Roger Green

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Saint John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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Publications (30)155.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate how OA patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are different metabolically from OA patients without MetS components and healthy individuals. A two-stage case–control study design was utilized. Synovial fluid (SF) and plasma samples were collected from patients undergoing total knee joint replacement due to primary OA and healthy controls (only plasma) and metabolically profiled using UPLC-MS coupled with assay kit which measures 186 metabolites. Orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis and linear regression were used to identify metabolic markers for discriminating OA patients with MetS components from those without and healthy individuals. 54 paired SF and plasma samples from knee OA patients and 30 plasma samples from healthy controls were included in the discovery stage, and 143 plasma samples (72 from knee OA patients and 71 from the age, sex, and BMI matched controls) were included in the validation stage. OA patients with MetS can be clearly discriminated from OA patients without MetS based on the metabolite profiles of both SF and plasma and the separation appeared to be driven by type 2 diabetes but not obesity, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. When compared with OA patients with diabetes, OA without diabetes, and healthy controls, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C34:3 (PC ae C34:3) and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C36:3 (PC ae C36:3) were identified and confirmed to be associated with the concurrence of OA and diabetes (all p < 0.003). The study demonstrated that altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism was associated with both OA and diabetes mellitus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Metabolomics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify novel biomarker(s) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) using a metabolomics approach. Method: We utilized a two-stage case-control study design. Plasma samples were collected from knee OA patients and healthy controls after 8-hour fasting and metabolically profiled using a targeted metabolomics assay kit. Linear regression was used to identify novel metabolic markers for OA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine diagnostic values. Gene expression analysis was performed on human cartilage to explore the potential mechanism for the novel OA marker(s). Results: 64 knee OA patients and 45 controls were included in the discovery stage and 72 knee OA patients and 76 age and sex matched controls were included in the validation stage. We identified and confirmed six metabolites that were significantly associated with knee OA, of which arginine was the most significant metabolite (p < 3.5×10(-13)) with knee OA patients having on average 69 μM lower than that in controls. ROC analysis showed that arginine had the greatest diagnostic value with AUC of 0.984. The optimal cutoff of arginine concentration was 57 μM with 98.3% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The depletion of arginine in OA patients was most likely due to the over activity of arginine to ornithine pathway, leading to imbalance between cartilage repair and degradation. Conclusion: Arginine is significantly depleted in refractory knee OA patients. Further studies within a longitudinal setting are required to examine whether arginine can predict early OA changes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent guidelines recommend the Lynch Syndrome prediction models MMRPredict, MMRPro, and PREMM1,2,6 for the identification of MMR gene mutation carriers. We compared the predictive performance and clinical usefulness of these prediction models to identify mutation carriers. Methods: Pedigree data from CRC patients in 11 North American, European, and Australian cohorts (6 clinic- and 5 population-based sites) were used to calculate predicted probabilities of pathogenic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 gene mutations by each model and gene-specific predictions by MMRPro and PREMM1,2,6. We examined discrimination with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration with observed to expected (O/E) ratio, and clinical usefulness using decision curve analysis to select patients for further evaluation. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Mutations were detected in 539 of 2304 (23%) individuals from the clinic-based cohorts (237 MLH1, 251 MSH2, 51 MSH6) and 150 of 3451 (4.4%) individuals from the population-based cohorts (47 MLH1, 71 MSH2, 32 MSH6). Discrimination was similar for clinic- and population-based cohorts: AUCs of 0.76 vs 0.77 for MMRPredict, 0.82 vs 0.85 for MMRPro, and 0.85 vs 0.88 for PREMM1,2,6. For clinic- and population-based cohorts, O/E deviated from 1 for MMRPredict (0.38 and 0.31, respectively) and MMRPro (0.62 and 0.36) but were more satisfactory for PREMM1,2,6 (1.0 and 0.70). MMRPro or PREMM1,2,6 predictions were clinically useful at thresholds of 5% or greater and in particular at greater than 15%. Conclusions: MMRPro and PREMM1,2,6 can well be used to select CRC patients from genetics clinics or population-based settings for tumor and/or germline testing at a 5% or higher risk. If no MMR deficiency is detected and risk exceeds 15%, we suggest considering additional genetic etiologies for the cause of cancer in the family.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In vitro and animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) studies suggest that TGF-β signalling is involved in OA, but human data is limited. We undertook this study to elucidate the role of TGF-β signalling pathway in OA by comparing the expression levels of TGFB1 and BMP2 as ligands, SMAD3 as an intracellular mediator, and MMP13 as a targeted gene between human osteoarthritic and healthy cartilage. Methods: Human cartilage samples were collected from patients undergoing total hip/knee joint replacement surgery due to primary OA or hip fractures as controls. RNA was extracted from the cartilage tissues. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to measure gene expression. Mann-Whitney test was utilized to compare the expression levels of TGFB1, BMP2, SMAD3 and MMP13 in human cartilage between OA cases and controls. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) was calculated to examine the correlation between the expression levels of the four genes studied and non-parametric regression was used to adjust for covariates. Results: A total of 32 OA cases (25 hip OA and 7 knee OA) and 21 healthy controls were included. The expression of TGFB1, SMAD3, and MMP13 were on average 70 %, 46 %, and 355 % higher, respectively, whereas the expression of BMP2 was 88 % lower, in OA-affected cartilage than that of controls (all p < 0.03), but no difference was observed between hip and knee OA (all p > 0.4). The expression of TGFB1 was correlated with the expression of SMAD3 (rho = 0.50, p = 0.003) and MMP13 (rho = 0.46, p = 0.007) in OA-affected cartilage and the significance became stronger after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. The expression of BMP2 was negatively correlated with both TGFB1 (rho = -0.50, p = 0.02) and MMP13 (rho = -0.48, p = 0.02) in healthy cartilage, but the significance was altered after adjustment for the covariates. There was no correlation between the expression of SMAD3 and MMP13. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that MMP13 expression is associated with an increased expression of TGFB1 in OA-affected cartilage, possibly through SMAD-independent TGF-β pathway. Furthermore, TGF-β/SMAD3 is overactivated in OA cartilage; yet, the consequence of this overactivation remains to be established.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Arthritis research & therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrion is a small organelle inside the eukaryotic cells. It has its own genome (mtDNA) and encodes for proteins that are critical for energy production and cellular metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been implicated in cancer progression and may be related to poor prognosis in cancer patients. In this study we hypothesized that genetic variations in mtDNA are associated with clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients. We tested the associations of six mtDNA polymorphisms [MitoT479C, MitoT491C, MitoT10035C, MitoA13781G, 10398 (A/G), and 16189 (T/C)] and the mtDNA copy number change with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) times. Two mtDNA polymorphisms were genotyped using the TaqMan(®) SNP genotyping technique and the genotypes for the remaining four mtDNA polymorphisms were obtained by the Illumina(®) HumanOmni1-Quad genome wide SNP genotyping platform in 536 patients. The mtDNA copy number change (in tumor tissues with respect to non-tumor tissues) was estimated using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction for 274 patients. Associations of these mtDNA variations with OS and DFS were tested using the Cox regression method. In both univariate and multivariable analyses, none of the six mtDNA polymorphisms were associated with OS or DFS. 39.6 and 60.4% of the patients had increased and decreased mtDNA copy number in their tumor tissues when compared to their non-tumor rectum or colon tissues, respectively. However, in contrast to previous findings, the change in the mtDNA copy number was associated with neither OS nor DFS in our patient cohort. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic markers investigated in this study are not associated with outcome in colorectal cancer.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence suggests that epigenetics plays a role in osteoarthrits (OA). The aim of the study was to describethe genome wide DNA methylation changes in hip and knee OA and identify novel genes and pathwaysinvolved in OA by comparing the DNA methylome of the hip and knee osteoarthritic cartilage tissues withthose of OA-free individuals. Methods: Cartilage samples were collected from hip or knee joint replacement patients either due to primary OA or hip fractures as controls. DNA was extracted from the collected cartilage and assayed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, which allows for the analysis of >480,000 CpG sites. Student T-test was conducted for each CpG site and those sites with at least 10 % methylation difference and a p value <0.0005 were defined as differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for OA. A sub-analysis was also done for hip and knee OA separately. DAVID v6.7 was used for the functional annotation clustering of the DMR genes. Clustering analysis was done using multiple dimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering methods. Results: The study included 5 patients with hip OA, 6 patients with knee OA and 7 hip cartilage samples from OA-free individuals. The comparisons of hip, knee and combined hip/knee OA patients with controls resulted in 26, 72, and 103 DMRs, respectively. The comparison between hip and knee OA revealed 67 DMRs. The overall number of the sites after considering the overlaps was 239, among which 151 sites were annotated to 145 genes. One-fifth of these genes were reported in previous studies. The functional annotation clustering of the identified genes revealed clusters significantly enriched in skeletal system morphogenesis and development. The analysis revealed significant difference among OA and OA-free cartilage, but less different between hip OA and knee OA. Conclusions: We found that a number of CpG sites and genes across the genome were differentially methylated in OA patients, a remarkable portion of which seem to be involved in potential etiologic mechanisms of OA. Genes involved in skeletal developmental pathways and embryonic organ morphogenesis may be a potential area for further OA studies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare SMAD3 gene expression between human osteoarthritic and healthy cartilage and to examine whether expression is regulated by the promoter DNA methylation of the gene. Methods: Human cartilage samples were collected from patients undergoing total hip/knee joint replacement surgery due to primary osteoarthritis (OA), and from patients with hip fractures as controls. DNA/RNA was extracted from the cartilage tissues. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to measure gene expression, and Sequenom EpiTyper was used to assay DNA methylation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the methylation and expression levels between OA cases and controls. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine the association between the methylation and gene expression. Results: A total of 58 patients with OA (36 women, 22 men; mean age 64 ± 9 yrs) and 55 controls (43 women, 12 men; mean age 79 ± 10 yrs) were studied. SMAD3 expression was on average 83% higher in OA cartilage than in controls (p = 0.0005). No difference was observed for DNA methylation levels in the SMAD3 promoter region between OA cases and controls. No correlation was found between SMAD3 expression and promoter DNA methylation. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that SMAD3 is significantly overexpressed in OA. This overexpression cannot be explained by DNA methylation in the promoter region. The results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD3 pathway may be overactivated in OA cartilage and has potential in developing targeted therapies for OA.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we performed genome-wide association studies to identify candidate SNPs that may predict the risk of disease outcome in colorectal cancer. Patient cohort consisted of 505 unrelated patients with Caucasian ancestry. Germline DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina® human Omni-1quad SNP chip. Associations of SNPs with overall and disease free survivals were examined primarily for 431 patients with microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) or stable (MSS) colorectal tumors using Cox proportional hazards method adjusting for clinical covariates. Bootstrap method was applied for internal validation of results. As exploratory analyses, association analyses for the colon (n = 334) and rectal (n = 171) cancer patients were also performed. As a result, there was no SNP that reached the genomewide significance levels (p < 5x10(-8)) in any of the analyses. A small number of genetic markers (n = 10) showed nominal associations (p <10(-6)) for MSS/MSI-L, colon, or rectal cancer patient groups. These markers were located in two non-coding RNA genes or intergenic regions and none were amino acid substituting polymorphisms. Bootstrap analysis for the MSS/MSI-L cohort data suggested the robustness of the observed nominal associations. Likely due to small number of patients, our study did not identify an acceptable level of association of SNPs with outcome in MSS/MSI-L, colon, or rectal cancer patients. A number of SNPs with sub-optimal p-values were, however, identified; these loci may be promising and examined in other larger-sized patient cohorts.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) metabolite concentrations in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Blood plasma and SF samples were collected from patients with primary knee OA undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Metabolic profiling was performed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using the AbsoluteIDQ kit. The profiling yielded 168 metabolite concentrations. Correlation analysis between SF and plasma metabolite concentrations was done on absolute concentrations as well as metabolite concentration ratios using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ) method. A total of 69 patients with knee OA were included, 30 men and 39 women, with an average age of 66 ± 8 years. For the absolute metabolite concentrations, the average ρ was 0.23 ± 0.13. Only 8 out of 168 metabolite concentrations had a ρ ≥ 0.45, with a p value ≤ 2.98 × 10(-4), statistically significant after correcting multiple testing with the Bonferroni method. For the metabolite ratios (n = 28,056), the average ρ was 0.29 ± 0.20. There were 4018 metabolite ratios with a ρ ≥ 0.52 and a p value ≤ 1.78 × 10(-6), significant after correcting multiple testing. Sex-separate analyses found no difference in ρ between men and women. Similarly, there was no difference in ρ between people younger and older than 65 years. Correlation between blood plasma and SF metabolite concentrations are modest. Metabolite ratios, which are considered proxies for enzymatic reaction rates and have higher correlations, should be considered when using blood plasma as a surrogate of SF in OA biomarker identification.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Rheumatology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To identify metabolic markers that can classify patients with osteoarthritis (OA) into subgroups. Design A case-only study design was utilised. Participants Patients were recruited from those who underwent total knee or hip replacement surgery due to primary OA between November 2011 and December 2013 in St. Clare's Mercy Hospital and Health Science Centre General Hospital in St. John's, capital of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. 38 men and 42 women were included in the study. The mean age was 65.2±8.7 years. Outcome measures Synovial fluid samples were collected at the time of their joint surgeries. Metabolic profiling was performed on the synovial fluid samples by the targeted metabolomics approach, and various analytic methods were utilised to identify metabolic markers for classifying subgroups of patients with OA. Potential confounders such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities were considered in the analysis. Results Two distinct patient groups, A and B, were clearly identified in the 80 patients with OA. Patients in group A had a significantly higher concentration on 37 of 39 acylcarnitines, but the free carnitine was significantly lower in their synovial fluids than in those of patients in group B. The latter group was further subdivided into two subgroups, that is, B1 and B2. The corresponding metabolites that contributed to the grouping were 86 metabolites including 75 glycerophospholipids (6 lysophosphatidylcholines, 69 phosphatidylcholines), 9 sphingolipids, 1 biogenic amine and 1 acylcarnitine. The grouping was not associated with any known confounders including age, sex, BMI and comorbidities. The possible biological processes involved in these clusters are carnitine, lipid and collagen metabolism, respectively. Conclusions The study demonstrated that OA consists of metabolically distinct subgroups. Identification of these distinct subgroups will help to unravel the pathogenesis and develop targeted therapies for OA.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy. Identification of genetic prognostic markers may help prognostic estimations in colorectal cancer. Genes that regulate response to hypoxia and other genes that are regulated under the hypoxic conditions have been shown to play roles in cancer progression. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the hypoxia pathway genes were associated with the risk of outcome in colorectal cancer patients. This study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, 49 SNPs from six hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, LOX, MIF and CXCL12) in 272 colorectal cancer patients were analyzed. In the second phase, 77 SNPs from seven hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, HIF2B, HIF3A, LOX and CXCL12) were analyzed in an additional cohort of 535 patients. Kaplan Meier, Cox univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the SNPs and overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) or disease specific survival (DSS). Since this was a hypothesis-generating study, no correction for multiple testing was applied. In phase I, one SNP (HIF2A rs11125070) was found to be associated with DFS in multivariable analysis; yet association of a proxy polymorphism (HIF2A rs4953342) was not detected in the phase II patient cohort. In phase II, associations of two SNPs (HIF2A rs4953352 and HIF2B rs12593988) were significant in both OS and DFS multivariable analyses. However, association of HIF2A rs4953352 was not replicated in the phase I cohort using a proxy SNP (HIF2A rs6706003). Overall, our study did not find a convincing evidence of association of the investigated polymorphisms with the disease outcomes in colorectal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The British journal of nutrition
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    Preview · Dataset · Feb 2013
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    Preview · Dataset · Feb 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Cohort study. A familial CRC registry in Newfoundland. 529 newly diagnosed CRC patients from Newfoundland. They were recruited from 1999 to 2003 and followed up until April 2010. Participants reported their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified with factor analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate HR and 95% CI for association of dietary patterns with CRC recurrence and death from all causes, after controlling for covariates. Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a high processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.09). No associations were observed with the prudent vegetable or the high-sugar patterns and DFS. The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.40) whereas the relationship between overall survival (OS) and this pattern was observed among patients with colon cancer only (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.43). Potential effect modification was noted for sex (p value for interaction 0.04, HR 3.85 for women and 1.22 for men). The processed meat dietary pattern prior to diagnosis is associated with higher risk of tumour recurrence, metastasis and death among patients with CRC.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMJ Open

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Annals of Epidemiology