[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface possess highly differentiated functions and structures compared with the cells cultured under immersion. We examined the oxidative metabolism and glycolysis in cow tracheal epithelial cells on Days 3, 6, 10, and 13, cultured under three different conditions: (1) immersion culture on porous filters with apical and basolateral feeding (IM), (2) air-exposed culture on porous filters with basolateral feeding, i.e., air-liquid interface culture (AI), and (3) conventional immersion culture in plastic dishes with apical feeding (DI). Lactate production was less in AI than in IM and DI on Day 3 through Day 13, whereas cellular adenosine triphosphate content and basal O2 consumption were greater. Ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive O2 consumption, and the uncoupled O2 consumption were also greater in AI. Cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase activities on Day 10 were lower in AI, whereas alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activities were higher. The increased oxidative metabolism in AI was more pronounced at the late phase of culture (Days 10 and 13). In contrast, glycolysis remained elevated during the experiment in IM and DI. These data suggest that (I) AI begins to promote oxidative metabolism from growth phase by the provision of adequate oxygenation, and then further shifts to oxidative metabolism with differentiation; and (2) apical feeding may be responsible for the disturbance of the development of the oxidative metabolism.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-kinin (Ile-Ser-bradykinin), the product of T-kininogen, has been found in rat plasma during systemic inflammation, but the effect of this kinin on airway inflammatory response is unknown. We examined the effect of T-kinin on vascular permeability in airways of anesthetized rats in vivo by using photometric measurement of the extravasated Evans blue. Intravenous injection of T-kinin (0.1-10 mumol/kg) increased dye extravasation in a dose-dependent manner, with 134% for trachea and 117% for bronchi by 1 mumol/kg. Pretreatment with bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist Hoe-140 (100 nmol/kg), but not the B1-receptor antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-bradykinin (5 mg/kg), abolished plasma extravasation evoked by T-kinin (1 mumol/kg). NK1 tachykinin-receptor antagonist CP-99994 (4 mg/kg) did not affect T-kinin-induced vascular leakage. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg/kg), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, potentiated T-kinin (100 nmol/kg)-induced plasma extravasation, whereas phosphoramidon (2.5 mg/kg), a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, had no effect. We conclude that T-kinin produces airway vascular extravasation via stimulation of B2 receptors. The effect is modulated by endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme and is not mediated via activation of sensory nerve.
No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small airway obstruction in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was studied in 54 cases of interstitial pneumonia accompanied by restrictive, but not obstructive impairment (%VC less than 80%, FEV1/FVC% greater than 70%). Correlation analysis of %VC showed that small airway obstruction seemed to play a role in the decrease in VC in these cases. Cases were then divided into two groups. In group A, restrictive impairment was caused by the decrease in TLC (%TLC less than 80% & %RV less than 120%) and in group B, it was caused by increase in RV (%TLC greater than 80% & %RV greater than 120). Cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) were preferentially categorized into group A. Statistical comparison of the lung function measurements revealed that lung parenchyma was altered less severely whereas small airway obstruction was more advanced in group B than group A. Group B was divided into two subgroups, the subgroups of IIP cases and of the other disease cases, and the latter had a larger lung volume and more severely impaired small airway function. Furthermore, IIP cases from group A had less severely altered lung parenchyma than IIP cases from group B. Smoking habits did not seem to be related to these results. The results indicate that in most cases of interstitial pneumonia other than IIP, the lung function was characterized by small airway obstruction rather than decreased lung volume, and some cases of IIP also showed a similar trend. In addition, a long-term study of lung function was made in some cases of interstitial pneumonia and it was shown that small airway obstruction could change in severity after a time interval.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured lipid peroxide (LPO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD, 45 cases) including sarcoidosis (22 cases) and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (7 cases). LPO correlated negatively with the macrophage fraction, and positively with lymphocyte fraction, type III procollagen N terminal peptide (PIIIP), and total protein in all cases. In sarcoidosis, it correlated with PIIIP positively, and in IIP, with total cell count, macrophage count, PIIIP/protein and total protein. Comparison between the current smoker group (SM) and non-smoker group (NON/EX) showed that in all cases, SM had lower LPO, lymphocyte fraction, lymphocyte count and total protein whereas higher macrophage fraction than NON/EX. In sarcoidosis, SM had a lower lymphocyte fraction and total protein and higher macrophage fraction. We conclude that LPO in BALF reflects inflammation and fibrosis occurring in the lung with ILD and this process might be suppressed in smokers.
No preview · Article · May 1989 · Nihon Kyōbu Shikkan Gakkai zasshi