R Kraus

University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (6)19.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of sister chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting sister chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than measurement of hydroxypyrene. The alkaline filter elution assay proved to be the most sensitive biomarker for genotoxic damage, whereas the postlabelling assay was the only one with some specificity for DNA alterations caused by known compounds.
    Preview · Article · Apr 1997 · Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology
  • C Schell · W Popp · R Kraus · C Vahrenholz · K Norpoth
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    ABSTRACT: Blood samples were obtained from different populations exposed occupationally or by lifestyle habits to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling assay either in white blood cells (WBC) or lymphocytes. The level of DNA adducts ranged from 1.5 per 10(9) nucleotides in one of the control groups up to 7.1 per 10(9) nucleotides in one group of PAH-exposed workers. Comparison of the adduct thin layer chromatography (TLC) profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. Significant differences of adduct levels were detected between one group of PAH-exposed coke-oven workers and the corresponding control group. Only a weak influence of the smoking habits on the amount of adducts was detectable in occupationally exposed or unexposed individuals.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1995 · Toxicology Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) values were determined in the lymphocytes of 24 oral cancer patients before therapy and in the lymphocytes of 24 control persons standardized with respect to sex, age and smoking habits. Oral cancer patients showed significantly elevated SCE values (mean 7.82 versus 6.42). In both groups the highest SCE values were found in the subgroups with the highest alcohol consumption. A significant correlation between SCE and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) values by Spearman correlation analysis was detected in the combined group (cancer patients and control persons) (n = 32, r = 0.40, P = 0.023). The SCE values in the oral cancer patients were weakly correlated (Pearson) to DNA adduct levels (n = 22, r = 039, P = 0.068) and DNA single-strand breakage frequencies (n = 12, r = 0.56, P = 0.054) in lymphocytes. The correlation (Pearson) between SCE values and DNA strand breakage values in lymphocytes was significant (n = 10, r = 0.67, P = 0.036) in smoking cancer patients. The increase of SCE values with respect to alcohol drinking habits underlines epidemiologic findings that alcohol is an important co-carcinogen in many cancers, especially in oral cancers. Because of the influences on SCE and adduct levels in lymphocytes, alcohol drinking habits should be controlled as broadly as possible in biomarker studies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: In lymphocytes of 12 oral cancer patients (and two control groups) the frequencies of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-linking were determined by alkaline filter elution. We found elevated DNA elution rates, which must be interpreted as an increased strand breakage frequency. There were significant correlations between the DNA strand breakage frequency and smoking habits. Using the 32P-postlabelling assay we determined the DNA adduct level in lymphocytes of 23 oral cancer patients (and two control groups). No significant influence of smoking habit on the DNA adduct level could be detected. There was a significant correlation between the DNA adduct level and the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) value, suggesting systemic influences of alcohol drinking habits on the adduct level.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1993 · Carcinogenesis
  • W Popp · C Vahrenholz · R Kraus · K Norpoth
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    ABSTRACT: A review of the impact of chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction is presented. PCBs are able to pass the placenta; accumulation in offspring is mainly achieved by breast feeding. Disturbances of fertility and embryotoxicity were detected in animals; teratogenicity without maternal toxicity was only observed in mice. In animal experiments disturbances of fetal and postnatal development were detected as well as in human studies. Neurotoxicity was observed even at low-level exposures in monkeys, which are most comparable to humans because of the development of the same clinical symptoms. Technical PCBs which are dominating in occupational and environmental exposure until now must be judged as toxic for reproduction: dermal exposure (especially in accidents) should be considered as an important route of exposure beside inhalation. Work to list possible PCB exposure risks and to develop ways to reduce these risks are necessary now.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1993 · Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin = International journal of hygiene and environmental medicine

Publication Stats

109 Citations
19.06 Total Impact Points


  • 1993-1997
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1995
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany