Robert A Rosenheck

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (457)1739.48 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares the cost-effectiveness of Navigate (NAV), a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first episode psychosis (FEP) and usual Community Care (CC) in a cluster randomization trial. Patients at 34 community treatment clinics were randomly assigned to either NAV (N = 223) or CC (N = 181) for 2 years. Effectiveness was measured as a one standard deviation change on the Quality of Life Scale (QLS-SD). Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were evaluated with bootstrap distributions. The Net Health Benefits Approach was used to evaluate the probability that the value of NAV benefits exceeded its costs relative to CC from the perspective of the health care system. The NAV group improved significantly more on the QLS and had higher outpatient mental health and antipsychotic medication costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $12 081/QLS-SD, with a .94 probability that NAV was more cost-effective than CC at $40 000/QLS-SD. When converted to monetized Quality Adjusted Life Years, NAV benefits exceeded costs, especially at future generic drug prices.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
  • Jack Tsai · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study examined factors associated with employment among homeless men with mental illness, particularly history of criminal justice involvement. Methods: Data from 569 homeless men in the 11-site Collaborative Initiative to Help End Chronic Homelessness (2004-2009) and 1,101 homeless male veterans in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program at 19 sites (1992-2003) were analyzed. Results: In neither sample was criminal or incarceration history significantly associated with job attainment or earnings for either black or white participants. In contrast, psychotic disorders and public-support income were negatively associated with job attainment and earnings. The majority of homeless veterans reported lifetime occupations as skilled or unskilled manual workers. Conclusions: These findings highlight the high rate of nonemployment among homeless men and suggest that employment among homeless men is not significantly impeded by a criminal record but by psychiatric problems and reliance on public-support income.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
  • John J. Sellinger · Mehmet Sofuoglu · Robert D. Kerns · Robert A. Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among Veterans treated within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Depression is highly co-prevalent, and antidepressants are increasingly being used for psychiatric and analgesic benefit. The current study examined prescribing patterns of antidepressants and opioids in the context of musculoskeletal pain using a national VHA database. All Veterans diagnosed with musculoskeletal pain who attended at least one appointment through the VHA during Fiscal Year 2012 were dichotomized based on the presence or absence of a depression diagnosis. We compared the proportion in each group that were prescribed antidepressants to the entire sample and repeated this comparison along a continuum of the number of annual opioid prescriptions received (ranging in five categories from no opioids up to >20 scripts). Of the 5.1 million Veterans seen, 19.1 % were diagnosed with musculoskeletal pain, of whom, 27.2 % were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Antidepressants were prescribed to 78.41 % of patients with musculoskeletal pain and depression, compared to 20.23 % of those without depression. For both groups, antidepressant use increased linearly as annual opioid fills increased. Across the categories of opioid use, patients with depression showed a 13.98 % increase in antidepressant use, compared to a 33.97 % increase in the non-depressed group. Results suggest that antidepressants are frequently prescribed to patients with musculoskeletal pain who are using opioids, consistent with multi-modal pharmacotherapy. Increasing use of antidepressants in conjunction with escalating opioid prescribing, particularly in the absence of diagnosed depression, suggests that antidepressants are being used in both groups to complement opioid therapy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Psychiatric Quarterly
  • Eric D A Hermes · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Computer-based psychotherapy interventions (CBPIs) are increasingly offered as first-level access to evidence-based mental health treatment. However, their implementation has not been evaluated in public-sector outpatient settings. Methods: An evidence-based CBPI for insomnia was implemented with provider and patient education sessions, on-site Internet access, and clinician telephone support. Persons receiving care at a Veterans Health Administration substance abuse treatment clinic were screened for chronic insomnia and offered CBPI access. The feasibility of this strategy was evaluated in a pre-post design, which assessed engagement and completion rates, participant-reported acceptability, and clinical outcomes. Results: Of 100 veterans referred, 51 enrolled in the program, of whom 22 (43%) completed all sessions, 13 (26%) partially completed the program, and 16 (31%) did not engage. There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups in baseline characteristics. In the total sample, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scores decreased (improved) by 32% (mean±SD of 6.3±6.2 points, t=6.82, df=44, p<.001). Veterans who completed all six sessions displayed clinically and statistically significant improvements on the ISI compared with those who did not engage, as shown in a regression analysis that controlled for baseline insomnia severity, time between assessments, and sedative-hypnotic medication use (F=3.87, df=4 and 40, p≤.004). Among all participants, 67% agreed that they would engage in another CBPI in the future. When questioned about potential barriers, 36% of the full sample endorsed a preference for face-to-face therapy. Conclusions: A strategy of brief provider and patient education, on-site Internet access, and telephone support was feasible and effective for implementing CBPIs in outpatient substance abuse treatment settings for veterans.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare the impact of NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first-episode psychosis designed for implementation in the U.S. health care system, with community care on quality of life. Method: Thirty-four clinics in 21 states were randomly assigned to NAVIGATE or community care. Diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinical outcomes were assessed via live, two-way video by remote, centralized raters masked to study design and treatment. Participants (mean age, 23) with schizophrenia and related disorders and ≤6 months of antipsychotic treatment (N=404) were enrolled and followed for ≥2 years. The primary outcome was the total score of the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, a measure that includes sense of purpose, motivation, emotional and social interactions, role functioning, and engagement in regular activities. Results: The 223 recipients of NAVIGATE remained in treatment longer, experienced greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology, and experienced greater involvement in work and school compared with 181 participants in community care. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 74 weeks. NAVIGATE participants with duration of untreated psychosis of <74 weeks had greater improvement in quality of life and psychopathology compared with those with longer duration of untreated psychosis and those in community care. Rates of hospitalization were relatively low compared with other first-episode psychosis clinical trials and did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Comprehensive care for first-episode psychosis can be implemented in U.S. community clinics and improves functional and clinical outcomes. Effects are more pronounced for those with shorter duration of untreated psychosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry
  • Jack Tsai · Wesley J Kasprow · Dennis Culhane · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Among homeless veterans and those at risk of homelessness currently enrolled in Veterans Affairs (VA) health care, this study examined the proportion likely to become eligible for Medicaid in 2014 and their health needs. Methods: A total of 114,497 homeless and at-risk veterans were categorized into three groups: currently covered by Medicaid, likely to become eligible for Medicaid, and not likely. Results: Seventy-eight percent of the sample was determined to be likely to become eligible for Medicaid in states that expand Medicaid. Compared with veterans not likely to become eligible for Medicaid, those likely to become eligible were less likely to have general medical and psychiatric conditions and to have a VA service-connected disability but more likely to have substance use disorders. Conclusions: Programs serving homeless and at-risk veterans should anticipate the potential interplay between VA health care and the expansion of Medicaid in states that implement the expansion.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
  • Samuel T. Wilkinson · Elina Stefanovics · Robert A. Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: An increasing number of states have approved posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana, although little evidence exists evaluating the effect of marijuana use in PTSD. We examined the association between marijuana use and PTSD symptom severity in a longitudinal, observational study. Method: From 1992 to 2011, veterans with DSM-III/-IV PTSD (N = 2,276) were admitted to specialized Veterans Affairs treatment programs, with assessments conducted at intake and 4 months after discharge. Subjects were classified into 4 groups according to marijuana use: Those with no use at admission or after discharge ("never-users"), those who used at admission but not after discharge ("stoppers"), those who used at admission and after discharge ("continuing users"), and those using after discharge but not at admission ("starters"). Analyses of variance compared baseline characteristics and identified relevant covariates. Analyses of covariance then compared groups on follow-up measures of PTSD symptoms, drug and alcohol use, violent behavior, and employment. Results: After we adjusted for relevant baseline covariates, marijuana use was significantly associated with worse outcomes in PTSD symptom severity (P < .01), violent behavior (P < .01), and measures of alcohol and drug use (P < .01) when compared with stoppers and never-users. At follow-up, stoppers and never-users had the lowest levels of PTSD symptoms (P < .0001), and starters had the highest levels of violent behavior (P < .0001). After adjusting for covariates and using never-users as a reference, starting marijuana use had an effect size on PTSD symptoms of +0.34 (Cohen d = change/SD), and stopping marijuana use had an effect size of -0.18. Conclusions: In this observational study, initiating marijuana use after treatment was associated with worse PTSD symptoms, more violent behavior, and alcohol use. Marijuana may actually worsen PTSD symptoms or nullify the benefits of specialized, intensive treatment. Cessation or prevention of use may be an important goal of treatment.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
  • Nickie Mathew · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Frequent prescription opioid use has been recognized as a growing problem but there have been no studies specifically among veterans with serious mental illness (SMI). National data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) during Fiscal Year 2012 show that VHA patients with SMI receive more opioid prescriptions than other veterans. Additionally, high numbers of opioid prescriptions is associated with greater use of anxiolytics/sedative-hypnotics, drug dependence and COPD-all of which pose an increased risk of respiratory depression and falls and warrant substantial caution and improved coordination between mental health and non-mental health prescribers to evaluate risk-benefit tradeoffs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Community Mental Health Journal
  • Jack Tsai · Sriram Ramaswamy · Subhash C. Bhatia · Robert A. Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored differences between homeless male veterans in metropolitan and micropolitan cities in Nebraska on sociodemographic, housing, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics as well as health service use. A convenience sample of 151 homeless male veterans (112 metropolitan, 39 micropolitan) were recruited from Veterans Affairs facilities and area shelters in Omaha, Lincoln, Grand Island, and Hastings in Nebraska. Research staff conducted structured interviews with homeless veterans. Results showed that compared to homeless veterans in metropolitans, those in micropolitans were more likely to be White, unmarried, living in transitional settings, and were far more transient but reported greater social support and housing satisfaction. Veterans in micropolitans also reported more medical problems, diagnoses of anxiety and personality disorders, and unexpectedly, were more likely to report using various health services and less travel time for services. Together, these findings suggest access to homeless and health services for veterans in micropolitan areas may be facilitated through Veterans Affairs facilities and community providers that work in close proximity to one another. Many homeless veterans in these areas are transient, making them a difficult population to study and serve. Innovative ways to provide outreach to homeless veterans in micropolitan and more rural areas are needed.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American Journal of Community Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based method to assess the ability of disabled persons to manage federal disability payments. This article describes the development of the Financial Incapability Structured Clinical Assessment done Longitudinally (FISCAL) measure of financial capability. The FISCAL was developed by an iterative process of literature review, pilot testing, and expert consultation. Independent assessors used the FISCAL to rate the financial capability of 118 participants (57% female, 58% Caucasian) who received Social Security disability payments, had recently been treated in acute care facilities for psychiatric disorders, and who did not have representative payees or conservators. Altogether, 48% of participants were determined financially incapable by the FISCAL, of whom 60% were incapable because of unmet basic needs, 91% were incapable because of spending that harmed them (e.g., on illicit drugs or alcohol), 56% were incapable because of both unmet needs and harmful spending, and 5% were incapable because of contextual factors. As expected, incapable individuals scored higher on a measure of money mismanagement (p < .001) compared with capable individuals. Interrater reliability for FISCAL capability determinations was very good (κ = .77) and interrater agreement was 89%. In this population, the FISCAL had construct validity; ratings demonstrated good reliability and correlated with a related measure. Potentially, the FISCAL can be used to validate other measures of capability and to help understand how people on limited incomes manage their funds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Psychological Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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    Greg A. Greenberg · Robert A. Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Past research has found that veterans are at modestly greater risk than non-veterans for homelessness. Most attempts to explain these findings have focused on sociodemographic risk factors such as age, race, and prevalent mental illness. Less attention has been given to a potential proximate explanation of homelessness, housing status (i.e., home ownership and housing cost burden). We used data from the 2006 American Community Survey to examine whether male veterans in age-race/ethnic groups at greatest risk of homelessness are also less likely to own a home than matched male non-veterans, and whether they have a greater likelihood of experiencing housing cost burdens that could put them at risk of homelessness. Compared to non-veterans, recently discharged veterans and veterans from the immediate post-Vietnam era, veteran cohorts at greatest relative risk of homelessness were significantly less likely than their non-veteran peers to own their home while other cohorts of veterans were significantly more likely to own their home. However, veterans of virtually all ethnic and age groups were significantly and substantially less likely than their non-veteran peers to experience severe housing cost burdens. These data suggest that housing status does not explain the increased risk of homelessness among selected veteran subgroups.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
  • Jack Tsai · Robert A Rosenheck · Wesley J Kasprow · Vincent Kane
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the number of homeless veterans with minor children in their custody ("children in custody"), compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics among homeless veterans with and without children in custody, and observed differences in referral and admission patterns among veterans with and without children in custody for a variety of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) programs for homeless veterans. Data were obtained from the VA Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System for 89,142 literally homeless and unstably housed veterans. Sociodemographic, housing, health, and psychosocial characteristics of veterans were analyzed. Among literally homeless veterans, 9% of men and 30% of women had children in custody; among unstably housed veterans, 18% of men and 45% of women had children in custody. Both male and female veterans with children in custody were younger and less likely to have chronic general medical conditions and psychiatric disorders compared with other veterans, but, notably, 11% of homeless veterans with children in custody had psychotic disorders. Veterans with children in custody were more likely than other veterans to be referred and admitted to the VA's permanent supported housing program, and women were more likely than men to be admitted to the program. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans served by the VA have severe mental illness and children in custody, which raises concerns about the parenting environment for their children. Particular focus should be directed at VA's supported-housing program, and the practical and ethical implications of serving homeless parents and their children need to be considered.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
  • Gihyun Yoon · Ismene L Petrakis · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses medical and psychiatric comorbidities, service utilization, and psychotropic medication prescriptions in veterans with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to veterans with MDD alone. Using cross-sectional administrative data (fiscal year [FY]2012: October 1, 2011-September 30, 2012) from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we identified veterans with a diagnosis of current (12-month) MDD nationally (N = 309,374), 18.8% of whom were also diagnosed with current (12-month) AUD. Veterans with both MDD and AUD were compared to those with MDD alone on sociodemographic characteristics, current (12-month) medical and psychiatric disorders, service utilization, and psychotropic prescriptions. We then used logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of characteristics that were independently different between the groups. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD, relative to veterans with MDD alone, had a greater number of comorbid health conditions, such as liver disease, drug use disorders, and bipolar disorder as well as greater likelihood of homelessness and higher service utilization. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD had more frequent medical and psychiatric comorbidities and more frequently had been homeless. These data suggest the importance of assessing the presence of comorbid medical/psychiatric disorders and potential homelessness in order to provide appropriately comprehensive treatment to dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD and indicate a need to develop more effective treatments for combined disorders. (Am J Addict 2015;XX:XX -XX). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · American Journal on Addictions
  • Carla Marienfeld · Robert A Rosenheck
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    ABSTRACT: Co-morbidity and co-prescription patterns of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance may complicate their treatment and have not been studied. The goal of this study was to examine the care and characteristics of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatmentnationally in the Veterans health Administration (VHA). Using national VHA data from FY2012, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare veterans in methadone maintenance treatment who had a serious mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major affective disorder) to patients in methadone maintenance treatment without serious mental illness and patients with serious mental illness who were not in methadone maintenance treatment. Only a small fraction of patients with serious mental illness were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (0.65%), but a relatively large proportion in methadone maintenance treatment had a serious mental illness (33.2%). Compared to patients without serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have been homeless, have had a recent psychiatric hospitalization; more likely to be over 50% disabled, more fills for more classes of psychotropic drugs. Compared to other patients with serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have a drug abuse diagnosis and to reside in large urban areas. One third of patients in methadone maintenance treatment have serious mental illness have more frequent psychiatric comorbidity, and homelessness and are more likely to use psychiatric and general health services and fill more types of psychiatric prescriptions. Further study and clinical awareness of potential drug-drug interactions in this high medication and service using population are needed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Dual Diagnosis
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    ABSTRACT: We used national data for fiscal year 2012 to examine demographic, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, indications for psychotropics, and service use correlates of psychotropic medication fills in Veterans with at least 10 opioid prescriptions during the year (the highest 29% of opioid users); and whether the Veteran was treated in a specialty mental health clinic. Of the 328,398 Veterans who filled at least 10 opioid prescriptions, 77% also received psychotropics, of whom: 74% received antidepressants, 55% anxiolytics/sedatives/hypnotics, and 26% three or more classes of psychotropic medications. Altogether, 87% had a psychiatric or medical indication; and 54% received mental health treatment. Veterans treated in a mental health clinic were prescribed more psychotropics and were more likely to have a documented psychiatric or medical indication than those treated solely in other settings. Indicated psychiatric diagnoses were the strongest predictors of specific class of psychotropics prescribed; anxiety disorder and insomnia were most strongly associated with anxioloytics/sedatives/hypnotics receipt. Since psychotropics and opioids can produce harmful side effects, especially when combined, and since they are likely prescribed by separate providers in different settings, coordinated consideration of the risks and benefits of co-prescribing these medications may be needed, along with further study of related adverse events. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive coordinated specialty care programs for first-episode psychosis have been widely implemented in other countries but not in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health's Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) initiative focused on the development and evaluation of first-episode treatment programs designed for the U.S. health care system. This article describes the background, rationale, and nature of the intervention developed by the RAISE Early Treatment Program project-known as the NAVIGATE program-with a particular focus on its psychosocial components. NAVIGATE is a team-based, multicomponent treatment program designed to be implemented in routine mental health treatment settings and aimed at guiding people with a first episode of psychosis (and their families) toward psychological and functional health. The core services provided in the NAVIGATE program include the family education program (FEP), individual resiliency training (IRT), supported employment and education (SEE), and individualized medication treatment. NAVIGATE embraces a shared decision-making approach with a focus on strengths and resiliency and on collaboration with clients and family members in treatment planning and reviews. The NAVIGATE program has the potential to fill an important gap in the U.S. health care system by providing a comprehensive intervention specially designed to meet the unique treatment needs of persons recovering from a first episode of psychosis. A cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing NAVIGATE with usual community care has recently been completed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The premise of the National Institute of Mental Health Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) is to combine state-of-the-Art pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments delivered by a well-trained, multidisciplinary team in order to significantly improve the functional outcome and quality of life for first-episode psychosis patients. The study is being conducted in non-Academic (ie, real-world) treatment settings, using primarily extant reimbursement mechanisms. Method: We developed a treatment model and training program based on extensive literature review and expert consultation. Our primary aim is to compare the experimental intervention to "usual care" on quality of life. Secondary aims include comparisons on remission, recovery, and cost-effectiveness. Patients 15-40 years old with a first episode of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, or brief psychotic disorder according to DSM-IV and no more than 6 months of treatment with antipsychotic medications were eligible. Patients are followed for a minimum of 2 years, with major assessments conducted by blinded, centralized raters using live, 2-way video. We selected 34 clinical sites in 21 states and utilized cluster randomization to assign 17 sites to the experimental treatment and 17 to usual care. Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in July 2012 with 404 subjects. The results of the trial will be published separately. The goal of the article is to present both the overall development of the intervention and the design of the clinical trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Conclusions: We believe that we have succeeded in both designing a multimodal treatment intervention that can be delivered in real-world clinical settings and implementing a controlled clinical trial that can provide the necessary outcome data to determine its impact on the trajectory of early phase schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment guidelines suggest distinctive medication strategies for first-episode and multiepisode patients with schizophrenia. To assess the extent to which community clinicians adjust their usual treatment regimens for first-episode patients, the authors examined prescription patterns and factors associated with prescription choice in a national cohort of early-phase patients. Prescription data at study entry were obtained from 404 participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Project's Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP), a nationwide multisite effectiveness study for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Treatment with antipsychotics did not exceed 6 months at study entry. The authors identified 159 patients (39.4% of the sample) who might benefit from changes in their psychotropic prescriptions. Of these, 8.8% received prescriptions for recommended antipsychotics at higher than recommended dosages; 32.1% received prescriptions for olanzapine (often at high dosages), 23.3% for more than one antipsychotic, 36.5% for an antipsychotic and also an antidepressant without a clear indication, 10.1% for psychotropic medications without an antipsychotic, and 1.2% for stimulants. Multivariate analysis showed evidence for sex, age, and insurance status effects on prescription practices. Racial and ethnic effects consistent with effects reported in previous studies of multiepisode patients were found in univariate analyses. Despite some regional variations in prescription practices, no region consistently had different practices from the others. Diagnosis had limited and inconsistent effects. Besides prescriber education, policy makers may need to consider not only patient factors but also service delivery factors in efforts to improve prescription practices for first-episode schizophrenia patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Psychiatry

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,739.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2000-2015
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • The Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999-2015
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2010
    • West Haven University
      West Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2007
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Southern California
      • Marshall School of Business
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Psychiatry
      North Carolina, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States