[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In vivo studies were performed to evaluate the activities of two thiazolidinedione PPARγ agonists, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, as inhibitors of oral carcinogenesis in rats. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were induced in male F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO; 20 ppm in the drinking water for 10 weeks). In each study, groups of 30 NQO-treated rats were exposed to a PPARγ agonist beginning at week 10 (one day after completion of NQO administration) or at week 17 (7 weeks post-NQO); chemopreventive agent exposure was continued until study termination at week 22 (rosiglitazone study) or week 24 (pioglitazone study). Administration of rosiglitazone (800 mg/kg diet) beginning at week 10 increased survival, reduced oral cancer incidence, and reduced oral cancer invasion score in comparison to dietary controls; however, chemopreventive activity was largely lost when rosiglitazone administration was delayed until week 17. Administration of pioglitazone (500 mg/kg diet beginning at week 10 or 1000 mg/kg diet beginning at week 17) induced significant reductions in oral cancer incidence without significant effects on OSCC invasion scores. Transcript levels of PPARγ and its three transcriptional variants (PPARγv1, PPARγv2, and PPARγv3) were not significantly different in OSCC versus age- and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from rats treated with NQO. These data suggest that PPARγ provides a useful molecular target for oral cancer chemoprevention, and that overexpression of PPARγ at the transcriptional level in neoplastic lesions is not essential for chemopreventive efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) specific agonists (targretin [TRG] and UAB30) to alter rat liver gene and protein expression was determined using Affymetrix Exon arrays and high-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). TRG profoundly increases triglycerides levels while UAB30 does not. The expression patterns of transcripts or proteins from rat liver treated with TRG or UAB-30 were different from controls and each other. There were six times more gene transcripts identified than proteins. Differentially expressed RNAs or proteins were mapped into known gene ontology (GO) categories and GeneGo Metacore (KEGG) pathway maps. The GO categories which were highly overrepresented with differentially expressed RNAs (P < 10−16) were also overrepresented at the protein level. This high concordance of GO Terms was achieved despite the fact that typically ≤1/3 of the elements identified by gene expression were identified by proteomics. Within these GO categories, the magnitude of alterations induced by RXR agonists at the transcript and protein levels were correlated. When GO categories with moderate overrepresentation (10−5 < P < 10−9) were examined, there was greater discordance between the transcript and protein data. Examination of KEGG pathway maps with highly significant changes at both the protein and the RNA levels showed that the individual proteins/genes altered were often the same and changes were of similar magnitude; while KEGG pathways showed limited statistical significance and exhibited minimal overlap. Finally, metabolomics analysis of liver and serum identified altered expression of metabolites related to fatty acid oxidation and bile acid metabolism that were consistent with transcript/protein changes. We observed significant concordance between genomics and proteomics implying either can identify pathways modulated and can indirectly predict resulting physiologic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Honokiol is an important bioactive compound found in the bark of Magnolia tree. It is a non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist, and capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of tumor types both in vitro and in xenograft models. However, to fully appreciate the potential chemopreventive activity of honokiol, a less artificial model system is required. To that end, this study examined the chemopreventive efficacy of honokiol in an initiation model of squamous cell lung cancer (SCC). This model system uses the carcinogen N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) which is applied topically, reliably triggering the development of SCC within 24-26 weeks. Administration of honokiol significantly reduced the percentage of bronchial that exhibit abnormal lung SCC histology from 24.4% bronchial in control to 11.0% bronchial in honokiol treated group (p= 0.01) while protecting normal bronchial histology (present in 20.5% of bronchial in control group and 38.5% of bronchial in honokiol treated group (p= 0.004)). P63 staining at the SCC site confirmed the lung SCCs phenotype. In vitro studies revealed that honokiol inhibited lung SCC cells proliferation, arrested cells at the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, while also leading to increased apoptosis. Our study showed that interfering with mitochondrial respiration is a novel mechanism by which honokiol increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria, triggered apoptosis, and finally leads to the inhibition of lung SCC. This novel mechanism of targeting mitochondrial suggests honokiol as a potential lung SCC chemopreventive agent.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary bladder cancer prevention studies were performed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) naproxen (standard NSAID with a good cardiovascular profile), sulindac, and their nitric oxide (NO) derivatives. Additionally, the effects of the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), alone or combined with a suboptimal dose of naproxen or sulindac was examined. Agents were evaluated at their human equivalent doses (HEDs), as well as at lower doses. In the hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) model of urinary bladder cancer, naproxen (400 or 75 ppm) and sulindac (400 ppm) reduced the incidence of large bladder cancers by 82, 68 and 44%, respectively, when the agents were initially given 3 months after the final dose of the carcinogen; microscopic cancers already existed. NO-naproxen was highly effective, while NO-sulindac was inactive. To further compare naproxen and NO-naproxen, we examined their effects on gene expression in rat livers following a 7 day exposure. Limited, but similar, gene expression changes in the liver were induced by both agents, implying that the primary effects of both are mediated by the parent NSAID. When agents were initiated 2 weeks after the last administration of OH-BBN, DFMO at 1000 ppm had limited activity, a low dose of naproxen (75 ppm) and sulindac (150 ppm) were highly and marginally effective. Combining DFMO with suboptimal doses of naproxen had minimal effects whereas the combination of DMFO and sulindac was more active than either agent alone. Thus, naproxen and NO-naproxen were highly effective, while sulindac was moderately effective in the OH-BBN model at their HEDs.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cancer Prevention Research