[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bedaquiline has recently been approved for the treatment of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) as part of combination
therapy in adults. It is metabolized primarily by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) to a less-active N-monodesmethyl metabolite. Phase I and Phase II studies in healthy subjects and patients with drug-susceptible or multidrug-resistant
TB have assessed the pharmacokinetics and drug–drug interaction profile of bedaquiline. Potential interactions have been assessed
between bedaquiline and first- and second-line anti-TB drugs (rifampicin, rifapentine, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol,
kanamycin, ofloxacin and cycloserine), commonly used antiretroviral agents (lopinavir/ritonavir, nevirapine and efavirenz)
and a potent CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole). This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic profile of bedaquiline as well as
the results of the drug–drug interaction studies.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated.
Drug concentrations in CSF and plasma were concomitantly determined for a large group of HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Samples were analyzed using a validated method consisting of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. For patients with detectable levels of virus, genotypic analysis was performed, followed by a virtual phenotype study.
Sixty-three HIV-infected patients were included in the study, 78% of whom were affected by neurological disease. Drug concentrations in CSF specimens were undetectable for didanosine, efavirenz, nelfinavir, and concomitantly administered ritonavir and saquinavir. CSF concentrations were higher for nevirapine, with a median CSF-to-plasma concentration ratio of 0.63, followed by lamivudine (0.23), stavudine (0.20), and indinavir (0.11). In 18 of the 40 patients with virtual phenotype data available for virus recovered from CSF samples and from plasma samples, differences in fold-change of resistance between the CSF virus and the plasma virus were noted for at least 1 drug. Factors associated with having differences in fold-change of resistance were number of drugs to which the patient had been exposed (P=.02) and presence of neurological disease (P=.05). A significant association was found between duration of therapy and fold-change of resistance in CSF and plasma isolates.
Antiretrovirals have different levels of penetration in the CSF, with several drugs achieving only low CSF concentrations. CSF isolates have different resistance profiles than do plasma isolates. Effective treatment decisions for CSF manifestations of disease may require better knowledge of drug penetration and the drug susceptibility of HIV in the CSF.
Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in virologic response were compared in 32 HIV-infected children with a nelfinavir trough concentration either below (n=7) or above (n=25) 0.8 mg/L. Virologic response at week 48 was observed in 29% of children with subtherapeutic nelfinavir troughs versus 80% in children with therapeutic nelfinavir troughs (P=.02).
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the normalized inhibitory quotient (NIQ) of lopinavir (LPV) as a predictor of 48-week virological responses to a lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV)-containing regimen in highly treatment-experienced patients.
We calculated the NIQ for 59 patients who completed 48 weeks' treatment and assessed the factors predicting a week-48 virological response.
The NIQ was calculated by dividing each subject's IQ (LPV Ctrough/fold change in LPV susceptibility, as assessed by VirtualPhenotype) by a reference IQ (mean population LPV Ctrough/fold change in LPV IC50, as assessed by VirtualPhenotype). HIV-1 RNA was assessed by NASBA (quantification limit: 80 copies/ml). The general linear model and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were used to estimate the independent predictors of a change in viral load and HIV-1 RNA <80 copies/ml.
The median (interquartile range) baseline levels of CD4+ cells and HIV-1 RNA were 251 (141-385) cells/microl and 4.85 (4.49-5.23) log10 copies/ml, respectively. The median NIQ was 2.2 (0.5-14). At week 48, the median decrease in HIV-1 RNA was 1.4 (0.59-2.79) log10 copies/ml (P<0.0001), with 24 subjects (41%) reaching <80 copies/mi. Baseline HIV-1 RNA (P=0.001), CD4+ cells (P=0.002) and NIQ (P=0.0006) independently predicted the week-48 change in viral load, whereas baseline CD4+ cells (P=0.011) and NIQ (P=0.009) independently predicted a week-48 HIV-1 RNA level of <80 copies/ml.
The LPV NIQ independently predicts virological responses to an LPV/RTV-containing regimen in highly treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Antiviral therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the predictive value of self-reported adherence and plasma drug concentrations on virological rebound to HAART. Among 238 participants in the AdICoNA study who had viral load < or = 500 copies/ml, 42 (17.6%) experienced virological rebound by 96 weeks. Both self-reported non-adherence and sub-optimal concentration were independently associated with a higher risk of virological rebound.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Antiviral therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of 800 mg and 1200 mg of saquinavir soft-gel caps (SQV-SGC) twice daily plus 100 mg itraconazole once daily were compared to 1400 mg SQV-SGC twice daily without itraconazole.
The pharmacokinetics of SQV were determined in 17 randomly selected patients on 1400 mg twice daily SQV-SGC without itraconazole and after 2 weeks with lower SQV-SGC doses plus itraconazole. SQV plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a non-compartmental model.
Median (+IQR) area under plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0-12h) were 3.33 (1.96-7.34), 4.29 (3.14-7.67) and 4.07 (2.76-4.49) mg/l x h for SQV 1400 mg without itraconazole, SQV 1200 mg with itraconazole and SQV 800 mg with itraconazole, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. The median Cmin was above the proposed minimum effective concentration of 0.05 mg/l for all three regimens.
SQV-SGC 800 mg or 1200 mg twice daily boosted with 100 mg of itraconazole once daily resulted in adequate SQV pharmacokinetics not significantly different from SQV-SGC 1400 mg twice daily.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and virologic treatment failure was investigated to determine the minimum effective concentration of nelfinavir. Plasma samples were prospectively collected from treatment-naive patients who began taking nelfinavir, 1,250 mg BID + two nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (NRTIs). Nelfinavir concentration ratios were calculated by dividing each individual nelfinavir level by the time-adjusted population value. Virologic failure was defined as either no response (a detectable viral load after 6 months) or a relapse (detectable viral load after being undetectable, or an increase in viral load >1 log above nadir). Forty-eight patients were included with a median follow-up period of 8 months. The median concentration ratio of nelfinavir was 0.98 (interquartile range, 0.76-1.47). Virologic failure was observed in 29% of the patients. In a univariate analysis, the nelfinavir concentration ratio appeared to be the single determinant that was related to virologic failure (P = 0.039). Patients with a median ratio <0.90 had a relative risk of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.2-7.6) for virologic failure. Using this threshold, virologic failures were detected with 64% sensitivity and 74% specificity (P = 0.014). Virologic failure of nelfinavir-containing triple therapy can be explained, to a large extent, by low plasma levels of nelfinavir.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors investigated the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir in HIV-1-infected children in a dosage of 30 mg/kg every 8 hours and 45 mg/kg every 12 hours in 12 HIV-1-infected children (aged 2.1 to 10.8 years) participating in an open-label study of nelfinavir in combination with stavudine and lamivudine. Median values of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters of nelfinavir 30 mg/kg every-8-hours (n = 8) and 45 mg/kg every 12 hours (n = 10) were, respectively, for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 24 hours, 90.5 and 71.9 h x microg/mL, for the trough concentration 1.9 and 1.0 microg/mL, and for the maximal concentration 6.3 and 5.2 microg/mL. Overall, a 7-fold interpatient variability was observed for the exposure to nelfinavir. Nelfinavir 30 mg/kg every-8-hours or 45 mg/kg every 12 hours in HIV-1-infected children generally resulted in plasma concentrations higher than those obtained in adults. However, due to a large interpatient variability in the exposure, individual dosage adjustments based on plasma concentrations may be necessary for both dosing regimens to ensure optimal treatment.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of HIV-1 drug resistance at baseline and antiretroviral drug levels (DL) during follow-up on virologic response to the next antiretroviral regimen.
Baseline genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility was obtained for plasma virus from patients failing a protease inhibitor-containing regimen. Untimed plasma antiretroviral DL were performed and the distribution of DL after 12 weeks of follow-up was classified as above (DLHigh) or below (DLLow) the median. Inhibitory quotients [IQ = (DL at week 12)/(fold change in IC50 to wild-type)] were determined for each drug in the regimen. Primary outcome was change in log10 plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (DeltaVL) from baseline to 12 weeks.
There were 137 patients who had baseline resistance data available for the antiretroviral drugs used in the salvage regimen, and DL at week 12. Each drug with DLHigh was associated with DeltaVL = -0.40 (P = 0.0002) while each drug with DLLow had DeltaVL = -0.16 (P = 0.11). In multivariate models DeltaVL associated with each active drug (defined by genotype) with DLHigh was -0.48 log10 (P < 0.0001), and with each active drug with DLLow was -0.22 (P = 0.03). The DeltaVL was -0.18 if no drugs in the regimen had an IQ > median, compared to -0.58 for one drug, -1.06 for two drugs, -0.86 for three drugs, and -1.44 for four or five drugs with IQ > median (P < 0.0001 for trend).
In salvage therapy, both the number of active drugs and the DL for each drug in the new regimen determine the antiviral response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir (NFV) in neonates younger than 4 weeks of age was assessed. Three cohorts of HIV-exposed neonates were enrolled in cohorts to receive 15, 30, and 45 mg of NFV/kg twice daily in combination with stavudine and didanosine for 4 weeks after birth. Trough NFV concentrations (C(min)) were measured at 1 and 7 days of age. Intensive pharmacokinetic evaluations were performed at 14 and 28 days of age. The median NFV C(min) values in the 15 mg/kg (6 patients), 30 mg/kg (5), and 45 mg/kg (11) cohorts at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of age were 0.19, 1.21, 0.51, and 0.33; 1.02, 3.18, 0.73, and 0.55; and 0.67, 3.21, 0.70, and 0.73 mg/L, respectively. The median area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve values over 12 hours in the three cohorts at 14 and 28 days of age were 14.4 and 8.7, 19.4 and 15.8, and 23.4 and 18.5 (h. mg)/L, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, the systemic exposure of NFV decreased after 7 days of age, possibly because of hepatic enzyme maturation, autoinduction of NFV metabolism, and/or changes in NFV absorption. The highly variable systemic exposure observed in the study indicates that therapeutic drug monitoring seems warranted to ensure adequate NFV dosing in this population.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a number of antiretroviral drugs, prolonged suppression of viral replication is related to drug exposure. Therefore, it
is important to maintain stable concentrations during prolonged therapy. While studies suggest that saquinavir concentrations
decrease over time, we show that concentrations of zidovudine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, and nevirapine in serum and
cerebrospinal fluid are stable during 2 years of therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility of switching therapy for HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral loads of <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL who are receiving twice-daily saquinavir soft-gelatin capsules (SQV-SGC) plus dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to a regimen containing once-daily SQV-SGC/ritonavir (RTV).
Therapy for patients with plasma viral loads of <50 copies/mL after 2 years of treatment with twice-daily SQV-SGC (1400 mg) plus zidovudine/lamivudine or didanosine/stavudine was switched to once-daily SQV-SGC/RTV (1600/100 mg) with continuing NRTI treatment.
Safety and efficacy (determined by plasma viral load and CD4 cell count) were evaluated (week 24). For 12 patients, steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of SQV was determined (week 4).
Once-daily SQV-SGC/RTV was well tolerated. No patient changed regimens. After 24 weeks, 64 (93%) of 69 patients had plasma viral loads of <50 copies/mL (the remaining 5 patients had plasma viral loads of <300 copies/mL). The median CD4 cell count increased from 534/mL at the start of once-daily SQV-SGCs/RTV to 695/mL after 24 weeks (p <.001). Compared with the preceding 24 weeks of treatment with twice-daily SQV-SGC, the CD4 cell count improved significantly during once-daily SQV-SGC/RTV therapy (p <.001). All patients maintained SQV trough concentrations (C(24h)) of >0.05 mg/L. Median values for the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC(0-24h)), maximal concentration (C(max)), and C(24h) for SQV were 48.1 (h.mg)/L, 6.98 mg/L, and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. Body weight was inversely correlated with SQV AUC(24h) and C(24h) (p <.01).
Clinical and pharmacokinetic data support once-daily SQV-SGC/RTV (1600/100 mg) with two NRTIs as a convenient and safe therapeutic regimen to maintain viral suppression and immune function in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral loads of <50 copies/mL.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress viral replication and prolong patient life substantially. However, HAART can fail for a number of reasons, including incomplete adherence, pharmacokinetic factors and the emergence of resistance. Because the number of possible antiretroviral combinations is limited, the use of existing treatment options must be optimized. Whether the application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in routine clinical practice may help with this purpose remains a subject of debate. However, TDM has been introduced in some centres despite the lack of guidelines for optimal use of this test.
In October 2000, a panel of experts met in Perugia, Italy, to discuss the key issues surrounding the introduction of TDM into routine clinical practice. The purpose of the meeting was to achieve a consensus among panel members on the following issues: (i) validity of data suggesting the utility of TDM in HAART; (ii) patient categories and clinical settings in which TDM may be of most benefit; (iii) target levels of antiretroviral agents; (iv) influence of covariables on target levels of drugs; (v) blood sampling and dosage adjustment strategies; and (vi) future research steps needed to elucidate issues regarding the applicability of TDM in clinical practice.
This report, which has been updated to include data published or presented at conferences up to the end of August 2001, summarizes the data presented and issues discussed at the meeting. This article will guide the reader through the data and discussions that have allowed the panel to formulate a series of position statements regarding the current status and future applications of TDM in antiretroviral therapy. These statements have been formulated to provide suggestions for the design of future TDM clinical trials, as well as to provide useful points of reflection for centres in which TDM is already in use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare and evaluate drug notations in outpatient medical records and in pharmacy records in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs.
Data on 103 patients were obtained from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999, by medical chart review and collection of pharmacy records. Two analyses were performed. First, antiretroviral drugs and comedication in the pharmacy records were documented and compared with their appearance in the outpatient medical records. Second, a detailed comparison was performed at 5 time points during the study period for the antiretroviral drugs. Generic name, formulation, strength, and frequency of dosing as registered in the outpatient medical records were compared with those registered in the pharmacy records.
Total drug dispensation was 1607 (366 and 1241 antiretroviral drugs and comedication, respectively). The first screening resulted in a total discrepancy of 55.1% (n = 885), of which 97.1% (n = 859) was attributed to the comedication and 2.9% (n = 26) to the antiretroviral drugs. The discrepancy for the antiretroviral drugs at the specific time points ranged from 5.1% to 12.6% when the generic name only was used, and from 7.1% to 17% when formulation, strength, and frequency of dosing were also taken into account.
The observed discrepancy between outpatient medical records and pharmacy records mainly concerns the comedication. For the antiretroviral drugs fewer, but still substantial, discrepancies were observed. These results indicate that full exchange of information conceming drug use in this population between general practitioners and specialists (infectious disease) is lacking.
Preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Annals of Pharmacotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of stavudine (d4T) and didanosine (ddI) in neonates. Eight neonates born to human immunodeficiency
virus-infected mothers were enrolled to receive 1 mg of d4T per kg of body weight twice daily and 100 mg of ddI per m2 once daily in combination with nelfinavir for 4 weeks after birth. Pharmacokinetic evaluations were performed at 14 and 28
days of age. For d4T, on days 14 and 28, the median areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 12 h (AUC0–12s) were 1,866 and 1,603, ng · h/ml, respectively, and the median peak concentrations (C
maxs) were 463 and 507 ng/ml, respectively. For ddI, on days 14 and 28, the median AUC0–10s were 1,573 and 1,562 h · ng/ml, respectively, and the median C
maxs were 627 and 687 ng/ml, respectively. Systemic levels of exposure to d4T were comparable to those seen in children, suggesting
that the pediatric dose of 1 mg/kg twice daily is appropriate for neonates at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Levels of exposure to ddI
were modestly higher than those seen in children. Whether this observation warrants a reduction of the ddI dose in neonates
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the combination of at least three different antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, has greatly improved the prognosis for HIV-1-infected patients. The efficacy of a combination of a protease inhibitor (PI) plus two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been well established over a period of up to 3 years. However, virological treatment failure has been reported in 40-60% of unselected patients within 1 year after initiation of a PI-containing regimen. This observation may, at least in part, be attributed to the poor pharmacokinetic characteristics of the PIs. Given as a single agent the PIs have several pharmacokinetic limitations; relatively short plasma-elimination half-lives and a modest and variable oral bioavailability, which is, for some of the PIs, influenced by food. To overcome these suboptimal pharmacokinetics, high doses (requiring large numbers of pills) must be ingested, often with food restrictions, which complicates patient adherence to the prescribed regimen. Positive drug-drug interactions increase the exposure to the PIs, allowing administration of lower doses at reduced dosing frequencies with less dietary restrictions. In addition to increasing the potency of an antiretroviral regimen, combinations of PIs may enhance patient adherence, both of which will contribute to a more durable suppression of viral replication. The favourable pharmacokinetics of PIs in combination are a result of interactions through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) isoenzymes and, possibly, the multi-drug transporting P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Antiretroviral synergy between PIs and non-overlapping primary resistance patterns in the HIV-1 protease genome may further enhance the antiretroviral potency and durability of combinations of PIs. Many combinations contain ritonavir because this PI has the most pronounced inhibiting effects on CYP3A4. The combination of saquinavir and ritonavir, both in a dose of 400 mg twice-a-day, is the most studied double PI combination, with clinical experience extending over 3 years. Combination of a PI with a low dose of ritonavir (< or = 400 mg/day), only to boost its pharmacokinetic properties, seems an attractive option for patients who cannot tolerate higher doses of ritonavir. A recently introduced PI, lopinavir, has been co-formulated with low-dose ritonavir, which allows for a convenient three-capsules, twice-a-day dosing regimen. In an attempt to prolong suppression of viral replication combinations of PIs are becoming increasingly popular. However, further clinical studies are needed to identify the optimal combinations for treatment of antiretroviral naive and experienced HIV-1-infected patients. This review covers combinations of saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir with different doses of ritonavir, as well as the combinations of saquinavir and indinavir with nelfinavir.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a limited sampling strategy (LSS) that allows accurate and precise estimation of the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of nevirapine, when used in the licensed dosage of 200 mg twice daily. Because nevirapine has a long plasma elimination half-life and the plasma concentration shows little variation within the 12-hour dosing interval, the authors also wanted to explore whether a time frame exists for which a single-sample LSS can be applied. Twenty HIV-1-infected individuals receiving steady-state treatment with nevirapine (200 mg twice daily) were enrolled. For the development of the LSS, 10 patients were randomly selected from the study population (index set). The pharmacokinetic results from the other 10 patients (validation set) were used for prospective validation of the proposed LSS. Blood samples were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after ingestion. The relationship between the nevirapine concentration at each of the designated time points and the AUC 12h was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. At each of the sampling times, a strong correlation was observed between the nevirapine concentration and the corresponding AUC 12h (r > 0.97). This allows for a single-sample LSS, using any time point during the dosing interval. When a single equation is preferred, the concentration of nevirapine in a random sample drawn 2 to 4 hours after ingestion of nevirapine (C 2-4h; in microg/mL) can be used for accurate estimation of the AUC 12h (in h x microg/mL) by using the equation AUC 12h (h x microg/mL) = 11.699 (h) x C 2-4h (microg/mL) - 4.381 (h x microg/mL). Validation of this equation resulted in a predicted AUC 12h that was nonbiased and very precise. These data show that the nevirapine concentration at each time point during the dosing interval can be used for accurate estimation of the AUC 12h. Even more practical, a sample obtained at any time between 2 and 4 hours after ingestion of nevirapine can be used. The authors therefore conclude that less intensive sampling (i.e., a single sample) can readily be used to assess the AUC 12h of nevirapine when used in a dosage of 200 mg twice daily.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Therapeutic Drug Monitoring