Richard van Hillegersberg

Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (322)957.25 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Omitting extensive lymph node dissection could reduce esophagectomy morbidity in patients without lymph node metastases. Sentinel node biopsy may identify abdominal or thoracic lymph node metastases, thereby differentiating treatment. Feasibility of this approach was investigated in Western European esophageal cancer patients with advanced disease, without lymph node metastases at diagnostic work-up. Methods The sentinel node biopsy was performed in eight esophageal cancer patients with cT1-3N0 disease. One day pre-operatively, Tc-99m-labeled nanocolloid was endoscopically injected around the tumor. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 1 and 3 h after injection. All patients underwent robotic thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy with two-field lymph node dissection. Intraoperatively, sentinel nodes were detected by gamma probe. The resection specimen was analyzed for remaining activity by scintigraphy and gamma probe. Results Visualization rates of lymphoscintigraphy 1 and 3 h after tracer injection were 88 and 100 %, respectively. Intraoperative identification rate was 38 %. Postoperative identification was possible in all patients using the gamma probe to analyze the resection specimen. In 5/8 patients, lymph node metastases were found at histopathology, none of which was detected by the sentinel node biopsy. No adverse events related to the sentinel node biopsy were observed. Conclusions In our advanced esophageal cancer patients who underwent thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy, the sentinel node biopsy did not predict lymph node status. Probably the real sentinel node could not be identified due to localization adjacent to the primary tumor or bypassing due to metastatic tumor involvement. Therefore, we consider the sentinel node biopsy not feasible in advanced esophageal cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2016 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Anastomotic leakage is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after esophagectomy. Calcification of the arteries supplying the gastric tube has been identified as a risk factor for leakage of the cervical anastomosis, but its potential contribution to the risk of intrathoracic anastomotic leakage has not been elucidated. This study evaluated the relationship between calcification and the occurrence of leakage of the intrathoracic anastomosis after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer at 2 institutions were analyzed. Diagnostic computed tomography images were used to detect calcification of the arteries supplying the gastric tube (eg, aorta, celiac axis). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between vascular calcification and anastomotic leakage. Results: Of 167 included patients, anastomotic leakage occurred in 40 (24%). In univariable analysis, leakage was most frequently observed in patients with calcification of the aorta (major calcification: 37% leakage [16 of 43]; minor calcification: 32% [18 of 56]; no calcification: 9% [6 of 70], p < 0.001). Calcification of other studied arteries was not significantly associated with leakage. A significant association with leakage remained for minor (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 16.5) and major (odds ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.4) aortic calcifications in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Atherosclerotic calcification of the aorta is an independent risk factor for leakage of the intrathoracic anastomosis after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for cancer. The calcification scoring system may aid in patient selection and lead to earlier diagnosis of this potentially fatal complication.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    Hylke JF Brenkman · Leonie Haverkamp · Jelle P Ruurda · Richard van Hillegersberg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
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    Hylke J.F. Brenkman · Kevin Parry · Richard van Hillegersberg · Jelle P Ruurda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There is no consensus on the optimal technique for hiatal hernia (HH) repair, and considerable recurrence rates are reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perioperative outcomes, quality of life (QoL), and recurrence rate in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic HH repair. Materials and methods: All patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic HH repair between July 2011 and March 2015 were evaluated. The procedure consisted of hernia sac reduction, crural repair without mesh, and Toupet fundoplication. Postoperative radiological imaging or endoscopy was performed in all symptomatic patients to exclude recurrence. Perioperative results were collected retrospectively from the patient records. QoL was evaluated with Short Form-36 (SF-36), Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQOL), and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaires. Results: A total of 40 patients were identified. The majority (75%) had a type III HH. Median operation time was 118 (62-173) minutes; median blood loss was 20 (10-934) mL, and one procedure was converted to an open procedure. In 6 (15%) patients, postoperative complications occurred, including 2 grade II and 1 grades I, III, IV, and V, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Median hospital stay was 3 (1-15) days. At a median follow-up of 11 months, radiological imaging was performed on indication in 12 (30%) patients, and 1 recurrence was found. Overall QoL scores were satisfactory, and there was no difference related to the time elapsed since surgery. Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic HH repair followed by Toupet fundoplication demonstrated a very low short-term recurrence rate. Postoperative morbidity was minimal, and a satisfactory QoL was achieved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques
  • C. Nota · I.Q. Molenaar · J. Hagendoorn · I.H.M. Borel Rinkes · R. van Hillegersberg
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
  • No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · HPB
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Waiting time from diagnosis to treatment has emerged as an important quality indicator in cancer care. This study was designed to determine the impact of waiting time on long-term outcome of patients with esophageal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or primary surgery. Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 2003 and 2014 were included. Patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery and treated with primary surgery were separately analyzed. The influence of waiting time on survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Kaplan-Meier curves for short (<8 weeks) and long (≥8 weeks) waiting times were constructed. Results: A total of 351 patients were included; 214 received neoadjuvant treatment, and 137 underwent primary surgery. In the neoadjuvant group, the waiting time had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.96, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.04; p = 0.312] or overall survival (OS) (HR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.88-1.05; p = 0.372). Accordingly, no differences were found between neoadjuvantly treated patients with waiting times of <8 and ≥8 weeks in terms of DFS (p = 0.506) and OS (p = 0.693). In the primary surgery group, the waiting time had no impact on DFS (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.95-1.12; p = 0.443) or OS (HR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.99-1.13; p = 0.108). Waiting times of <8 weeks versus ≥8 weeks did not result in differences regarding DFS (p = 0.884) or OS (p = 0.374). Conclusions: In esophageal cancer patients treated with curative intent by either neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or primary surgery, waiting time from diagnosis to treatment has no impact on long-term outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
  • L. Haverkamp · M. F. J. Seesing · J. P. Ruurda · J. Boone · R. van Hillegersberg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide trends in surgical techniques for esophageal cancer surgery by comparing it to our survey from 2007. In addition, new questions were added for gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. An international survey on surgery of esophageal and GEJ cancer was performed among surgical members of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus, the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Disease of the Esophagus, the International Gastric Cancer Association. Also, surgeons from personal networks were contacted. The participants filled out a web based questionnaire about surgical strategies for esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer. The overall response rate was 478/1147 (42%). The respondents represented 49 different countries and 6 different continents. The annual cumulative number of esophageal and gastric resections per surgeon was low (≤11) in 11%, medium (11-21) in 17%, and high (≥21) in 72% of respondents. In a subgroup analysis of esophageal surgeons the number of high volume surgeons increased from 45 to 54% over the past 7 years. The preferred lymph node dissection was two-field in 86%. A gastric conduit was the preferred method of reconstruction in 95%. In 2014, the preferred approach to esophagectomy was minimally invasive transthoracic in 43%, compared with 14% in 2007. In minimally invasive transthoracic esophagectomy the cervical anastomosis was favored in 54% of respondents in 2014 compared with 87% in 2007. The preferred technique of construction of the cervical anastomosis was hand-sewn in 64% and stapled in 36%, whereas the thoracic anastomosis was stapled in 77% and hand-sewn in 23%. The preferred surgical approach for Siewert type 1 tumors (5-1 cm proximal of the GEJ) was esophagectomy in 93% of respondents, whereas 6% favored gastrectomy and 3% combined a distal esophagectomy with a proximal gastrectomy. For Siewert type 2 tumors (1-2 cm from the GEJ) an extended gastrectomy was favored by 66% of respondents, followed by esophagectomy in 27% and total gastrectomy in 7%. Siewert type 3 tumors (2-5 cm distal of the GEJ) were preferably treated with gastrectomy in 90% of respondents, esophagectomy in 6%, and extended gastrectomy in 4%. The preferred curative surgical treatment of esophageal cancer is minimally invasive transthoracic esophagectomy with a two-field lymph node dissection and gastric conduit reconstruction. A strong worldwide trend toward minimally invasive surgery is observed. The preferred surgical treatment of GEJ tumors is esophagectomy for Siewert type 1 tumors and gastrectomy for Siewert type 3 tumors. The majority of surgeons favor an extended gastrectomy for Siewert type 2 tumors.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Diseases of the Esophagus
  • K Parry · J P Ruurda · P C van der Sluis · R van Hillegersberg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive techniques in transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) were introduced to reduce morbidity and enhance postoperative recovery. Aim of this study was to systematically review the current status and possible beneficial effects of the minimally invasive approach in THE. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase to identify English articles published on laparoscopic THE. Comparative cohort studies were included for critical appraisal. Data describing perioperative and oncological outcomes were analyzed. A total of four comparative cohort studies that compared laparoscopic THE (n = 122) with open THE (n = 144) and four noncomparative cohort studies reporting on laparoscopic THE (n = 212) were included in this review. Median blood loss was significantly lower in the laparoscopic group in all studies (100-500 vs. 526-900 mL). Length of hospital stay was also significantly shorter for the laparoscopic approach in all studies (9-13 vs. 12-16 days). One study reported less major postoperative complications after laparoscopic THE (12 vs. 23%), in the other studies no differences were found. Also no differences were found with regard to operating time, postoperative morbidity, radicality, and lymph node retrieval. Based on these pioneer studies, laparoscopic THE was demonstrated to be safe and feasible with evidence of reduced blood loss and shorter hospital stays. However, level 1 evidence is lacking and further research is warranted to confirm these findings and also to evaluate long-term oncologic outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis from October 2003 to December 2014 were identified from a prospectively acquired database. Management strategies and related outcomes among patients with anastomotic leakage confined to the neck were compared to patients with intrathoracic manifestation of anastomotic leakage. From a total of 286 patients, leakage of the cervical anastomosis occurred in 60 patients (21%) at a median time of 7 days after esophagectomy. Leakage was confined to the neck in 23 of 60 patients (38%), whereas 37 of 60 patients (62%) presented with intrathoracic spread. Leakages with intrathoracic manifestation were more frequently accompanied by a positive SIRS score compared to leakages confined to the neck (73% vs. 35%, respectively; P = 0.004). Drainage of the anastomotic leakage through the neck wound was effective in all of 23 patients (100%) with cervical manifestation. In patients with intrathoracic manifestation, mediastinal drainage through the neck was successful in 15 of 37 patients (41%), whereas 22 patients (59%) required an intervention through the thoracic cavity. Compared to patients with leakage confined to the neck, patients with intrathoracic manifestation showed prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (median 6 vs. 2 days, respectively; P = 0.001), hospital stay (median 34 vs. 19 days, respectively; P < 0.001), and time to oral intake (32 vs. 23 days, respectively; P = 0.018). Intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage occurs in more than half of patients with anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer. A SIRS reaction should raise the suspicion of intrathoracic spread of leakage. Intrathoracic manifestation can be managed effectively by mediastinal drainage through the neck in 41% of patients, but a reintervention through the thoracic cavity is required in 59%. Intrathoracic manifestation of leakage results in prolonged ICU/hospital stay and delays time to oral intake compared with leakage confined to the neck.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Diseases of the Esophagus
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oncologic value of omentectomy in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: All consecutive patients with gastric cancer that underwent gastrectomy with curative intent between April 2012 and August 2015 were prospectively analyzed. The greater omentum was separately marked during operation and pathologically evaluated for the presence of omental lymph nodes and tumor deposits. Results: In total, 50 patients were included. The greater omentum harbored lymph nodes in nine (18 %) patients. The omental lymph nodes contained metastases in one (2 %) patient, still free of disease after 20 months. Omental tumor deposits were found in four (8 %) patients; one died <30 days postoperative and three developed peritoneal carcinomatosa after 4, 4, and 8 months. Patients with omental tumor deposits had a significantly reduced 1-year disease-free survival compared to patients without tumor deposits (0 vs. 58.7 %, p = 0.003). No predictive factors for omental tumor involvement could be identified. Conclusion: Omental lymph node metastases or tumor deposits are present in 10 % of Western European patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Omentectomy has a prognostic and oncologic value in the curative treatment of patients with gastric cancer. As no predictive factors for omental tumor involvement could be identified, omentectomy should be the standard in gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pneumonia is an important complication following esophagectomy; however, a wide range of pneumonia incidence is reported. The lack of one generally accepted definition prevents valid inter-study comparisons. We aimed to simplify and validate an existing scoring model to define pneumonia following esophagectomy. Patients and methods: The Utrecht Pneumonia Score, comprising of pulmonary radiography findings, leucocyte count, and temperature, was simplified and internally validated using bootstrapping in the dataset (n = 185) in which it was developed. Subsequently, the intercept and (shrunk) coefficients of the developed multivariable logistic regression model were applied to an external dataset (n = 201) RESULTS: In the revised Uniform Pneumonia Score, points are assigned based on the temperature, the leucocyte, and the findings of pulmonary radiography. The model discrimination was excellent in the internal validation set and in the external validation set (C-statistics 0.93 and 0.91, respectively); furthermore, the model calibrated well in both cohorts. Conclusion: The revised Uniform Pneumonia Score (rUPS) can serve as a means to define post-esophagectomy pneumonia. Utilization of a uniform definition for pneumonia will improve inter-study comparability and improve the evaluations of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the pneumonia incidence.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • Aristotelis Kechagias · Peter S.N. van Rossum · Jelle P. Ruurda · Richard van Hillegersberg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophagectomy with esophagogastric anastomosis is a major procedure, and its most feared complication is anastomotic leakage. Ischemic conditioning of the stomach is a method used with the aim of reducing the risk of leakage. It consists of partial gastric devascularization through embolization or laparoscopy followed by esophagectomy and anastomosis at a second stage, thus providing the time for the gastric conduit to adapt to the acute ischemia at the time of its formation. This review analyzes the information from all currently available experimental and clinical studies with the purpose of assessing the current role of the technique and to provide future recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Resectable gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors are treated either with an esophageal-cardia resection or with gastrectomy. The difference in outcome between these two treatment modalities is unknown; Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate population-based treatment strategies for patients with resectable adenocarcinomas of the GEJ and to compare the oncological outcomes. Methods: Patients with potentially resectable GEJ tumors diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 were selected from the nationwide, population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry. Differences between patients were compared using the χ (2) test, and survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Overall multivariate survival was assessed using Cox regression analyses. Results: Patients treated with esophagectomy (n = 939) were significantly younger than patients treated with gastrectomy (n = 257; 64 vs. 66 years; p < 0.001), and no differences were noted regarding lymph node yield, lymph node ratio, and radicality. Patients treated with an esophagectomy or gastrectomy exhibited comparable overall 5-year survival rates (36 vs. 33 %, respectively; p = 0.250). Multivariate analysis showed that patients receiving perioperative treatment and gastrectomy exhibited similar overall survival rates compared with patients receiving perioperative treatment and esophagectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.3; p = 0.908]; however, patients receiving esophagectomy alone (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.3-1.8; p = 0.002) or gastrectomy alone (HR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.4-2.4; p < 0.001) exhibited a significantly worse overall survival. Conclusions: The chosen type of surgery (esophagectomy or gastrectomy) did not influence the overall survival in our cohort of patients with GEJ tumors. The administration of perioperative chemo(radio)therapy improved survival regardless of the surgical approach.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy is investigated are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the feasibility and pitfalls of sparing pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy. Methods: In 10 human cadavers, a thoracoscopic esophagectomy was performed while sparing the pulmonary vagus nerve branches. The number of intact nerve branches, their distribution over the lung lobes and the number and location of the remaining lymph nodes in the relevant esophageal lymph node stations (7, 10R and 10L) were recorded during microscopic dissection. Results: A median of 9 (range 5-16) right pulmonary vagus nerve branches were spared, of which 4 (0-12) coursed to the right middle/inferior lung lobe. On the left side, 10 (3-12) vagus nerve branches were spared, of which 4 (2-10) coursed to the inferior lobe. In 8 cases, lymph nodes were left behind, at stations 10R and 10L while sparing the vagus nerve branches. Lymph nodes at station 7 were always removed. Conclusions: Sparing of pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy is feasible. Extra care should be given to the dissection of peribronchial lymph nodes, station 10R and 10L.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Efforts to improve the outcome of liver surgery by combining curative resection with chemotherapy have failed to demonstrate definite overall survival benefit. This may partly be due to the fact that these studies often involve strict inclusion criteria. Consequently, patients with a high risk profile as characterized by Fong’s Clinical Risk Score (CRS) are often underrepresented in these studies. Conceptually, this group of patients might benefit the most from chemotherapy. The present study evaluates the impact of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk patients with primary resectable colorectal liver metastases, without extrahepatic disease. Our hypothesis is that adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will provide an improvement in overall survival (OS) in patients with a high-risk profile. Methods/Design CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial. Patients will be randomized to either surgery alone (standard treatment, arm A) or to 6 cycles of neo-adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, followed by surgery (arm B). Patients must be ≥ 18 years of age with liver metastases of histologically confirmed primary colorectal carcinoma. Patients with extrahepatic metastases are excluded. Liver metastases must be deemed primarily resectable. Only patients with a CRS of 3–5 are eligible. The primary study endpoint is OS. Secondary endpoints are progression free survival (PFS), quality of life, morbidity of resection, treatment response on neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and whether CEA levels can predict treatment response. Discussion CHARISMA is a multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial that will provide an answer to the question if adding neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery will improve OS in a well-defined high-risk patient group with colorectal liver metastases. Trial registration The CHARISMA is registered at European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT), number: 2013-004952-39, and in the “Netherlands national Trial Register (NTR), number: 4893.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Cancer

Publication Stats

4k Citations
957.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2007-2012
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Surgery
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Surgery
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993-2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Surgery
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands