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    ABSTRACT: This report investigated the associations between blood pressure and the levels of various divalent cations in blood and urine in the population at large. The 1,982 participants (963 men and 1019 women; mean age 48 years) constituted a stratified random sample of the population of 4 Belgian districts. Systolic/diastolic pressure averaged 133/78 mmHg in men, and 128/76 mmHg in women. Serum total calcium (2.37 mmol/l), serum magnesium (1.00 mmol/l) and blood cadmium (10.0 nmol/l) were on average similar in the two sexes. By contrast, serum zinc (13.1 and 12.6 mumol/l, respectively), blood lead (0.56 and 0.36 mumol/l) and the urinary excretions of calcium (4.86 and 3.95 mmol/24h), copper (0.16 and 0.13 mumol/24h), and cadmium (9.4 and 7.2 nmol/24h) were significantly higher in men than in women. After adjustment for significant blood pressure covariates (age, body mass index, pulse rate, log gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, smoking habits, and in women the contraceptive pill), serum total calcium was independently and positively correlated with systolic pressure in both sexes, and with diastolic pressure in women. After similar adjustments systolic pressure was positively correlated with urinary copper in men and women. In addition, systolic pressure and blood lead, and diastolic pressure and urinary cadmium were negatively correlated in men. In conclusion, this population study demonstrated a positive relationship between systolic blood pressure and both serum total calcium and urinary copper.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1992 · Journal of Human Hypertension