Roberto Piscopo

Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedale Maggiore di Crema, Crema, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (46)188.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Not all exposed vessels carry the same risk of recurrent bleeding, and sometimes endoscopic therapy may not be warranted in the setting of profound acid inhibition therapy. To investigate the role of magnification endoscopy (ME) in improving the characterization of exposed vessels in ulcer hemorrhage. Prospective study. Single-center teaching hospital. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of ME in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. A total of 43 patients were studied. Exposed vessels were initially categorized as high risk (protuberant, translucent, or pale) in 25 and low risk (nonprotruding through the ulcer floor, pigmented, or dark red) in 18 cases. ME was subsequently performed, and the operator was asked to reclassify the vessel into 1 of these 2 categories. A magnified view provided a clear image of the vessel and allowed visualization of the artery, the site of rupture, and the presence of a clot plugging the hole. In 6 cases previously categorized as low risk, ME clearly showed the 2 ends of the vessel, the longitudinal tear in the vessel wall, and a protuberant aspect that was not seen with standard view. The lesion was then reclassified as high risk (diagnostic gain 33%). The mean procedure time for ME inspection was 7 +/- 4 minutes. No complications occurred. Absence of controls. In patients with peptic ulcer bleeding and exposed vessels, ME allows clear visualization of the vessel wall and provides detailed clues to further characterize the lesion.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the ability of magnification endoscopy to detect residual adenomatous tissue after endoscopic piecemeal resection of colorectal polyps and evaluates the impact of the technique on the incidence of recurrence. Patients who underwent endoscopic piecemeal resection for large (>2 cm) sessile colorectal polyps were included. After endoscopic piecemeal resection, both the outer resection margins and the central severed area were inspected with magnification endoscopy. Completeness of excision as determined from the magnified surface pattern was compared with that determined histologically. Areas of incomplete resection were treated with additional resection or argon plasma coagulation. A total of 77 lesions were resected. Mean size of the resected lesions was 29 +/- 6 mm (range, 23-60). Complications of resection occurred in eight patients (seven had immediate bleeding that was successfully managed with hemoclip application, and one had delayed perforation that was treated surgically). The sensitivity of magnification endoscopy for predicting remnant adenoma at resection margins was 98% (95% confidence interval 90-100); specificity was 90% (95% confidence interval 79-100). Overall accuracy was 94.5% (95% confidence interval 87.2-98.6). On a mean follow-up of 32 months (range, 18-46) the recurrence rate was 2.6%. Magnification endoscopy is accurate at predicting remnant tissue after endoscopic piecemeal resection of large sessile colorectal polypoid lesions. When applied on both outer margins and inner portions of the severed area, it is helpful as a guide to subsequent further treatment to decrease recurrence.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic resection of colorectal nonpolypoid lesions requires adequate submucosal lifting of the lesion. To evaluate a self-assembled hydro-jet system for tissue elevation to improve endoscopic resection of colorectal nonpolypoid lesions. Prospective study. Single-center teaching hospital. Efficacy and safety of the hydro-jet system and rate of complete resection. The system was clinically applied in 31 patients to remove a total of 34 lesions throughout the colon. An adequate submucosal fluid cushion was achieved in all but 1 case without any lifting-associated complications. Complete endoscopic resection was possible in all 33 lifted lesions by using a snare. The size of the resected lesions ranged from 7 to 60 mm. Major intraprocedure bleeding occurred in only 1 case. No perforation or late bleeding was recorded. Histological examination showed a selective accumulation of fluid in the submucosa with edema and dissociation of submucosal structures, with no damage to the muscularis mucosa and very limited "burn effect" hampering assessment of radial margins. Lack of controls. This inexpensive system allows safe and rapid submucosal lifting of colorectal nonpolypoid lesions to assist endoscopic resection.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Submucosal lifting of lesions prior to endoscopic resection is crucial to reduce complications and improve the technical feasibility of the procedure. To compare a self-assembled hydro-jet system vs. standard needle injection for tissue elevation prior to endoscopic resection of colorectal lesions. Randomised study performed at a single tertiary care institution. Consecutive patients with colonoscopic diagnosis of sessile polyps or non-polypoid lesions >5 mm or laterally spreading tumours. Outcome measures: successful elevation, time to proper elevation, completeness of excision, cautery damage, and general histological diagnostic quality (blinded pathologic assessment). 79 patients were randomised to hydro-jet (40 patients, group A) and needle (39 patients, group B) elevation. Successful elevation was achieved in 97.5% and 94.8%, respectively. Time to proper elevation was 8+/-5 s vs. 18+/-3 s (p<0.05). In group A, histology showed selective accumulation of fluid in the submucosa with intact collagen fibres. Damage to muscularis mucosa was never noted in the specimens of group A and in 7 cases of group B (p<0.01). Artefacts from "cautery effect" were very limited. Radial margins of resection could be adequately evaluated in all cases and were negative. The hydro-jet system is as effective and safe as standard needle injection for tissue elevation prior to endoscopic resection of colorectal lesions, but it is significantly faster.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylate glue injection is seldom performed in patients with bleeding oesophageal varices. To assess efficacy and safety of acrylate glue injection in patients with bleeding oesophageal varices, as well as the impact of this technique on subsequent variceal ligation. Prospective study on 133 consecutive cirrhotic patients treated by intravariceal injection of undiluted N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate into the bleeding varix. Outcome measures were initial haemostasis, recurrent bleeding, complications and mortality at 6 weeks. 52 patients were actively bleeding at endoscopy and 81 showed stigmata of recent haemorrhage. Initial haemostasis was achieved in 49/52 active bleeders (94.2% [95% CI 85.1-98.5]). Overall, early recurrent bleeding occurred in 7 patients (5.2% [95% CI 2.3-10.1]). No major procedure-related complication was recorded. At 6 weeks, death occurred in 11 patients, with an overall bleeding-related mortality of 8.2% [95% CI 5.8-15.3]. Mortality was higher in active (15.4% [95% CI 6.9-28.1]) than non-active bleeders (3.7% [95% CI 0.8-10.4], OR 4.7 [95% CI 1.05-28.7], p=0.02). Of those surviving the first bleeding episode, 112 patients subsequently underwent ligation. No technical difficulties were encountered in performing the banding procedure which was successfully completed in all cases. Emergency injection of acrylate glue is safe and effective for the treatment of acute bleeding oesophageal varices and does not hamper subsequent variceal ligation.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Digestive and Liver Disease

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: A catheter-type endocytoscope has recently been developed that is able to provide in vivo cellular images of gastrointestinal mucosa. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) represent the earliest precursor of colorectal cancer featuring the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential of the endocytoscopy system (ECS) in the "in vivo" detection of dysplasia in colorectal ACF. Consecutive patients with colorectal ACF were studied with endocytoscopy. Blinded endoscopic and histological assessments were obtained. Lesions were excised en bloc for histology. A total of 48 colorectal lesions were examined in 41 patients. The mean duration of the ECS procedure was 44 +/- 12 minutes (range 31 - 62 minutes). The quality of ECS images was rated as good in 39/48, medium in six, and poor in three (6.2 %). It was possible to observe lesions at the cellular level and evaluate both cellular and structural atypia in vivo. In normal mucosa, crypts had preserved individuality and round-shaped contours. Nuclei were located at the basal third of the crypt in a single line, and the lumen was circular. In dysplastic ACF, crypt contours were polygonal, cell nuclei were elongated with pseudostratification toward the luminal half of the crypt and irregularly arranged, and the lumen was linear. In all, 23 endocytoscopic images were labeled as dysplastic and 25 as nondysplastic. Histology confirmed low-grade dysplasia in 21/23 cases (91.4 % sensitivity). Absence of dysplasia was confirmed in the remaining 25 cases (100 % specificity). Interobserver agreement between trained endoscopist and pathologist was good (wK 0.68; 95 % CI 0.59 - 0.78). Endocytoscopy provides real-time histological images in vivo, with clear visualization of cellular details and features of dysplasia in colorectal ACF.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: There is no definite recommendation on the use of dual endoscopic therapy in patients with severe peptic ulcer bleeding. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the use of two endoscopic hemostatic procedures improved patient outcomes compared with monotherapy. A search for randomized trials comparing dual therapy (i.e., epinephrine injection plus other injection or thermal or mechanical method) versus monotherapy (injection, thermal, or mechanical alone) was performed between 1990 and 2006. Heterogeneity between studies was tested with chi(2) and explained by metaregression analysis. Twenty studies (2,472 patients) met inclusion criteria. Compared with controls, dual endoscopic therapy reduces the risk of recurrent bleeding (OR [odds ratio] 0.59 [0.44-0.80], P= 0.0001) and the risk of emergency surgery (OR 0.66 [0.49-0.89], P= 0.03) and showed a trend toward a reduction in the risk of death (OR 0.68 [0.46-1.02], P= 0.06). Subcategory analysis showed that dual therapy was significantly superior to injection therapy alone for all the outcomes considered, but failed to demonstrate that any combination of treatments is better than either mechanical therapy alone (OR 1.04 [0.45-2.45] for rebleeding, 0.49 [0.50-4.87] for surgery, and 1.28 [0.34-4.86] for death) or thermal therapy alone (OR 0.67 [0.40-1.20] for rebleeding, 0.89 [0.45-1.76] for surgery, and 0.51 [0.24-1.10] for death). Dual endoscopic therapy proved significantly superior to epinephrine injection alone, but had no advantage over thermal or mechanical monotherapy in improving the outcome of patients with high-risk peptic ulcer bleeding.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: In nonpolypoid colorectal lesions, the presence of irregular, distorted glands in the colon (a disrupted crypt pattern) on magnification chromoendoscopy (MCE) is strongly associated with submucosal invasive cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of MCE to differentiate between an invasive crypt pattern and a noninvasive crypt pattern, including nonneoplastic lesions, and to assess the ability of this MCE classification to predict invasiveness and allow patients to be selected for endoscopic resection or surgical resection. In a prospective study including 1560 colonoscopies, 153 flat or depressed colorectal lesions were evaluated with MCE among 534 colorectal lesions; the remainder had a polypoid appearance. The pit pattern was classified as nonneoplastic (type II) or neoplastic (types III - V), and the latter was subdivided into noninvasive (types III or IV) or submucosally invasive (type V). Lesions with a nonneoplastic and noninvasive neoplastic appearance were resected endoscopically if technically feasible, whereas those with a type V pattern were resected surgically. The resection specimens were analyzed histologically in relation to the Vienna classification. Using this management strategy based on the pit pattern, 86 % (n = 70) of the type II lesions were hyperplastic; the remaining 11 had low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Type III and IV lesions (n = 58) represented either low-grade or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 95 % of the cases. Three patients had sm1 (n = 2) or sm2/3 invasive cancers. Among the patients with type V lesions (n = 14), 11 had invasive cancers (four sm1 and seven sm2/3). Endoscopic differentiation based on the pit pattern thus had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86 % and a negative predictive value of 96 % for distinguishing between nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The pit pattern criteria for distinguishing between invasive and noninvasive neoplasia (including nonneoplastic lesions), and hence the choice between endoscopic and surgical resection, had a PPV of 79 % and a NPV of 98 %. Excluding nonneoplastic lesions, the NPV would be 95 %. The endoscopic pit pattern on MCE has only a moderate predictive value for nonneoplastic lesions, so that leaving these flat hyperplastic lesions in place on the basis of the endoscopic magnification appearance alone cannot be generally recommended. However, MCE has a good predictive value for guiding management toward either endoscopic resection (if technically feasible) or surgical resection.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Endoscopy
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    R Marmo · G Rotondano · R Piscopo · MA Bianco · L Cipolletta
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective trials support the role of capsule enteroscopy as an improvement in diagnosing mucosal lesions in the small bowel. To determine the diagnostic yield and safety of capsule enteroscopy vs. alternative diagnostic modalities (such as push enteroscopy, small bowel follow-through or enteroclysis) in patients with small bowel diseases. A search for prospective studies comparing capsule enteroscopy vs. other diagnostic tests in adults was performed between 1966 and 2005. Selected articles were included in a meta-analysis. Three analyses were run separately, all included studies and studies having occult gastrointestinal bleeding or Crohn's disease as main outcome. Seventeen studies (526 patients) met inclusion criteria. The rate difference (i.e. the absolute pooled difference in the rate of positive findings) between capsule enteroscopy and alternative modalities for small bowel disease was 41% (95% CI 35.6-45.9); 37% (95% CI 29.6-44.1) for occult gastrointestinal bleeding; and 45% (95% CI 30.9-58.0) for Crohn's disease. Failure to visualize the caecum occurred in 13%, significantly more often in occult bleeders (17%) than in patients with Crohn's disease (8%) (P < 0.006). Adverse events were recorded in 29 patients (6%). Capsule retention was more frequent in patients with Crohn's disease (3% vs. 1%, OR 4.37). Capsule enteroscopy proved significantly superior to push enteroscopy and small bowel radiology in the diagnosis of ileal diseases. Capsule enteroscopy is safe, though prior radiology is still necessary to rule out small bowel strictures in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic yield of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) and enteroclysis in evaluating the extent of small-bowel involvement in Crohn's disease (CD). Thirty-one patients (20 men; mean age, 43 y) with endoscopically and histologically proven CD underwent enteroclysis as their initial examination, followed by WCE. The radiologist who performed the small-bowel enema was blinded to the results of standard index endoscopy, which included retrograde ileoscopy. Gastroenterologists were blinded to the results of enteroclysis at the time of interpretation of the WCE video. Abnormal findings were documented in 8 of 31 patients by using enteroclysis and in 22 of 31 patients by using WCE (25.8% vs. 71%, P < .001). In 16 patients with known involvement of the terminal ileum, the diagnostic yield of WCE vs enteroclysis was significantly superior (89% vs 37%, P < .001). In 15 patients without lesions in the terminal ileum, abnormal findings in the proximal small bowel were detected in 7 (46%) patients by WCE and only in 2 (13%) patients by enteroclysis (P < .001). The capsule detected all but 2 lesions diagnosed by enteroclysis. WCE detected additional lesions that were not detected by enteroclysis in 45% of cases. WCE is superior to enteroclysis in estimating the presence and extent of small-bowel CD. WCE may be a new gold standard for diagnosing ileal involvement in patients with CD without strictures and fistulae.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical methods of endoscopic hemostasis are rapidly gaining acceptance due to their efficacy and safety. Nonetheless, some problems still exist as to their general applicability since both clipping and banding are technically demanding procedures which depend on the operator’s expertise and team trained approach. Improvements in clip design and materials, together with progress in the loading and release systems will hopefully lead to the more widespread use of such mechanical methods with the aim of preventing recurrent bleeding. Elastic band ligation is a relatively simple procedure whose application in the management of nonvariceal bleeding has recently expanded to include selected patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend endoscopy for dyspeptic patients >45 yr of age and/or with "alarm" symptoms. The management of younger patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia is controversial. The objective of the study was to identify any risk factors predictive of upper gastrointestinal malignancy in patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia and validate their ability in refining indications for endoscopy. Prospective database study of consecutive uninvestigated dyspeptic outpatients undergoing endoscopy was performed. A questionnaire including multiple possible prognostic variables was systematically submitted to patients prior to endoscopic examination. Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal malignancy identified were used to derive a prediction rule subsequently validated on an independent population. A total of 5,224 patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia were considered (training sample). Twenty-two (16 males) had malignancy at endoscopy. These patients were about 20 yr older than patients with no malignancy (p < 0.001). The mean age of females with cancer was almost 10 yr higher compared to males (p= 0.08). Such differences in age were confirmed in a split sample of 3,684 patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The age cut-offs identified were 35 yr for males and 56 yr for females. The age threshold for endoscopy should be lowered in males to decrease the risk of missing cancers, and can be safely increased in females without affecting outcomes. In patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia, the combination of age and gender provides a better discriminant power than age alone.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic treatment with combined modalities is considered standard of care for patients with high-risk peptic ulcer bleeding. This study compared epinephrine injection plus bipolar probe coagulation with bipolar probe coagulation alone in patients with high-risk peptic ulcer bleeding. Patients with endoscopically confirmed peptic ulcer bleeding (active or visible vessel) seen from January 2000 through December 2002 were prospectively randomized to two groups. The study group (n = 58) had epinephrine injection followed by bipolar coagulation; the control group (n = 56) was treated by bipolar coagulation alone. The primary outcomes assessed were the rate of initial hemostasis and the rate of recurrent bleeding. Secondary outcomes were the following: need for surgical intervention to control bleeding, transfusion requirements, length of hospital stay (in days), and 30-day mortality. The rate of initial hemostasis was significantly higher in the combination therapy group ( p = 0.02; absolute risk reduction 31.6%: 95% CI [5.4, 57.7]). There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups with respect to all other outcomes measures, except that significantly fewer units of blood were transfused in the combination therapy group ( p = 0.006). In patients with active peptic ulcer bleeding, epinephrine injection plus bipolar coagulation achieved significantly higher rate of initial hemostasis. All other outcome measures were similar with either treatment in patients with non-bleeding stigmata.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: L’hémorragie digestive haute fait partie des plus grands défis cliniques pour le gastro-entérologue. L’ulcère peptique reste la cause la plus fréquente et la plus significative d’hémorragie digestive haute aiguë, comptant pour environ 50% des cas [1], alors que l’hémorragie due aux varices gastro-œsophagiennes est moins fréquente (5 à 10%) bien que représentant plus souvent un risque vital. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding are among the greatest clinical challenges for the gastroenterologists. Peptic ulcers remain the commonest and most significant cause of acute upper GI haemorrhage, accounting for about 50% of the cases [1], whereas bleeding from esophagogastric varices is less frequent (5 to 10%) although probably more often lifethreatening.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Acta Endoscopica

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy