Robert L. Bornschein

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (81)256.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6-8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12-19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Environmental Pollution

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Reproductive Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The Evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program studied the effectiveness of the housing intervention performed in reducing the blood lead of children at four post-intervention times (6-months, 1-year, 2-years, and 3-years). A repeat measures analysis showed that blood lead levels declined up to three-years post-intervention. The results at each successive collection time were significantly lower than at the previous post-intervention time except for the difference between the levels at two and three years. At two-years post-intervention, geometric mean blood lead levels were approximately 37% lower than at pre-intervention. Children with pre-intervention blood lead levels as low as 10 μg/dL experienced substantial declines in blood lead levels. Previous studies have found substantial improvements only if a child's pre-intervention blood lead level was above 20 μg/dL. Individual interior lead hazard control treatments as grouped by Interior Strategy were not a significant predictor of post-intervention blood lead levels. However, children living in dwellings where exterior lead hazard control interventions were done had lower blood lead levels at one-year post-intervention than those living in dwellings without the exterior interventions (all other factors being equal), but those differences were only significant when the mean exterior paint lead loading at pre-intervention was about the 90th percentile (7.0mg/cm(2)). This observation suggests that exterior lead hazard control can be an important component of a lead hazard control plan. Children who were six to eleven months of age at pre-intervention had a significant increase in blood lead at one-year post-intervention, probably due to other exposures.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) include collaborators from basic sciences, epidemiology, and the community, conducting studies to investigate whether environmental exposures are associated with the timing of puberty. A pilot study of a subset of the study participants assessed the feasibility of measuring selected biomarkers of exposure in blood and urine in girls 6-8 years of age. In the Greater Cincinnati study population, we found an elevated serum concentration of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) among > 90% of young girls living in a small community. The research team deliberated whether and how to report the PFOA findings to our study families. We will address the issues considered in our decision, as well as the formats we used to present the findings. The results were verified as we searched for potential sources of the elevated PFOA levels. As a research team, we grappled with issues regarding the reporting of unexpected results, derived from unknown sources and with unknown clinical significance. Ultimately, we did decide to present these findings to the study families through a well-developed communication plan. Research team members came from a variety of experiences and backgrounds, which led to different interpretations about the clinical, ethical, and public health issues surrounding these findings. The ethical debates centered around the precautionary principle, the right to know, and do no harm. Given advances in environmental biomarker technologies and greater use of the transdisciplinary research model, a communication plan must be developed for those involved as study participants.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Environmental Health Perspectives

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Epidemiology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Reproductive Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of succimer chelation therapy in eliminating and/or minimizing lead-associated impairments of motor functions such as postural balance and locomotion or gait activities. In this study, postural balance and functional locomotion or gait were quantitated in 161 children in Cincinnati enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial. In comparison to the placebo group, the succimer therapy group showed significantly decreased postural sway during dynamic task performance implying improved postural balance. The results from locomotion tests demonstrated significant improvements in functional tasks of obstacle crossing and normal walking in the succimer treated group. While some beneficial neuromotor effects of succimer therapy were observed in the present study there remains several unanswered questions such as how long these effects will persist and how succimer therapy modifies lead-associated cerebellar deficits manifesting as perturbations in vestibular and/or proprioception systems for postural balance and functional locomotion.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · NeuroToxicology
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    Amit Bhattacharya · Rakesh Shukla · Kim N Dietrich · Robert L Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study investigated the impact of early exposure to lead on the maturation of children's postural balance. The effect of lead exposure on age-associated maturation of postural balance was investigated on 91 children from the Cincinnati Lead Study (CLS) with a 5-year geometric mean lead concentration in blood of 11.66 microg/dL (range 3.89-28.33 microg/dL) by re-assessing their postural balance approximately every 20 months starting at mean age of 6.6 years through mean age of 12.1 years. The results presented in this paper provide evidence that low to moderate lead exposure in early childhood has a measurable and statistically significant impact on the maturation of postural balance. In comparison to less exposed children, of those in the higher lead group showed an impaired postural balance response. The results from this study suggest that children with early childhood lead exposure may need additional time to approach (or "catch up" with) their maturational postural balance status. As these subjects are now adults in their early to mid-twenties, poor postural balance may impact their daily living tasks and pose a higher risk of potential injuries at home and work.
    Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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    ABSTRACT: The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) undertook an evaluation of its Lead Hazard Control Grant Program between 1994 and 1999. The Evaluation is the largest study ever done on the effectiveness of lead hazard controls implemented in residential dwellings. The Evaluation had several major objectives: determining the effectiveness of various lead hazard controls in reducing residential dust lead levels and children's blood lead levels, establishing the costs of doing lead hazard control work and factors that influence those costs, determining the rate of clearance testing failures and their causes, and identifying possible negative effects of lead hazard control work on children's blood lead levels. This paper reports the overall research design and data collection methods of the Evaluation. The large number of dwelling units enrolled in the Evaluation was possible only by the innovative partnership among HUD, the Evaluators, and the grantees. HUD and the Evaluators relied on the grantees for essentially all of the data collection. The 14 participating HUD Lead Hazard Control Grantees were responsible for implementing the lead hazard control programs in their communities and collecting the study data. This paper describes the methods for recruiting and enrolling dwellings and families, collecting environmental and housing data, interviewing participating families, and collecting data on lead hazard control work performed and its costs. The paper also describes the basic quality control and quality assurance procedures used. The principal outcome measures were lead in dust collected using wipes from floors, window sills, and window troughs and lead in blood collected from children who were 6 years old or younger at enrollment. Data collection was conducted before intervention, immediately postintervention, and 6 and 12 months postintervention. For a subset of dwellings undergoing an extended follow-up data were also collected at 24 and 36 months postintervention. This paper provides the context for subsequent reports that will describe such findings as the influence of lead hazard control work on serial dust lead levels, the influence of lead hazard control work on serial blood lead levels in children, the nature and costs of the lead hazard control work done at the dwellings, and the experience of the grantees in meeting clearance testing requirements.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxin, but questions remain about lead-associated intellectual deficits at blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL and whether lower exposures are, for a given change in exposure, associated with greater deficits. The objective of this study was to examine the association of intelligence test scores and blood lead concentration, especially for children who had maximal measured blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL. We examined data collected from 1,333 children who participated in seven international population-based longitudinal cohort studies, followed from birth or infancy until 5-10 years of age. The full-scale IQ score was the primary outcome measure. The geometric mean blood lead concentration of the children peaked at 17.8 microg/dL and declined to 9.4 microg/dL by 5-7 years of age; 244 (18%) children had a maximal blood lead concentration < 10 microg/dL, and 103 (8%) had a maximal blood lead concentration < 7.5 microg/dL. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and IQ score. Using a log-linear model, we found a 6.9 IQ point decrement [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.2-9.4] associated with an increase in concurrent blood lead levels from 2.4 to 30 microg/dL. The estimated IQ point decrements associated with an increase in blood lead from 2.4 to 10 microg/dL, 10 to 20 microg/dL, and 20 to 30 microg/dL were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4-5.3), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-2.6), and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.5), respectively. For a given increase in blood lead, the lead-associated intellectual decrement for children with a maximal blood lead level < 7.5 microg/dL was significantly greater than that observed for those with a maximal blood lead level > or = 7.5 microg/dL (p = 0.015). We conclude that environmental lead exposure in children who have maximal blood lead levels < 7.5 microg/dL is associated with intellectual deficits.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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    ABSTRACT: Some children in the United States continue to be exposed to levels of lead that increase their risk for lowered intellectual functioning and behavior problems. It is unclear whether chelation therapy can prevent or reverse the neurodevelopmental sequelae of lead toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether chelation therapy with succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid) in children with referral blood lead levels between 20 and 44 microg/dL (0.96-2.12 micromol/L) at 12 to 33 months of age has neurodevelopmental benefits at age 7 years. The Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children (TLC) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted between September 1994 and June 2003 in Philadelphia, PA; Newark, NJ; Cincinnati, OH; and Baltimore, MD. Of 1854 referred children who were between the ages of 12 to 33 months and screened for eligibility, 780 were randomized to the active drug and placebo groups stratified by clinical center, body surface area, blood lead level, and language spoken at home. At 7 years of age, 647 subjects remained in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral succimer or placebo. Up to 3 26-day courses of succimer or placebo therapy were administered depending on response to treatment in those who were given active drug. Eighty-nine percent had finished treatment by 6 months, with all children finishing by 13 months after randomization. All participants received residential lead hazard control measures before treatment. TLC subjects also received a daily multivitamin supplement before and after treatment(s) with succimer or placebo. Scores on standardized neuropsychological measures that tap cognition, behavior, learning and memory, attention, and neuromotor skills were measured. Chelation therapy with succimer lowered average blood lead levels for approximately 6 months but resulted in no benefit in cognitive, behavioral, and neuromotor endpoints. These new follow-up data confirm our previous finding that the TLC regimen of chelation therapy is not associated with neurodevelopmental benefits in children with blood lead levels between 20 and 44 microg/dL (0.96-2.17 micromol/L). These results emphasize the importance of taking environmental measures to prevent exposure to lead. Chelation therapy with succimer cannot be recommended for children with blood lead levels between 20 and 44 microg/dL (0.96-2.12 micromol/L).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Some children in the United States continue to be exposed to levels of lead that increase their risk for lowered intellectual functioning and behavior problems. It is unclear whether chelation therapy can prevent or reverse the neurodevelopmental sequelae of lead toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether chelation therapy with succimer ( dimercaptosuccinic acid) in children with referral blood lead levels between 20 and 44 mug/dL (0.96-2.12 mumol/L) at 12 to 33 months of age has neurodevelopmental benefits at age 7 years. Methods. The Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children (TLC) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted between September 1994 and June 2003 in Philadelphia, PA; Newark, NJ; Cincinnati, OH; and Baltimore, MD. Of 1854 referred children who were between the ages of 12 to 33 months and screened for eligibility, 780 were randomized to the active drug and placebo groups stratified by clinical center, body surface area, blood lead level, and language spoken at home. At 7 years of age, 647 subjects remained in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral succimer or placebo. Up to 3 26-day courses of succimer or placebo therapy were administered depending on response to treatment in those who were given active drug. Eighty-nine percent had finished treatment by 6 months, with all children finishing by 13 months after randomization. All participants received residential lead hazard control measures before treatment. TLC subjects also received a daily multivitamin supplement before and after treatment(s) with succimer or placebo. Scores on standardized neuropsychological measures that tap cognition, behavior, learning and memory, attention, and neuromotor skills were measured. Results. Chelation therapy with succimer lowered average blood lead levels for similar to 6 months but resulted in no benefit in cognitive, behavioral, and neuromotor endpoints. Conclusion. These new follow-up data confirm our previous finding that the TLC regimen of chelation therapy is not associated with neurodevelopmental benefits in children with blood lead levels between 20 and 44 mug/dL (0.96 - 2.17 mumol/L). These results emphasize the importance of taking environmental measures to prevent exposure to lead. Chelation therapy with succimer cannot be recommended for children with blood lead levels between 20 and 44 mug/dL ( 0.96 - 2.12 mumol/L).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2004
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2004
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    ABSTRACT: To aid in understanding the contribution of exterior dust/soil lead to postintervention interior dust lead, a subset of housing from the HUD Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program Evaluation was selected for study. Housing from 12 state and local governments was included. Exterior entry and street dust samples were obtained by a vacuum method, and soil samples were building perimeter core composites. Interior dust wipe lead data (microg/ft(2)) and paint lead data (mg/cm(2)) were also available for each of the dwelling units and included in the modeling. Results from 541 dwelling units revealed a wide range of exterior dust and soil lead levels, within and between grantees. Minimum and maximum geometric mean lead levels, by grantee, were 126 and 14400 microg/ft(2) for exterior entry dust; 325 and 4610 microg/ft(2) for street dust; and, for soil concentration, 383 and 2640 ppm. Geometric mean exterior entry dust lead concentration (1641 ppm) was almost four times as high as street dust lead concentration (431 ppm), suggesting that lead dust near housing was often a source of street dust lead. Geometric mean exterior entry dust lead loading was more than four times as high as window trough dust lead loading and more than an order of magnitude higher than interior entry dust lead loading. Statistical modeling revealed pathways from exterior entry dust lead loading to loadings on interior entryway floors, other interior floors, and windowsills. Paint lead was found to influence exterior entry dust lead. Results of this study show that housing where soil lead hazard control activities had been performed had lower postintervention exterior entry, interior entry floor, windowsills, and other floor dust loading levels. Soil was not present for almost half the buildings. Statistical analysis revealed that exterior strategy influenced soil lead concentration, and soil lead concentration influenced street dust lead loading. This study represents one of the few where an impact of soil treatments on dust lead levels within the housing has been documented and may represent the first where an impact on exterior entry dust lead has been found. The inclusion of measures to mitigate the role of exterior sources in lead hazard control programs needs consideration.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
  • M Douglas Ris · Kim N Dietrich · Paul A Succop · Omer G Berger · Robert L Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: One hundred and ninety-five participants in the Cincinnati Lead Study were neuropsychologically evaluated in mid-adolescence. The neuropsychological measures yielded five factors labeled Memory, Learning/IQ, Attention, Visuoconstruction, and Fine-Motor. Prenatal, Average Childhood, and 78 month blood lead (PbB) levels were used in a series of multiple regression analyses. Following rigorous covariate pretesting and adjustment, a significant main effect of 78 month PbB on the Fine-Motor factor was found (p <.004). Significant interactions were also found between gender and lead exposure parameters for both Attention and Visuoconstruction indicating heightened risk in males. Finally, a trend toward significance was found for the PbB x SES interaction for Learning/IQ, consistent with previous evidence of increased educational and cognitive vulnerability for youth from more disadvantaged backgrounds. These results provide new evidence from the longest continuing prospective study of the remote effects of early lead exposure. They indicate the presence of selective neuropsychological effects in this population, and also that males and females are not uniformly affected. These results also underscore the complexity of models of neurobehavioral development, and the modest predictive power of any single determinant.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
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    ABSTRACT: In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated blood lead levels. To reduce potential lead exposure from settled dust or deteriorated paint during the drug treatment phase of the trial, the homes of 765 (98%) of the randomized children (both active and placebo drug treatment groups) were professionally cleaned. Lead dust measurements were made in a sample of 213 homes before and after cleaning. Geometric mean dust lead loadings before cleaning were 43, 29, 308, and 707 micro g/ft2 in the kitchen floor, playroom floor, playroom windowsill, and playroom window well samples respectively. Following cleaning, floor dust lead loadings were reduced on average 32% for paired floor samples (p < 0.0001), 66% for windowsills (p < 0.0001), and 93% for window wells (p < 0.0001). Cleaning was most effective for 146 homes with precleaning dust lead levels above the recommended clearance levels, with average reductions of 44%, 74%, and 93% for floors (p < 0.0001), windowsills (p < 0.0001), and window wells (p < 0.0001), respectively. Despite these substantial reductions in dust lead loadings, a single professional cleaning did not reduce the lead loadings of all dust samples to levels below current federal standards for lead in residential dust. Attainment of dust levels below current standards will require more intensive cleaning and lead hazard reduction strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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    ABSTRACT: In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated blood lead levels. To reduce potential lead exposure from settled dust or deteriorated paint during the drug treatment phase of the trial, the homes of 765 (98%) of the randomized children (both active and placebo drug treatment groups) were professionally cleaned. Lead dust measurements were made in a sample of 213 homes before and after cleaning. Geometric mean dust lead loadings before cleaning were 43, 29, 308, and 707 mug/ft(2) in the kitchen floor, playroom floor, playroom windowsill, and playroom window well samples respectively. Following cleaning, floor dust lead loadings were reduced on average 32% for paired floor samples (p < 0.0001), 66% for windowsills (p < 0.0001), and 93% for window wells (p < 0.0001). Cleaning was most effective for 146 homes with precleaning dust lead levels above the recommended clearance levels, with average reductions of 44%, 74%, and 93% for floors (p < 0.0001), windowsills (p < 0.0001), and window wells (p < 0.0001), respectively. Despite these substantial reductions in dust lead loadings, a single professional cleaning did not reduce the lead loadings of all dust samples to levels below current federal standards for lead in residential dust. Attainment of dust levels below current standards will require more intensive cleaning and lead hazard reduction strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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    Kim N. Dietrich · M D Ris · Paul A. Succop · Omer G. Berger · Robert L. Bornschein
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have reported an association between lead (Pb) levels in bone and delinquent behavior in later childhood and adolescence. This is the first prospective longitudinal study of Pb and child development to address this question with comprehensive assessments of toxicant exposure and other developmental cofactors. A prospective longitudinal birth cohort of 195 urban, inner-city adolescents recruited between 1979 and 1985 was examined. Relationships between prenatal and postnatal exposure to Pb (serial blood Pb determinations) and antisocial and delinquent behaviors (self- and parental reports) were examined. Prenatal exposure to Pb was significantly associated with a covariate-adjusted increase in the frequency of parent-reported delinquent and antisocial behaviors, while prenatal and postnatal exposure to Pb was significantly associated with a covariate-adjusted increase in frequency of self-reported delinquent and antisocial behaviors, including marijuana use. Use of marijuana itself by Cincinnati Lead Study (CLS) teens was strongly associated with all measures of delinquent and antisocial behavior. This prospective longitudinal study confirmed earlier clinical observations and recent retrospective studies that have linked Pb exposure with antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure to Pb were associated with reported antisocial acts and may play a measurable role in the epigenesis of behavioral problems independent of the other social and biomedical cofactors assessed in this study.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
  • P. Succop · S. Clark · C.-Y. Tseng · R. Bornschein · M. Chen
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    ABSTRACT: A unique data set from lead risk assessments performed on 67 public housing developments from across the United States was made available for analyzes. The data set includes results of lead analysis from 5906 dust wipes and from 1222 soil samples. A total of 487 dwelling units in these developments, as well as associated common areas, were sampled, all by the same team of inspectors. The number of dwelling units within a development that were sampled reflected the guidelines then in force, the 1990 Interim HUD Guidelines, rather than those specified in the 1995 Guidelines. Median dust lead loadings for floors, 151gm–2 (14gft–2), and window sills, 936gm–2 (87gft–2), were much less than former HUD limits of 1076gm–2 (100gft–2) and 5380gm–2 (500gft–2), respectively and are only about one-third of the recently established limits of 431gm–2 (40gft–2) and 2690gm–2 (250gft–2). In contrast, the median lead loading for window troughs, 8560gm–2 (795gft–2), was almost identical to the HUD clearance limit of 8610gm–2 (800gft–2). There was a strong positive correlation between floor and window trough lead loading values for samples from the same dwelling units and those from common areas of the housing developments. Door threshold samples, which may reflect conditions exterior to the dwelling unit, were collected from 53 dwelling units. Median lead loading levels of these samples were more than ten times higher than those in floor samples from the same dwelling units, were about the same as window sill samples and about one-half of levels in window trough samples. Composite sample results, simulated by averaging results from four samples within a dwelling unit, revealed that in order to have the same rate of excedence of standards, the composite standards would have to be reduced, for example, from the single sample value of 1076gm–2 (100gft–2) to 527gm–2 (49gft–2) for floor samples and from the single sample value of 8610gm–2 (800gft–2) to 5160gm–2 (479gft–2) for window troughs. For this public housing data set, the portion of the units in developments containing more than 225 units which exceeded the established limit for window samples was the same when using either the full data set or a random one-half of the data set. This suggests that, for this data set, the number of dwelling units sampled was excessive . Thus, the required increase in the number of dwelling units to be sampled specified in the 1995 Guidelines for developments with more than 225 dwelling units, may not have been necessary if this data set is representative of public housing developments in the United States.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the evolution of airborne particle concentration and size distribution following abatement work in a controlled environment utilizing direct real-time particle monitoring and used it to project potential lead loadings as those particles settle. An 860 ft3 environmental test chamber with sophisticated ventilation and air purifying systems was built. Wooden doors with lead-based paint were dry sanded or scraped to generate the highest feasible airborne lead concentrations. Size-fractional airborne particle concentrations decreased exponentially with time in all tests, even with no air exchange, consistent with the stirred model of constantly mixed air, which predicts longer settling than for tranquil settling. Very low levels of air mixing generated by temperature gradients and initial room air turbulence affected particle settling. About 90% of airborne lead mass settled within 1 hour after active abatement, before final cleaning began. During the second waiting period of 1 hour, which followed cleaning of the floor, additional dust settled so that the additional potential lead loading from remaining airborne lead was less than 20 microg/ft2. For this worst case scenario, the underestimate of the lead loading done by the clearance sampling did not exceed about 30%. For more realistic conditions, the underestimates are projected to be much lower than the new 40 microg/ft2 Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance standards for floor dust lead. These results were obtained for the first waiting period (between the end of active abatement and the beginning of cleaning) of 1 hour, as recommended by HUD guidelines. Thus, this study demonstrates no need to increase either the first or second waiting period.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · AIHAJ - American Industrial Hygiene Association

Publication Stats

4k Citations
256.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1977-2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      • • Department of Environmental Health
      • • College of Medicine
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Louisville
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 1991-2009
    • Cincinnati Health Department
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1979-1985
    • University of Cincinnati Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States