[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats without induction of abnormal motor behaviours associated with L-dopa administration. We examined whether this was reflected in the expression of peptide mRNA in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways.
6-OHDA lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway increased striatal expression of PPE-A mRNA and decreased levels of PPT mRNA with PPE-B mRNA expression remaining unchanged. Acute L-dopa administration normalised PPE-A mRNA and elevated PPT mRNA while PPE-B mRNA expression remained unchanged. Acute administration of BTS 74 398 did not alter striatal peptide mRNA levels. Following chronic treatment with L-dopa, PPE-A mRNA expression in the lesioned striatum continued to be normalised and PPT mRNA was increased compared to the intact side. PPE-B mRNA expression was also markedly increased relative to the non-lesioned striatum. Chronic BTS 74 398 administration did not alter mRNA expression in the 6-OHDA lesioned striatum although small increases in PPT mRNA expression in the intact and sham lesioned striatum were observed.
The failure of BTS 74 398 to induce changes in striatal neuropeptide mRNA correlated with its failure to induce abnormal motor behaviours or behavioural sensitisation but does not explain how it produces a reversal of motor deficits. An action in another area of the brain appears likely and may explain the subsequent failure of BTS 74 398 and related compounds to exert anti-parkinsonian actions in man.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Neural Transmission
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circling behaviour in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats is interpreted as being opposite in direction to the side of the brain with highest striatal dopaminergic activation. Ipsiversive rotation indicates an action on the intact striatum, while contraversive rotation demonstrates an effect on dopamine receptors in the denervated striatum and is taken as predictive of symptomatic benefit in Parkinson's disease. But does an equivalent behavioural outcome result from stimulating the intact and denervated striatum to the same degree? We report on the behavioural responses produced by administration of L-dopa and the monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74,398. These were given alone, or in combination, at doses equivalent to their ED(25), ED(50) and ED(75) for inducing circling in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. L-dopa administered alone induced dose-dependent contraversive circling while BTS 74,398 produced ipsiversive rotation. However, L-dopa and BTS 74,398 in combination, produced the same contraversive circling response as when L-dopa was administered alone. Little or no ipsiversive rotation occurred, irrespective of the combination of doses employed. This surprising finding suggests that there are major differences in the outcome of stimulating the intact and denervated striatum with the latter dominating the behavioural response. Since repeated administration of L-dopa but not BTS 74,398, sensitises rotational responses and induces abnormal movements, it may be that contraversive rotation is predictive of both clinical response in PD and the ability to induce motor complications.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine uptake inhibitors may provide a means of sustaining endogenous and exogenous striatal dopamine levels in Parkinson's disease, but most are not selective and also inhibit the noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters. To determine the involvement of the individual monoamine transporters in the production of motor activity, the effect of the nonselective monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 1-([1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio) ethanone monocitrate) and the selective dopamine, GBR 12909 [1-(2-(bis-(4-fluorphenyl)-methyl)ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine) dihydrochloride], noradrenaline (nisoxetine), and 5-HT (fluvoxamine) reuptake inhibitors on circling in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat was investigated. GBR 12909 induced ipsilateral circling, but fluvoxamine and nisoxetine were without effect. However, when administered with GBR 12909, fluvoxamine enhanced rotation, whereas nisoxetine had no effect. The results suggest that 5-HT, but not noradrenaline, reuptake inhibition facilitates dopamine-mediated motor activity. To test this hypothesis, BTS 74 398 was administered in combination with selective dopamine, 5-HT, and noradrenaline receptor antagonists. Both D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists, SCH 23390 [R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine] and raclopride, inhibited BTS 74 398-induced circling. In contrast, the 5-HT(1A) 5-HT(1A/B) antagonists, WAY 100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinyl-cyclohexane-carboxamide maleate) and pindolol, and the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, ketanserin, had no effect. The nonspecific 5-HT((1/2)) antagonists, methysergide and metergoline, and the specific 5-HT(2C) antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine, enhanced BTS 74 398-induced circling, as did the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Overall, the data suggest that inhibition of the 5-HT and noradrenaline transporters modulate dopamine uptake inhibitor-mediated motor activity. However, the mechanism of this interaction is complex, involving opposing effects of noradrenaline and 5-HT agonism and antagonism.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BTS 74 398 (1-[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio)ethanone monocitrate) is a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that reverses motor deficits in MPTP-treated (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) common marmosets without provoking established dyskinesia. However, it is not known whether BTS 74 398 primes the basal ganglia for dyskinesia induction. In this study, the ability of BTS 74 398 to sensitize 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats for the production of abnormal motor behaviours and the induction of striatal DeltaFosB were determined in comparison with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (L-dopa). Acute administration of BTS 74 398 induced a dose-dependent ipsilateral circling response in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats whereas L-dopa produced dose-dependent contraversive rotation. The ipsilateral circling response to BTS 74 398 did not alter during 21 days of administration. In contrast, L-dopa treatment for 21 days caused a marked increase in rotational response. Repeated administration of both L-dopa and BTS 74 398 increased general motor activity and stereotypic behaviour. In L-dopa-treated rats, orolingual, locomotive, forelimb and axial abnormal movements developed whereas BTS 74 398 produced only locomotion with a side bias but no other abnormal movements. Sensitization of circling responses and the development of abnormal movements in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats have been associated with the potential of dopaminergic drugs to induce dyskinesia. Furthermore, striatal DeltaFosB immunoreactivity, shown to correlate with dyskinesia induction, was increased by L-dopa but was unaffected by repeated BTS 74 398 administration. The lack of such changes following repeated BTS 74 398 treatment suggests that it may be an effective antiparkinsonian therapy that is unlikely to produce involuntary movements.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · European Journal of Neuroscience