[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown rice of sugary-1 mutants has a wrinkled character because of the presence of phytoglycogen instead of starch in the inner part of the endosperm. Because the wrinkled phenotype was used as a sole selection marker for progeny of the sugary-1 strain, identification of mutant seeds with improved appearance is very difficult. We found that sugary-1 varieties contained not only phytoglycogen but also free glucose in the endosperm, and these were positively correlated. In the segregated F2 seeds that resulted from crossing Hokurikutou237 (sugary-1) and Koshihikari strains, glucose and phytoglycogen were also significantly correlated. Thus, we identified new sugary types with improved appearance from these progeny using glucose measurements. The F4 seeds of the improved strain had moderate phytoglycogen contents and seed germination characteristics. Native-PAGE showed that pullulanase activity in the improved strain increased in developing seeds compared with Hokurikutou237, although isoamylase activity was extremely low and similar to that in sugary-1 types. The new selection method in this study efficiently aids the development of improved sugary rice types that lack the wrinkled phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The higher plant ADP-glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), composed of two small subunits and two large subunits (LSs), produces ADPG, the sole substrate for starch biosynthesis from α-D-glucose 1-phosphate and ATP. This enzyme controls a key step in starch synthesis as its catalytic activity is activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) and inhibited by orthophosphate (Pi). Previously, two mutations in the LS of potato AGPase (PLS), PLS-E38K and PLS-G101N, were found to increase sensitivity to 3-PGA activation and tolerance to Pi inhibition. In the present study, the double mutated enzyme (PLS-E38K/G101N) was evaluated. In a complementation assay of ADPG synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant defective in the synthesis of ADPG, expression of PLS-E38K/G101N mediated higher glycogen production than wild-type potato AGPase (PLS-WT) and the single mutant enzymes, PLS-E38K and PLS-G101N, individually. Purified PLS-E38K/G101N showed higher sensitivity to 3-PGA activation and tolerance to Pi inhibition than PLS-E38K or PLS-G101N. Moreover, the enzyme activities of PLS-E38K, PLS-G101N, and PLS-E38K/G101N were more readily stimulated by other major phosphate-ester metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and ribose 5-phosphate, than was that of PLS-WT. Hence, although the specific enzyme activities of the LS mutants toward 3-PGA were impaired to some extent by the mutations, our results suggest that their enhanced allosteric regulatory properties and the broadened effector selectivity gained by the same mutations not only offset the lowered enzyme catalytic turnover rates but also increase the net performance of potato AGPase in vivo in view of increased glycogen production in bacterial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From a nutritional perspective, rice flour is one of the most valuable flours and it is suitable for preparing food for people suffering from wheat allergy. However, bread made from rice flour is very difficult to bake because it lacks gluten. We found that pre-fermenting of rice flour using Aspergillus oryzae facilitated a better formulation of gluten-free rice bread. Bread swelling was remarkably improved with a longer pre-fermenting period at 55 °C. The specific loaf volume (SLV) without polymeric thickeners after a 12 h fermentation was approximately 2.2-fold (2.98 ml/g) higher than that after 0 h (1.36 ml/g). An enzymatic assay of the batter indicated that protease activity during the pre-fermentation period increased from 0.38 to 1.44 U/ml and this activity correlated with bread swelling. Furthermore, a commercial protease from A. oryzae also produced similar results with an adequate SLV of 3.03 ml/g. Rheological analysis showed that batter treated with protease had an increased batter viscosity and decreased flour settling behavior because of the aggregation of flour particle after partial cleavage of storage proteins. These results indicated that the improved SLV was mainly because of an A. oryzae protease, which affected the batter rheology thereby improving gas retention before baking.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Cereal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major esterase (designated OsEST1) showing high activity using 1-naphthyl acetate as a substrate was identified from rice bran and purified approximately 239-fold to near-homogeniety. The purified enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide band on native and SDS-polyacrylamide gels and had a molecular mass of 25 kDa under denaturing conditions. Analysis of its tryptic peptides by MALDI-TOF-MS and subsequent data mining identified a corresponding cDNA OsEST1 consisting of 714 nucleotides and encoding a 238 amino acid protein. Analysis of its primary sequence indicated that OsEST1 is a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein subfamily in containing the putative catalytic triad of Ser11, Asp187, and His190. OsEST1 showed the highest catalytic activity at approximately pH 8.0–8.5 and at 45 °C with Km and Vmax values for 1-naphthyl acetate of 172 μM and 63.7 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, OsEST1 showed no activity with triacylglycerol. Alignment of the primary sequence of OsEST1 and other rice GDSL-motif esterases/lipases showed that OsEST1 aligns with a specific family of plant SGNH esterases involved in response to dehydration and cuticle formation. These results suggest that OsEST1 is not a lipase but an esterase activity which has some other function in rice, especially during seed development.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Cereal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found that brown rice flour produced using a jet mill after soaking for more than 12 h yielded a better formulation of rice/gluten bread, giving an equivalent specific loaf volume (SLV) as bread made with white rice flour. Quality analysis of the brown rice flour showed that soaking for more than 12 h resulted in a lower damaged starch content. There was a significant inverse correlation between damaged starch content and SLV. Substitution of 10% white rice flour with rice bran had little effect on final SLV. Furthermore, endogenous α-amylase activity in brown rice flour produced after soaking was approximately 5 to 12 times higher than that of white rice flour, but there was no correlation with SLV. These results indicate that the improved SLV in brown rice/gluten bread was predominantly due to the decrease in damaged starch content, which depends on soaking time.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Food Science and Technology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently we reported that rice salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase (OsSGT) is active toward 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (tuberonic acid, TA) and that OsSGT gene expression is induced by wounding stress. Here we report that tobacco SA glucosyltransferase (NtSGT), which is thought to be an ortholog of OsSGT, is also active toward TA. Although NtSGT expression is known to be induced by biotrophic stress, it was also induced by wounding stress in the same manner as OsSGT. These results indicate that this glucosyltransferase is important not only in biotrophic stress but also for wounding stress. It was found that this enzyme is dually functional, with activity both toward TA and SA.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from a nucleoside triphosphate to a nucleoside diphosphate. In this study, we examined the subcellular localization, tissue-specific gene expression, and enzymatic characteristics of three rice NDPK isozymes (OsNDPK1-OsNDPK3). Sequence comparison of the three OsNDPKs suggested differential subcellular localization. Transient expression of green fluorescence protein-fused proteins in onion cells indicated that OsNDPK2 and OsNDPK3 are localized to plastid and mitochondria respectively, while OsNDPK1 is localized to the cytosol. Expression analysis indicated that all the OsNDPKs are expressed in the leaf, leaf sheath, and immature seeds, except for OsNDPK1, in the leaf sheath. Recombinant OsNDPK2 and OsNDPK3 showed lower optimum pH and higher stability under acidic pH than OsNDPK1. In ATP formation, all the OsNDPKs displayed lower K(m) values for the second substrate, ADP, than for the first substrate, NTP, and showed lowest and highest K(m) values for GTP and CTP respectively.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consecutive genes BF0771-BF0774 in the genome of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 were found to constitute an operon. The functional analysis of BF0772 showed that the gene encoded a novel enzyme, mannosylglucose phosphorylase that catalyzes the reaction, 4-O-β-d-mannopyranosyl-d-glucose+Pi→mannose-1-phosphate+glucose. Here we propose a new mannan catabolic pathway in the anaerobe, which involves 1,4-β-mannanase (BF0771), a mannobiose and/or sugar transporter (BF0773), mannobiose 2-epimerase (BF0774), and mannosylglucose phosphorylase (BF0772), finally progressing to glycolysis. This pathway is distributed in microbes such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Flavobacterium, and Cellvibrio.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice tuberonic acid glucoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase (OsTAGG) produces physiologically active tuberonic acid (TA) from its glucoside (TAG). We have previously reported the identification and some properties of OsTAGG1. Here, we describe the isolation and enzymatic properties of another OsTAGG isozyme (OsTAGG2). OsTAGG2 was purified from rice by seven purification procedures with a 2,800-fold purification. Like OsTAGG1, the purified OsTAGG2 migrated as two bands with molecular masses of 40 and 26 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Results from N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting of both polypeptides suggested that both bands were derived from a single polypeptide. The Km and Vmax values of OsTAGG2 toward TAG were 146 μM and 38.0 μmol/min/mg, and were 4.6-fold and 2.6-fold higher than those of OsTAGG1, respectively. OsTAGG2 as well as OsTAGG1 preferentially hydrolyzed TAG among several natural glucosides used in this study. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR analysis revealed that OsTAGG1 and OsTAGG2 are differentially expressed in response to wounding; the expression of OsTAGG1 is down-regulated, whereas that of OsTAGG2 is up-regulated by wound treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A practical purification method for a non-digestible disaccharide, epilactose (4-O-beta-galactosyl-D-mannose), was established. Epilactose was synthesized from lactose with cellobiose 2-epimerase and purified by the following procedure: (i) removal of lactose by crystallization, (ii) hydrolysis of lactose by beta-galactosidase, (iii) digestion of monosaccharides by yeast, and (iv) column chromatography with Na-form cation exchange resin. Epilactose of 91.1% purity was recovered at 42.5% yield.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberonic acid (TA) and its glucoside (TAG) have been isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaflets and shown to exhibit tuber-inducing properties. These compounds were reported to be biosynthesized from jasmonic acid (JA) by hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation, and to be contained in various plant species. Here we describe the in vivo hydrolytic activity of TAG in rice. In this study, the TA resulting from TAG was not converted into JA. Tuberonic acid glucoside (TAG)-hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase, designated OsTAGG1, was purified from rice by six purification steps with an approximately 4300-fold purification. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on native PAGE, but as two bands with molecular masses of 42 and 26 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Results from N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting of both polypeptides suggested that both bands were derived from a single polypeptide, which is a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. In the native enzyme, the K(m) and V(max) values of TAG were 31.7 microM and 0.25 microkatal/mg protein, OsTAGG1 preferentially hydrolyzed TAG and methyl TAG. Here we report that OsTAGG1 is a specific beta-glucosidase hydrolyzing TAG, which releases the physiologically active TA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that epilactose, a nondigestible disaccharide, increased calcium (Ca) absorption in the small intestines of rats. Here, we explored the mechanism(s) underlying the epilactose-mediated promotion of Ca absorption in a ligated intestinal segment of anesthetized rats. The addition of epilactose to the luminal solution increased Ca absorption and chromium (Cr)-EDTA permeability, a paracellular indicator, with a strong correlation (R = 0.93) between these changes. Epilactose induced the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains (MLCs), which is known to activate the paracellular route, without any change in the association of tight junction proteins with the actin cytoskeleton. The epilactose-mediated promotion of the Ca absorption was suppressed by specific inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). These results indicate that epilactose increases paracellular Ca absorption in the small intestine of rats through the induction of MLC phosphorylation via MLCK- and ROCK-dependent mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prebiotics are nondigestible food components that affect the host by stimulating thegrowth and/or activity of health-promoting bacteria in the colon and thus contribute tohost health and well-being. Epilactose is the C2-epimer of lactose that is found in heatandalkali-treated milk. We found that a cellobiose 2-epimerase of Ruminococcus albusisolated from cow rumen efficiently converts lactose in milk and whey to epilactose. Theenzymatic synthesis of epilactose has the advantage over chemical synthetic protocolsreported to date of producing byproducts. A dietary intervention study showed thatepilactose has potential for use as a prebiotic or prebiotic foodstuff. In the colon of ratsfed epilactose, 1) growth of health-promoting lactobacilli and bifidobacteria wasenhanced, 2) rates of mineral absorption were increased, 3) levels of plasma totalcholesterol and non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterols were lowered, and 4)conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids was suppressed. Therefore, theconversion of lactose to epilactose may increase the nutritional value of milk and whey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RNAs for the storage proteins of rice (Oryza sativa), prolamines and glutelins, which are stored as inclusions in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and storage vacuoles, respectively, are targeted by specific cis-localization elements to distinct subdomains of the cortical ER. Glutelin RNA has one or more cis-localization elements (zip codes) at the 3' end of the RNA, whereas prolamine has two cis-elements; one located in the 5' end of the coding sequence and a second residing in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). We had earlier demonstrated that the RNAs for the maize zeins ('prolamine' class) are localized to the spherical protein body ER (PB-ER) in developing maize endosperm. As the PB-ER localization of the 10-kDa delta-zein RNA is maintained in developing rice seeds, we determined the number and proximate location of their cis-localization elements by expressing GFP fusions containing various zein RNA sequences in transgenic rice and analyzing their spatial distribution on the cortical ER by in situ RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. Four putative cis-localization elements were identified; three in the coding sequences and one in the 3'-UTR. Two of these zip codes are required for restricted localization to the PB-ER. Using RNA targeting determinants we show, by mis-targeting the storage protein RNAs from their normal destination on the cortical ER, that the coded proteins are redirected from their normal site of deposition. Targeting of RNA to distinct cortical ER subdomains may be the underlying basis for the variable use of the ER lumen or storage vacuole as the final storage deposition site of storage proteins among flowering plant species.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Plant Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus (RaCE) catalyzes the epimerization of cellobiose and lactose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose and 4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-mannose (epilactose). Based on the sequence alignment with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases of known structure and on a homology-modeled structure of RaCE, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of possible catalytic residues in the enzyme, and the mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We found that R52, H243, E246, W249, W304, E308, and H374 were absolutely required for the activity of RaCE. F114 and W303 also contributed to catalysis. These residues protruded into the active-site cleft in the model (alpha/alpha)(6) core barrel structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation plays a key regulatory role in a variety of cellular processes. To better understand the function of protein phosphorylation in seed maturation, a PCR-based cloning method was employed and five cDNA clones (pvcipk1-5) for protein kinases were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from immature seeds of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The deduced amino acid sequences showed that the five protein kinases (PvCIPK1-5) are members of the sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase type 3 (SnRK3) family, which interacts with calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs). Two cDNA clones (pvcbl1 and 2) for CBLs were further isolated from the cDNA library. The predicted primary sequences of the proteins (PvCBL1 and 2) displayed significant identity (more than 90%) with those of other plant CBLs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the isolated genes, except pvcbl1, are expressed in leaves and early maturing seeds, whereas pvcbl1 is constitutively expressed during seed development. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that among the five PvCIPKs, only PvCIPK1 interacts with both PvCBL1 and PvCBL2. These results suggest that calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation-signaling via CBL-CIPK complexes occurs during seed development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberonic acid (12-hydroxy epi-jasmonic acid, TA) and its glucoside (TAG) were isolated from potato leaflets (Solanumtuberosum L.) and shown to have tuber-inducing properties. The metabolism of jasmonic acid (JA) to TAG in plant leaflets, and translocation of the resulting TAG to the distal parts, was demonstrated in a previous study. It is thought that TAG generated from JA transmits a signal from the damaged parts to the undamaged parts by this mechanism. In this report, the metabolism of TA in higher plants was demonstrated using [12-(3)H]TA, and a glucosyltransferase active toward TA was purified from the rice cell cultures. The purified protein was shown to be a putative salicylic acid (SA) glucosyltransferase (OsSGT) by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Recombinant OsSGT obtained by overexpression in Escherichia coli was active not only toward TA but also toward SA. The OsSGT characterized in this research was not specific, but this is the first report of a glucosyltransferase active toward TA. mRNA expressional analysis of OsSGT and quantification of TA, TAG, SA and SAG after mechanical wounding indicated that OsSGT is involved in the wounding response. These results demonstrated a crucial role for TAG not only in potato tuber formation, but also in the stress response in plants and that the SA glucosyltransferase can work for TA glucosylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE, EC 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose. In this study, we found a CE gene in the genome sequence of non-cellulolytic Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. The recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli cells, catalyzed a hydroxyl stereoisomerism at the C-2 positions of the reducing terminal glucose and at the mannose moiety of cello-oligosaccharides, lactose, β-mannobiose (4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannose), and globotriose [O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucose]. The CE from B. fragilis showed less than 40% identity to reported functional CEs. It exhibited 44–63% identities to N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase-like hypothetical proteins of unknown function in bacterial genome sequences of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia. On the other hand, it showed less than 26% identity to functional N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases. Based on the amino acid homology and phylogenetic positions of the functional epimerases, we emphasize that many genes for putative N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases and related hypothetical proteins of unknown function reported to date in the bacterial genomes should be annotated as CE-like proteins or putative CEs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE, EC 184.108.40.206) catalyzes the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose. In this study, we found a CE gene in the genome sequence of non-cellulolytic Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. The recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli cells, catalyzed a hydroxyl stereoisomerism at the C-2 positions of the reducing terminal glucose and at the mannose moiety of cello-oligosaccharides, lactose, beta-mannobiose (4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannose), and globotriose [O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucose]. The CE from B. fragilis showed less than 40% identity to reported functional CEs. It exhibited 44-63% identities to N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase-like hypothetical proteins of unknown function in bacterial genome sequences of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia. On the other hand, it showed less than 26% identity to functional N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases. Based on the amino acid homology and phylogenetic positions of the functional epimerases, we emphasize that many genes for putative N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases and related hypothetical proteins of unknown function reported to date in the bacterial genomes should be annotated as CE-like proteins or putative CEs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry