzed in terms of tine density and microstructural characteristics by measurement of the critical temperature difference in fracture ΔTC or thermal shock resistance R. An attempt was also made to correlate the decrease in ΔTC in UO2-5wt.-%CeO2 with the microstructural characteristics. The change in thermal shock resistance by the different material characteristics is complemented by cyclic thermal shock experiments in order to deduce additional properties such as durability of the materials.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Advanced Engineering Materials
  • J S Yun · H S Kim · M K Lee · K W Oh · C G Jang · W K Park · YH Seong · S C Lee · S K Oh
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    ABSTRACT: A single high dose of apomorphine (10 mg x kg(-1)) produced not only contextual sensitization to and conditioning of climbing behavior, but also context-independent tolerance to hypothermia. MK-801 (0.15 and 0.3 mg x kg(-1)) inhibited contextual sensitization to and conditioning of climbing behavior. Development of tolerance to hypothermia was also inhibited by MK-801. Dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 mg x kg(-1)), but not D2 antagonist, sulpiride, inhibited sensitization to and conditioning of climbing behavior. D2 antagonist, sulpiride (50 mg x kg(-1)), but not D1 antagonist, SCH23390, inhibited development of tolerance to hypothermia. These results suggest that MK-801 inhibited contextual sensitization to climbing behavior and development of tolerance to hypothermia through glutamatergic modulation of dopaminergic functions at dopamine receptors.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Pharmacological Research
  • S C Lee · O W Kwon · G J Seong · S H Kim · J E Ahn · E.-D.P. Kay
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells of the proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) membrane take on the shape of fibroblasts and participate in fibrosis, thus deviating from the character of epithelial cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate RPE cell transdifferentiation in vitro. During the culture of porcine RPE cells, primary and 10th-passaged RPE cells were investigated for cell growth in response to transforming growth factor (TGF) beta(2), change of phenotype and amount in collagen synthesis as well as expression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin (alpha-SMA). TGF-beta(2) inhibited the proliferation of the primary cultures of RPE cells in a dose-dependent manner, while the spindle-shaped 10th-passaged RPE cells were not inhibited by TGF-beta(2). The 10th-subcultured cells did not show much difference in the quality of collagen synthesis, other than type VIII collagen which was not produced. Collagen synthesis was dose-dependently stimulated by TGF-beta(2). The stimulation by TGF-beta(2) in the 10th-passaged RPE cells was much greater than in primary RPE cells. The 10th-subcultured RPE cells produced substantial alpha-SMA compared to alpha-SMA production by primary RPE cells. These results were also observed by confocal laser microscopy. These findings indicated that RPE metaplasia resulting in a change of biological cell behavior might be a necessary predisposing step in the development of PVR.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Ophthalmic Research
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    ABSTRACT: The Vickers micro-hardness (HV) was measured by an indentation technique of simulated ZrO2-based Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) material with a composition of Er0.07Y0.10Ce0.15Zr0.68O1.915 in two different densities on sintered specimens and specimens thermally shocked with the quenching temperature differences (ΔTs) between 473 and 1673 K and compared with those of simulated MOX, namely, U0.92Ce0.08O2. The HV values obtained for two IMF materials were found higher, ranging from 6.37 GPa to about 7.84 GPa, depending on ΔT and the sintered density, than those obtained for the simulated MOX which are quasi-constant in the same range of ΔT with a mean value of 6.37 GPa. The fracture toughness (KIC) was calculated from the measured HV and the crack length, and it was found to exhibit a slight increase with increasing ΔT, ranging between 1.4 and 2.0 MPa m, while that of simulated MOX specimen is ranging between 0.8 and 1.1 MPa m. The thermally shocked specimens were observed with an optical microscope and analyzed in terms of microstructural changes and cracking patterns.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Progress in Nuclear Energy
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    S C Lee · I Lee · H J Koh · S H Kim · O W Kwon
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    ABSTRACT: Suprachoroidal hemorrhage(SH) may cause the expulsion of the intraocular contents. Vitreous incarceration in the wound and retinal detachment with SH are extremely poor prognostic signs. Treatment modalities depend on the severity of eye damage. This particular patient had "kissing" hemorrhagic choroidal detachment which completely filled the vitreous cavity after cataract surgery. It seemed to be inoperable. Secondary surgery was delayed 3 days to lower IOP to normal levels. The eye underwent anterior drainage sclerotomy under constantly-maintained limbal or pars plana infusion fluid line pressure. The authors performed a pars plana vitrectomy, followed by perfluorocarbon liquid injection and a silicone oil tamponade. After this surgical approach, the patient attained an attached retina and a visual acuity of 5/200 at the 3 month follow-up.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Korean Journal of Ophthalmology
  • G J Seong · Y G Lee · J H Lee · S J Lim · S C Lee · Y J Hong · O W Kwon · H B Kim
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prophylactic effect of 0.2% brimonidine in reducing the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients undergoing Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The 81 patients (81 eyes), who underwent Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, were allocated to two treatment groups. One drop of 0.2% brimonidine or vehicle was instilled 1 hour preoperatively and one drop immediately after capsulotomy. IOPs were measured preoperatively and 1, 2, 3, and 24 hours postoperatively. Intraocular pressure decreased from the baseline in the brimonidine group by the third postoperative hour (P<0.05), while the vehicle group exhibited an increase. Intraocular pressure elevations of 5 mm Hg or greater occurred in 7.3% (3/41) in the brimonidine group compared to 20.0% (8/40) in the vehicle group. IOP elevations of 10 mm Hg or greater occurred in 2.4% (1/41) in the brimonidine group compared to 7.5% (3/40) in the vehicle group. One drop of 0.2% brimonidine instilled 1 hour preoperatively and immediately after capsulotomy was found to be efficacious and safe in preventing IOP elevations that frequently follow Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Ophthalmic surgery and lasers
  • S C Lee · G J Seong · S H Kim · O W Kwon
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells transdifferentiate in culture, a transition which is accompanied by a shift in biological activity. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has the same effects on morphologically transformed RPE cells that it has on primary RPE cells. It also evaluates the autocrine and paracrine activities of TGF-beta s synthesized by RPE cells as well as the anti-TGF-beta effect of mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P). RPE cells were subcultured at the sixth passage to induce morphological change. The effect of second passaged RPE-conditioned medium (CM) on DNA synthesis was evaluated by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in rabbit subconjunctival fibroblasts (SCFs) and primary RPE cells. The presence of TGF-beta in RPE-CM was determined using immunoblotting analysis. And the inhibitory effect of M-6-P on cell proliferation mediated by RPE-CM was also analyzed using 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3 inhibited the proliferation of the primary cultures of RPE cells in a dose-dependent manner, but the spindle-shaped sixth passaged RPE cells were not inhibited by these growth factors. The medium conditioned by RPE cells stimulated the proliferation of SCFs and inhibited the proliferation of primary RPE cells, in a manner similar to TGF-beta. When this medium was precipitated with either anti-TGF-beta 1, anti-TGF-beta 2, or anti-TGF-beta 3 antibodies, all three TGF-beta s, with an apparent molecular size of 25 kDa, were detected. Mannose-6-phosphate significantly blocked the effect of RPE-CM on cell proliferation. These findings indicate that RPE cells produce biologically functional TGF-beta s and that M-6-P can block the inhibitory effect of RPE-CM on cell proliferation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Korean Journal of Ophthalmology
  • E P Kay · S Y Park · M K Ko · S C Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) induces endothelial-mesenchymal modulation in corneal endothelial cells, including stimulation of cell proliferation and cell shape change and induction of fibrillar collagen. In the present study, we investigated whether FGF-2 uses distinct signaling pathways for individual biological activities. Specific metabolic inhibitors were used to block cell proliferation, while reversion of cellular morphology (modulated with FGF-2) was determined using specific antibodies and inhibitors. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed to identify any changes observed in the cytoskeleton in relation to cell shape. Association of cytoskeleton molecules with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was determined using co-precipitation. Cell proliferation was assayed using a colorimetric method for determining the number of viable cells. The fibroblastic morphology induced by FGF-2 reverted to a polygonal shape in cells treated with anti-FGF-2 antibody, anti-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antibody, LY294002, and genistein, while anti-phospholipase C gamma1 antibody did not to reverse the modulated cell morphology. Cell proliferation mediated by FGF-2 was blocked by metabolic inhibitors (genistein, LY294002 and wortmannin); genistein inhibited FGF-mediated cell proliferation in a dose-response manner and had a maximum inhibition of 80% at 100 microM, while inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase had less inhibitory effect than did genistein. When cytoskeleton proteins were examined, the characteristic punctated staining profiles of vinculin observed in normal cells were maintained in fibroblastic corneal endothelial cells treated with FGF-2. The inhibitors that cause reversion of cell shape also demonstrated the punctated staining potential. Likewise, the staining profiles of alpha-actinin and smooth muscle alpha-actin were not altered, regardless of cell shape. Filamentous actin and alpha-actinin were co-localized to the cytoskeleton and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was associated with the cytoskeleton, regardless of cell shape. These findings indicate that FGF-2 uses distinct and/or dual signaling pathways for individual biological activities.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Molecular vision
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    E P Kay · H K Lee · K S Park · S C Lee
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the mechanism of fibrosis after filtering surgery for glaucoma, the effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was studied in subconjunctival fibroblasts (SCFs). TGF-beta, universal inhibitor of cell proliferation, stimulates the cell proliferation of fibroblasts. SCFs were evaluated for their production of TGF-beta and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) to determine whether TGF-beta may be an indirect mitogen acting through the induction of an endogenous growth factor, or factors, that then acts as the direct mitogen in an autocrine manner. Cell proliferation was determined either by counting cell numbers or by analyzing the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. The synthesis of TGF-beta and FGF-2 was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3 stimulated the cell proliferation of SCFs in a dose-dependent manner. The media conditioned by SCFs, which were subsequently activated by acid, stimulated cell proliferation of corneal stromal fibroblasts. When the acid-activated media conditioned by SCFs were immunoprecipitated, respectively, either with anti-TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 antibodies or with anti-TGF-beta 3 antibody, TGF-beta s, with an apparent molecular size of 25 kDa, were detected, whereas SCFs produced an 80-kDa latent form of TGF-beta 1. Interestingly, SCFs produced and secreted an 18-kDa extracellular isoform of FGF-2, the synthesis of which is further stimulated by TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3, respectively, whereas the neutralizing antibody to FGF-2 and the FGF-2-specific antisense oligonucleotide primers inhibited the stimulatory activities of TGF-beta 1 in SCFs. These findings indicate that SCFs produce TGF-beta and FGF-2 and that FGF-2 seems to be the direct stimulator of TGF-beta-mediated cell proliferation in SCFs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1998 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
  • Oh W. Kwon · Shin J. Kang · Jae B. Lee · Sung C. Lee · YD Yoon · Jung H. Oh
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of tissue plasminogen activator in treating experimental suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Suprachoroidal hemorrhage was created in 30 white rabbit eyes by implanting four pieces of small, exogenously formed blood coagula into the suprachoroidal space. Animals were randomized for treatment with a surgical sponge soaked in 25, 50, or 75 microg of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or balanced salt solution (BSS) as a control. The time when initiation and completion of clot dissolution occurred was established, and histological examination was performed to assess damage. Clot dissolution started within 30 min in the 50- and 75-microg tPA group, whereas it took 2.75 days in the control group; complete dissolution of blood clots took 4.5 h in the 75-microg tPA group and 14 days in the control group. Histological examination revealed a minimal change in photoreceptors within 6 h after treatment with 75 microg tPA. Treatment of suprachoroidal hemorrhage with tPA seems to be effective, but further investigations for determining the effective and nontoxic dose are required.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Ophthalmologica

Publication Stats

189 Citations
39.46 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • Yonsei University
      • • The Institute of Vision Research
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998-2007
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001-2003
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2002
    • Chungnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea