[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report lower urinary tract dysfunction and neuropathological findings of the neural circuits controlling micturition in the patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis having L106V mutation in the SOD1 gene. Ten of 20 patients showed lower urinary tract dysfunction and 5 patients developed within 1 year after the onset of weakness. In 8 patients with an artificial respirator, 6 patients showed lower urinary tract dysfunction. Lower urinary tract dysfunction and respiratory failure requiring an artificial respirator occurred simultaneously in 3 patients. Neuronal loss and gliosis were observed in the neural circuits controlling micturition, such as frontal lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, periaqueductal gray, ascending spinal tract, lateral corticospinal tract, intermediolateral nucleus and Onufrowicz' nucleus. Lower urinary tract dysfunction, especially storage symptoms, developed about 1 year after the onset of weakness, and the dysfunction occurred simultaneously with artificial respirator use in the patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) who showed dystonia, periodic myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWCs) on EEG. The EEG–EMG polygraphic study revealed that dystonia appeared without relation to periodic myoclonus and PSWCs and that dystonia EMGs were strongly suppressed after periodic myoclonus EMGs. These findings suggest that dystonia has a pathogenesis different from that of periodic myoclonus and PSWCs, but dystonia and periodic myoclonus may be generated through the sensorimotor cortex in CJD.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most serious issue in domino liver transplantation (DLT) using liver grafts from patients with transthyretin (TTR)-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is the development of iatrogenic transmitted amyloidosis (de novo amyloidosis) in DLT-recipients. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of the initial stage of amyloid formation in these recipients. We detected initial lesions (possible seed-lesions) of this iatrogenic amyloidosis in two recipients following liver grafting from FAP patients. Patient 1 underwent DLT at age 65 from an FAP patient with a Val30Met TTR variant and patient 2 received DLT from an FAP patient with a Val30Leu TTR variant at age 32. Patient 2 was started on diflunisal administration from 4 years after DLT. While neither patient had symptoms of FAP, small amyloid deposits were detected on the gastroduodenal mucosae 14 months and 12 years after DLT in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. The amyloid was analyzed using a laser microdissection system and tandem mass spectrometry. Biochemical analysis indicated that the amyloid was composed mostly of variant TTR produced from the transplanted liver in both patients. In patient 1, wild-type TTR amyloid was detectable in the duodenal mucosa obtained 2 years after DLT. This is the first study to successfully capture the pathological and biochemical features of initial-stage amyloid lesions in DLT recipients. The findings clearly indicate that amyloid deposition can start by deposition of variant TTR followed by deposition of wild-type TTR, and blocking of amyloid seed formation from variant TTR may be a key to prevent or delay the development of DLT-associated amyloidosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multifocal fibrosclerosis is the term used to represent a combination of similar fibrous lesions occurring at different anatomical sites. We herein report a hypertrophic pachymeningitis patient with a soft tissue mass around the thoracic vertebral bodies. A histopathological analysis of the biopsied tissues from both lesions showed dense fibrosis and a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which lead to the diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis. This pathological condition closely resembles that of IgG4-related disease and is a very rare combination of manifestations. Our case suggests that hypertrophic pachymeningitis patients need to also undergo a whole body examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Until recently, liver transplantation (Ltx) was the only available treatment for hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis; today, however, several pharmacotherapies are tested. Herein, we present survival data from the largest available database on transplanted hereditary TTR patients to serve as a base for comparison. Methods. Liver transplantation was evaluated in a 20-year retrospective analysis of the Familial Amyloidosis Polyneuropathy World Transplant Registry. Results. From April 1990 until December 2010, data were accumulated from 77 liver transplant centers. The Registry contains 1940 patients, and 1379 are alive. Eighty-eight Ltx were performed in combination with a heart and/or kidney transplantation. Overall, 20-year survival after Ltx was 55.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed modified body mass index, early onset of disease (<50 years of age), disease duration before Ltx, and TTR) Val30Met versus non-TTR Val30Met mutations as independent significant survival factors. Early-onset patients had an expected mortality rate of 38% that of the late-onset group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Val30Met patients had an expected mortality rate of 61% that of non-TTR Val30Met patients (P < 0.001). With each year of duration of disease before Ltx, expected mortality increased by 11% (P < 0.001). With each 100-unit increase in modified body mass index at Ltx, the expected mortality decreased to 89%of the expectedmortality (P < 0.001). Cardiovascular death wasmarkedlymore common than that observed in patients undergoing Ltx for end-stage liver disease. Conclusions. Long-term survival after Ltx, especially for early-onset TTR Val30Met patients, is excellent. The risk of delaying Ltx by testing alternative treatments, especially in earlyonset
TTR Val30Met patients, requires consideration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein that must misfold in order to form amyloid fibrils. Misfolding includes rate limiting tetramer dissociation, followed by fast tertiary structural changes of the monomer that enable aggregation. Hereditary ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with systemic deposition of amyloid fibrils induced by TTR gene mutation. We identified a rare Y114H (p.Y134H) TTR variant in a Japanese patient presenting with late-onset, very mild clinical course. The patient had an extremely low serum variant TTR concentration (18% of total TTR), whereas the composition of variant TTR was 55% in amyloid fibrils in tenosynovial tissues obtained at carpal tunnel release surgery. The amyloid fibril deposits in the ATTR Y114H patient had an altered structure compared to that in wild-type ATTR patients, as determined by luminescent conjugated poly/oligo-thiophene fluorescence spectroscopy. Biophysical studies using recombinant protein showed that Y114H TTR was markedly destabilized both thermodynamically and kinetically and was highly amyloidogenic in vitro. These data suggest that extremely low serum variant Y114H TTR concentration, probably due to endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation of unstable variant TTR protein, protected this patient from severe amyloidosis, as self-assembly of the amyloidogenic intermediate is a concentration-dependent process.
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No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a triaxial accelerometer for the clinical assessment of standing and gait impairment in ataxic patients quantitatively. Fifty-one patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) or multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and 56 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The subjects, with a triaxial accelerometer on their back, were indicated to stand for 30 s in four different conditions (eyes opened or closed, and feet apart or together) and then to walk 10 m for a total of 12 times on a flat floor at their usual walking speed. In standing analysis, the degree of body sway was assessed. In gait analysis, gait velocity, cadence, step length, step regularity (auto-correlation coefficient: AC), step repeatability (cross-correlation coefficient) and the degree of body sway (The ratio of root mean square in each direction to the root mean square vector magnitude: RMSR) were evaluated.
The degree of body sway in each standing condition and all parameters in gait showed a significant difference between the patients and control subjects. The AC and RMSR values, as well as the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, showed a strong correlation with disease duration.
Various parameters obtained by a triaxial accelerometer can be sensitive and objective markers for the assessment and follow-up of standing and gait impairment in ataxic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Mutated transthyretin-associated (ATTRm) amyloidosis with heart failure is associated with decreased longitudinal left ventricular (LV) myocardial contraction, as measured by strain Doppler echocardiography. We sought to clarify whether speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) would provide useful information in patients with ATTRm cardiac amyloidosis. Methods: One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with ATTRm amyloidosis were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 had no evidence of cardiac involvement (n. = 47), group 2 had heart involvement but no congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels <. 100. pg/mL (n. = 35), and group 3 had heart involvement and CHF and/or serum BNP levels ≥. 100. pg/mL (n. = 41). All patients underwent standard 2-dimensional (2D), Doppler echo, and STE. Results: By standard 2D and Doppler echo, differences in parameters were only apparent between group 3 and groups 1 and 2. Global circumferential strains by STE at each LV level and LV torsion were different between group 1 and groups 2 and 3, but not between group 2 and group 3. In contrast, global longitudinal LV strain showed significant intergroup differences (- 17.3 ± 2.3%, - 13.3 ± 2.3%, - 9.9 ± 3.3% for groups 1 to 3, respectively, P<. 0.0001). Radial strain also showed significant intergroup differences for each basal LV segment. Among 41 patients who could have been followed up after 1. year, 34 patients with diflunisal treatment had shown improvement in apical rotation and torsion without deterioration in multidirectional strains. Conclusion: ATTRm cardiac amyloidosis is characterized by progressive impairment in longitudinal and basal LV radial function when global circumferential shortening and torsion remain unchanged.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent 2-year randomized controlled trial indicated that the transthyretin (TTR) tetramer stabilizer, diflunisal, inhibits polyneuropathy progression and preserves quality of life in hereditary ATTR amyloidosis. However, its long-term outcomes are unknown. Here, we report tolerance and efficacy of long-term diflunisal administration in hereditary ATTR amyloidosis.
Diflunisal was administered orally at 500 mg/day to 40 Japanese hereditary ATTR amyloidosis patents who were not candidates for liver transplantation. The observation period ranged from 2 to 116 months (mean ± SD: 38.0 ± 31.2 months).
Diflunisal-related adverse events included deterioration of renal function and thrombocytopenia resulting in discontinuation of the drug in three patients. Orally administered diflunisal significantly increased serum TTR concentration (p = 0.001) and stabilized TTR tetramer structure in each patient. Longitudinal analyses of data collected at baseline, 24 months, and after 24 months confirmed sustaining effects of diflunisal on both neurological and cardiac functions. Notably, ulnar compound muscle action potential amplitude, cardiac wall thickness, and ejection fraction were not deteriorated after 24 months of treatment.
Diflunisal was tolerated well by most hereditary ATTR amyloidosis patients, although renal function and blood cell counts must be carefully monitored. Clinical effects of diflunisal were sustained after 2 years of treatment.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessively inherited lipid storage disease caused by mutation in the CYP27A1 gene. Spinal form CTX is a rare clinical subgroup of CTX and only 14 patients from 11 families have been reported to date. Here, we report the first Asian patient with spinal form CTX showing characteristic radiological findings. Findings The patient, a 46-year-old Japanese male, developed sensory disturbance of the lower legs at 39 and spastic gait at 46 years of age. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a long hyperintense lesion involving lateral corticospinal tracts and gracile tracts in the cervical and thoracic cord on T2-weighted images. Gallium-67 ((67)Ga) scintigraphy revealed abnormal uptake in the Achilles tendons and the serum cholestanol level was elevated. CYP27A1 gene analysis identified homozygous missense mutation, c.1214G>A (p.R405Q). The patient was treated with atorvastatin monotherapy, which reduced serum cholestanol to less than 50% of the pretreatment level. Conclusion Spinal form CTX should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cryptogenic myelopathy, especially in patients with a long spinal cord lesion, as treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid and/or competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase reverse the metabolic derangement and prevent the neurologiccal dysfunction.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · The journal of spinal cord medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune synaptic encephalitis is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against synaptic constituent receptors and manifests as neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is such an autoimmune disorder that predominantly affects young women. It is associated with antibodies against the extracellular region of the NR1 subunit of postsynaptic NMDAR. Each NMDAR functions as a heterotetrameric complex that is composed of four subunits, including NR1 and NR2A, NR2B, or NR2C. Importantly, ovarian teratoma is a typical complication of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in female patients and may contain antigenic neural tissue; however, antigenic sites remain unknown in female patients without ovarian teratoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of NMDARs in the ovum. We detected NR1 and NR2B immunoreactivity in protein fractions extracted from the bovine ovary and ova by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoprecipitates digested with trypsin were analyzed by reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained the following five peptides: SPFGRFK and KNLQDR, which are consistent with partial sequences of human NR1, and GVEDALVSLK, QPTVAGAPK, and NEVMSSK, which correspond to those of NR2A, NR2B and NR2C, respectively. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the bovine ovum was stained with the immunoglobulin G purified from the serum of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Taken together, we propose that the normal ovum expresses NMDARs that have strong affinity for the disease-specific IgG. The presence of NMDARs in ova may help explain why young females without ovarian teratomas are also affected by anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac amyloidosis is a cardiomyopathy characterized by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and normal or decreased LV cavity size. Congestive heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis is generally considered a predominantly diastolic phenomenon, with systolic dysfunction only occurring in late-stage disease. Echocardiography is a noninvasive, reproducible method of assessing cardiac features and function in cardiac amyloidosis, and some echocardiographic indices are prognostic for the amyloidoses, with M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography able to detect increased LV wall thickness. Moreover, Doppler flow measurements can incrementally assess diastolic LV dysfunction, which is characteristic of cardiac amyloidosis, and provide important prognostic information. Additionally, tissue Doppler imaging can detect subtle changes in both systolic and diastolic LV function, which cannot be detected by Doppler flow measurements, and LV longitudinal strain assessed by color tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography can provide more accurate LV functional and prognostic information than tissue Doppler imaging. This review describes the advances in echocardiography and its crucial role in the diagnosis and management of cardiac amyloidosis.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Circulation Journal