[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1.4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA), a bifidogenic growth stimulator from Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is thought to have a beneficial effect as a prebiotic; however, its in vivo effect on intestinal inflammation remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral administration of DHNA can ameliorate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms.
Colitis was induced in mice by treatment with 2.0% DSS for seven days. DHNA (0.6 or 2.0 mg/kg) was given in drinking water prior to (preventive study) or after (therapeutic study) DSS administration. Colonic damage was histologically scored, and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) expression and beta7 positive cell infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry. mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)) were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, bacterial flora in the caecum, concentrations of short chain acids, and luminal pH were examined.
DHNA improved survival rate and histological damage score in mice administered DSS in both the preventive and therapeutic studies. DHNA significantly attenuated the enhanced expression of MAdCAM-1, the increased beta7 positive cell number, and the increased mRNA levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in DSS treated colon. In addition, the decreased number of Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae induced by DSS was recovered by DHNA. Preventive effects on decrease in butyrate concentration and decrease in pH level in mice administered DSS were also observed in the DHNA preventive study.
DHNA, a novel type of prebiotic, attenuates colonic inflammation not only by balancing intestinal bacterial flora but also by suppressing lymphocyte infiltration through reduction of MAdCAM-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) appears to be associated with the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), its precise role in the pathogenesis of NASH is not well understood.
Male mice deficient in both TNF receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 2 (TNFR2) (TNFRDKO mice) and wild-type mice were fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet or a control diet for eight weeks, maintaining isoenergetic intake.
MCD dietary feeding of TNFRDKO mice for eight weeks resulted in attenuated liver steatosis and fibrosis compared with control wild-type mice. In the liver, the number of activated hepatic Kupffer cells recruited was significantly decreased in TNFRDKO mice after MCD dietary feeding. In addition, hepatic induction of TNF-alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly suppressed in TNFRDKO mice. While in control animals MCD dietary feeding dramatically increased mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in both whole liver and hepatic stellate cells, concomitant with enhanced activation of hepatic stellate cells, both factors were significantly lower in TNFRDKO mice. In primary cultures, TNF-alpha administration enhanced TIMP-1 mRNA expression in activated hepatic stellate cells and suppressed apoptotic induction in activated hepatic stellate cells. Inhibition of TNF induced TIMP-1 upregulation by TIMP-1 specific siRNA reversed the apoptotic suppression seen in hepatic stellate cells.
Enhancement of the TNF-alpha/TNFR mediated signalling pathway via activation of Kupffer cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this NASH animal model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here a case of herpes esophagitis with Mallory-Weiss syndrome in an immunocompetent host. A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of common cold symptoms and eruptions on the body. On day 2 after hospitalization, the patient showed high-grade fever, odynophagia and hematemesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination showed multiple ulcerations throughout the mid- and distal esophagus. Bleeding from a Mallory-Weiss tear was also seen. Follow-up endoscopic examinations showed whitish exudates on day 5. Histological examination of biopsy specimens showed Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Positive staining of a specific antibody against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) was seen in the nuclei of esophageal epithelial cells. Primary HSV-1 infection was suspected because ELISA titers of serum IgM antibody against HSV-1 were high and titers of serum IgG antibody against HSV-1 increased from an almost cut-off ratio. A diagnosis of herpes esophagitis in an immunocompetent host was made. Our case is the first report of herpes esophagitis with Mallory-Weiss syndrome in the immunocompetent host. It is important to remind herpes esophagitis in cases of severe odynophagia even in immunocompetent hosts.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Diseases of the Esophagus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rat IgG2a monoclonal antibody against a stage-specific fetal glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 68 kDa (FGP68) was produced and applied to paraffin sections. This monoclonal antibody was used to compare the expression of FGP68 with that of both alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 75 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Seventy-five primary HCCs from patients aged 36 to 77 years were examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were used for immunohistochemical analyses. Histologically, 6 cases of HCC were classified as type I according to the Edmondson and Steiner criteria, 57 cases as type II, and 12 cases as type III. The cancer tissues showed positive reactions with the antibody against FGP68. Approximately one-third of the HCCs (26/75) contained tumor cells that expressed FGP68 -(21/57 for Edmondson and Steiner type II; 4/12 for type III; and 1/6 for type I) - and positive immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells. Twenty-five of the 75 HCCs had tumor cells that expressed AFP and there was a significant correlation between FGP68 expression and AFP expression. Twenty-three of the 75 HCCs had tumor cells that expressed CEA and there was no significant correlation between FGP68 expression and CEA expression. No positive reactions for FGP68, AFP and CEA were observed in samples of non-neoplastic liver tissues. Based on the possibility that stage-specific FGP68 plays an important role in liver embryogenesis, FGP68-expressing tumor cells might ontogenetically revert to more primitive cells.
Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Histology and histopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor whose gene has been identified in embryonal carcinoma cells in early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the developmental localization of truncated MK protein in human bile ducts. Thirty specimens of the livers from 25 fetuses (from 9 to 40 gestational weeks) and from five neonates less than 4 weeks old were examined. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using a mouse IgG2b monoclonal antibody against recombinant-truncated MK. Truncated MK was expressed moderately in the fetal liver from 9 to 15 gestational weeks. The immunoreactivities were found in the primitive hepatocytes, ductal plates, migrating biliary cells and immature bile ducts. The reaction products were localized in the cytoplasm heterogeneously. The intensity of immunostaining was weak from 15 gestational weeks to 26 gestational weeks. After 27 gestational weeks, truncated MK was not detected in the fetal livers. It was suggested that primitive hepatocytes, ductal plates and immature bile ducts produced truncated MK transiently during human bile ducts development.
Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Histology and histopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether specific adhesion molecules modulate lymphocyte movement from Peyer's patches into intestinal microlymphatics. The fluorochrome acridine orange was injected via a micropipette into Peyer's patches to fill lymphatics. The flux of labeled lymphocytes into intestinal microlymphatics was monitored with intravital fluorescence microscopy. The lymphatic microvessels in the perifollicular area of Peyer's patches were filled with lymphocytes, most of which remained within the lymphatics. Some lymphocytes became detached and were drained into intestinal lymph. Administration of antibodies directed against ICAM-1 significantly increased lymphocyte flux into interfollicular lymphatics. The immunohistochemical study showed intense ICAM-1 expression on the lymphocytes densely packed in the lymphatics surrounding follicles in Peyer's patches. A large number of lymphocytes are normally sequestered in the lymphatic network of Peyer's patches. This sequestration of lymphocytes is largely mediated by ICAM-1-dependent cell-cell interactions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify a significant relationship between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the developing human brain temporospatially, we demonstrate immunohistochemical expression of Cu/Zn-binding SOD1 (SOD1), Mn-containing SOD2 (SOD2), neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and nitrotyrosine in human brains from 13 weeks of gestation to 2 years after birth. The immunoreactivities of both SOD1 and SOD2 were detected in fetal neuroblasts at 13 weeks' gestation, as well as mature neurons at the age of 2 years. By contrast, nNOS neurons could be recognized only at 28 and 33 weeks of gestation in the cerebrum, and only at 15, 18, and 23 weeks of gestation in the brain stem. No significant immunoreactivity for iNOS or nitrotyrosine was detected in any type of cell in any region during any stage examined. Immunoblotting analysis using frontal tissue homogenates at 15, 28, 40 weeks of gestation and 18 months of age revealed single band corresponding to SOD1 molecular weight, observed at all stages examined; a single band compatible with the nNOS molecular mass was detected only at the 28th week of gestation. Together with the fact that nitric oxide (NO) plays a potential role in neuronal differentiation, and that large amounts of NO have cytotoxicity from the reaction of NO with superoxide anions, our data suggested that the expressions of both SOD1 and SOD2, as scavengers of superoxide anions, were maintained from an early developmental stage to prepare stage-specific nNOS expression for a potential differentiation role and to elude NO cytotoxicity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) interacts with Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) specifically and delivers copper to SOD1. To determine the role of the CCS-SOD1 interaction in the pathogenesis of SOD1-mutated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) patients, we produced an affinity-purified rabbit antibody against CCS and investigated the immunohistochemical localization of both CCS and SOD1 in neuronal Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHIs) in the spinal cords of two FALS patients with a two-base pair deletion at codon 126 in the SOD1 gene and three FALS patients with an Ala to Val substitution at codon 4. The LBHIs in anterior horn cells from the five FALS patients showed identical immunoreactivities for CCS: the reaction product deposits with the antibody against CCS were generally restricted to the periphery of the core and halo-type LBHIs. The localizations of the immunoreactivities for CCS and SOD1 were similar in the inclusions: both CCS and SOD1 colocalized in neuronal LBHIs in the five mutant SOD1-linked FALS patients. Our results suggest that the specific interaction and aggregation of CCS-SOD1 (probably CCS-mutant SOD1) in SOD1-mutated FALS patients may amplify the formation of inclusions and emphasize a more marked mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity.
No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the expression of stress-response (heat-shock) protein 60 (srp 60) in a series of 158 human brain tumours. Immunohistochemical procedures were employed; cells of the human cervical cancer line HeLa S3 exposed to hyperosmolar stress served as positive controls. Deposits of reaction products were found in the cytoplasm. Approximately half of the glioblastomas multiforme (17/31), breast carcinoma metastases (6/10), and lung carcinoma metastases (5/11) as well as about one-third of the astrocytomas (5/13) and meningiomas (8/23) had tumour cells that expressed srp 60. A positive reaction for srp 60 was also seen in some medulloblastomas (2/16), primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) (2/11), schwannomas (2/21), and pituitary adenomas (2/7), but no positive reactions were observed with oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Compared with srp 60-negative tumours, srp 60-positive tumours coexpressed one or more stress-related proteins, among which srp 90, srp 72, srp 27, alphaB-crystallin and ubiquitin occurred with higher frequencies; a high correlation between srp 60 and the other five srps (0.88 - 0.97, p<0.01, Pearson correlation coefficient) was observed in srp 60-positive tumours. In contrast, the correlation coefficient in srp 60-negative tumours was not significant (-0.26 - 0.71). There was a tendency for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling index to be higher in glioblastomas, astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, PNETs, and breast and lung carcinoma metastases that expressed srp 60 than in those that did not. No significant immunohistochemical reactions of srp 60, PCNA and p53 protein were seen with sections of normal brain tissues. We conclude that primary and metastatic tumours of the brain produce srp 60 and that srp 60 in certain brain tumour cells may coexpress the other five srps. In addition, srp 60 expression might depend, in part, on proliferating potential.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Histology and histopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human gastric mucosa contains three alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes (classes I, III, and IV). Various factors such as Helicobacter pylori infection, sex, age, and the part of the stomach involved have been suggested to affect alcohol dehydrogenase activities, although these views are controversial. In this study, these unsettled issues were reexamined.
Activities of class I and IV ADHs were evaluated in the cytosolic fraction of human gastric mucosa samples by reduction of their preferred substrates, namely acetaldehyde and m-nitrobenzaldehyde, and activities of class III were evaluated by oxidation of its preferred substrate, formaldehyde. Then, effects of Helicobacter pylori infection, sex, age, and the part of the stomach involved were examined.
Class I, III, and IV ADH activities were 17.5 +/- 8.4, 4.2 +/- 2.5, and 8.9 +/- 3.9 nmol of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation per minute per milligram of protein, respectively, for the entire population. Helicobacter pylori infection significantly reduced class I and IV ADH activities but did not affect activity of class III. In the samples without Helicobacter pylori infection and severe gastritis, sex did not affect class I, III, or IV ADH activities. In the same series, class IV ADH activity significantly decreased with age (p = 0.006), whereas no correlation was found between age and ADH activity of class I and III ADHs. The level of class IV ADH activity was significantly higher in the upper body than in the lower regions, whereas no such heterogeneity was observed in class I and III ADH.
Various factors affect human gastric ADH activities, such that careful interpretation of their significance is necessary.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the negative effect of excessive alcohol consumption on later stressful events has long been recognized, pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood. We examined possible roles of oxygen radicals and glutathione content in mesenteric venules of chronically ethanol-fed rats exposed to ischemia-reperfusion. Changes in microvascular hemodynamics, such as red blood cell (RBC) velocity, leukocyte adherence, and albumin extravasation, were monitored in postcapillary venules by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly exaggerated the magnitude of the decrease in RBC velocity, the increased number of adherent leukocytes, and increased albumin leakage elicited by 10 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Oxidative stress in the endothelium of venules monitored by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) fluorescence was more severe in rats fed ethanol chronically. Both superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which is known to increase glutathione content, reduced the ischemia-reperfusion-induced decrease in RBC velocity, the number of adherent leukocytes, and the increase in albumin leakage, as well as oxidative activation of DHR. This suggests that the increased reperfusion-induced microvascular disturbances in the mesenteric venules of rats fed ethanol chronically are significantly correlated with excessive production of oxygen-derived free radicals and decreased glutathione synthesis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of 12 months of 300-mg oral sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SH) once daily on the symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon, respiratory failure and cardiac function in seven patients with systemic sclerosis. Arterial blood gases, pulmonary function, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and the plasma concentrations of fibrinopeptide A, beta-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4 and thrombomodulin were evaluated before and 2 and 12 months after SH administration. After 2 and 12 months of SH administration, a significant decrease was found in the frequency and duration of Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as the coldness, numbness and pain of Raynaud's phenomenon. Respiratory failure, as estimated by Hugh-Jones classification, was significantly decreased, whereas the percentage carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was significantly increased. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly, as did plasma fibrinopeptide A, beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. There was no significant change in LVEF after 2 or 12 months, but after 12 months of SH administration, RVEF increased significantly. In conclusion, use of SH may prevent Raynaud's phenomenon, respiratory failure and right ventricular failure in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2000 · The Journal of international medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is an adhesion molecule that mediates recruitment of lymphocytes into the gut mucosa. Attenuation of excessive expression of MAdCAM-1 in the inflamed mucosa could be useful for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody has a prophylactic effect on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was induced by orally feeding BALB/c mice 5% DSS (mol. wt. 5000). Mice were sacrificed at intervals up to 21 days after administration to evaluate the changes over time in intestinal damage. The infiltrating lymphocytes and their subpopulations, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules were determined by immunohistochemistry. In another set of experiments, the attenuating effect of i.p.-injected anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody on colonic lesions was evaluated on day 14. Significant histological damage with shortening of crypts was observed on day 14 in colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice. Before mucosal inflammation had become significant, expression of MAdCAM-1 was already increased in the microvessels of lamina propria on day 7. Significant infiltration of beta7-integrin-positive T and B cells in the mucosa was then noted on day 14. Administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody significantly reduced colonic injury as well as the infiltration of beta7-integrin-positive lymphocytes in the colonic mucosa. This antibody also was effective when given 7 days after the start of DSS treatment. In the present study, we demonstrated that anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody significantly ameliorates DSS-induced colitis, suggesting that MAdCAM-1 may be useful for control of inflammatory bowel diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we analyzed the immunohistochemical localization of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (OHdG) as a nucleic acid oxidation product, acrolein-protein adduct and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-protein adduct as lipid peroxidation products, N
ɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) as a lipid peroxidation or protein glycoxidation product, pentosidine as a protein glycoxidation product, and imidazolone and pyrraline as nonoxidative protein glycation products in the spinal cord of three familial ALS patients with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) A4V mutation, six sporadic ALS patients, and six age-matched control individuals. The spinal cord sections of the control cases did not show any distinct immunoreactivities for these examined products. In the familial ALS cases, intense immunoreactivities for pyrraline and CML were confined to the characteristic Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions, and imidazolone immunoreactivity was located in the cytoplasm of the residual motor neurons. No significant immunoreactivities for other examined products were detected in the familial ALS spinal cords. In the sporadic ALS cases, intense immunoreactivities for pentosidine, CML and HNE-protein adduct were seen in the cytoplasm of the degenerated motor neurons, and OHdG immunoreactivity was located in the cell nuclei of the residual neurons and glial cells. The present results indicate that oxidative reactions are involved in the disease processes of sporadic ALS, while there is no evidence for increased oxidative damage except for CML deposition in the familial ALS spinal cords. Furthermore, it is likely that the accumulation of pyrraline and imidazolone supports a nonoxidative mechanism in SOD1-related motor neuron degeneration.
No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the biological significance of the neuronal Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions and astrocytic hyaline inclusions characteristically found in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene mutations and in transgenic mice expressing human SOD1 with G85R mutation, the detailed protein composition in both types of inclusions was immunohistochemically analyzed using 45 different antibodies. Both types of inclusions had very strong immunoreactivity for SOD1. The SOD1-positive inclusions in both cell types were also immunoreactive for the insoluble advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) such as N
ɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), pyrraline and pentosidine: both inclusions in both conditions were ultrastructurally composed of the granule-coated fibrils that had immunoreactivities to CML and pyrraline. Both types of inclusions were negative for stress-response proteins (SRPs), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein, nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and nitrotyrosine as representative markers of oxidative stress. The neurons and astrocytes of the normal individuals and non-transgenic mice showed no significant immunoreactivity for SOD1, AGEs, SRPs, HNE, acrolein, NOSs or nitrotyrosine. Our results suggest that a portion of the SOD1 composing both type of inclusions, probably toxic mutant SOD1, is modified by the AGEs, and that the formation of the AGE-modified SOD1 is one of the mechanisms responsible for the aggregation involving no significant oxidative mechanisms.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Midkine (MK) is a novel heparin-binding growth factor whose gene was identified in embryonal carcinoma cells in early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation.
To examine the overexpression of MK in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Seventy-seven primary HCC specimens from patients aged 17 to 72 years (63 men and 14 women) were examined. Histologically, 16 cases of HCC were classified as the well-differentiated type, 50 cases as the moderately differentiated type, and 11 cases as the poorly differentiated type. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using a rat immunoglobulin G2a monoclonal antibody against the carboxyl terminal region of human MK. In situ hybridization was also performed on 20 HCC samples.
We successfully applied this monoclonal antibody against MK to analyze archival paraffin sections. The cancer tissues showed a positive reaction to this antibody, in which there was an intense reaction in their cytoplasm. Approximately one third of the individuals with HCC (26/77) had tumor cells that expressed MK, and these were classified into the following types: moderately differentiated (20/50), well differentiated (3/16), and poorly differentiated (3/11). The in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the signals of MK transcripts were found in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells; the distribution and localization of the MK transcripts' signals determined by in situ hybridization analysis were similar to those obtained by immunohistochemical analysis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma expressed increased MK at the messenger RNA and protein level.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different authors have postulated both toxic and protective effects for nitric oxide (NO) in the pathophysiology of active inflammation.
To examine the role of NO, especially that produced by the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), by investigating the effects of NOS inhibitors and NO donors on inflammation in experimental acute colitis.
Acute colitis was induced in rats by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). White blood cell counts and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactants in the portal blood were determined, as were histological changes in the colonic mucosa. We then evaluated the effects of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), aminoguanidine (AG) and an NO donor on DSS-induced changes in these inflammatory parameters.
Inhibition of NO production by either L-NAME or AG worsened DSS-induced inflammation, suggesting a protective role for NO in acute colitis. On the other hand, a NO donor also exaggerated DSS-induced inflammatory parameters, suggesting that acute colitis may be aggravated by either too much or too little NO. These results suggest that medical treatment of ulcerative colitis must aim for maintenance of appropriate NO levels in the intestinal mucosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glial cytoplasmic inclusion (GCI) is a histological hallmark for multiple system atrophy (MSA): these inclusions are
found in oligodendrocytes and consist of abnormal granule-coated fibrils of approximately 24- to 40-nm diameter. To clarify
the significance of the presence of midkine (MK) in these GCIs, we carried out immunohistochemical, electron and immunoelectron
microscopical, and Western blot analyses of MSA brains using a monoclonal antibody against the C-terminal region of human
MK. Immunohistochemically, most of the GCIs were intensely stained by the antibody to MK. Electron and immunoelectron microscopy
showed that the GCIs were composed of MK-positive granule-coated fibrils that were essential constituents of these inclusions.
No significant MK immunoreactivity was observed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons of the normal control subjects.
The presence of MK in MSA brain but not in normal brain was confirmed by Western blotting. Together with the fact that MK
is associated with fetal morphogenesis during the midgestation period, the presence of MK immunoreactivity in oligodendroglial
GCIs may suggest the existence of a repair mechanism on the basis of morphogenesis in the degenerated oligodendrocytes themselves
as well as the affected neurons and their axons through the oligodendrocyte-axon-neuron relationship.
No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily involves the motor neuron system. Of all patients with ALS, approximately 5%-10% of them are familial and most of the others are sporadic. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mutations are shown to be associated with about 20% of familial ALS (FALS) patients. FALS is neuropathologically classified into two subtypes: classical FALS in which degeneration is restricted to only motor neurons and FALS which is characterized by the degeneration of the posterior column in addition to the lesion of the motor neuron system. The neuronal Lewy body-like hyaline inclusion (LBHI) is a characteristic neuropathological marker of mutant SOD1-linked FALS with posterior column involvement. Inclusions similar to the neuronal LBHIs have been discovered in astrocytes in certain patients with FALS exhibiting SOD1 gene mutations. The purpose of this review is to discuss the novel neuropathological significance of the astrocytic hyaline inclusions (Ast-HIs) and neuronal LBHIs in brain tissues from individuals with the posterior-column-involvement-type FALS with SOD1 gene mutations. In hematoxylin and eosin preparations, both Ast-HIs and neuronal LBHIs are eosinophilic inclusions and sometimes show eosinophilic cores with paler peripheral halos. Immunohistochemically, both inclusions are intensely positive for SOD1. At the ultrastructural level, both inclusions consist of approximately 15-25 nm-sized granule-coated fibrils and granular materials. Immunoelectron microscopically, these abnormal granule-coated fibrils and granular materials are positive for SOD1. Therefore, the FALS disease process originating from SOD1 gene mutations occurs in astrocytes as well as neurons and is involved in the formation of both inclusions.
No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Histology and histopathology