[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed medical records of 256 patients to investigate the frequency and characteristics of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) associated with reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) as opposed to conventional stem cell transplantation (CST); 137 patients underwent CST and 119 RIST. Diagnosis of HC was made based on two or more episodes of sterile, macroscopic hematuria with normal coagulation profiles, without any evidence of renal stones or genitourinary malignancy. Actuarial frequency of HC development in RIST group was 7.6% (9/119), which gave a cumulative annual incidence of 11.7%. In CST group, 13 of 137 patients (9.5%) developed HC, giving an estimated annual incidence of 9.7%. The probability of developing HC was similar between the two groups (P=0.77). The viral etiologies of HC, adenovirus (n=12) and BK virus (n=2), were documented in eight patients after RIST and in six after CST. HC was milder and of a shorter duration, with less blood transfusion requirements, in RIST group than in CST group. A multivariate analysis revealed that HC was associated with antiadenovirus antibody positivity in the recipients, total dose of busulfan, and chronic GVHD. Although HC following RIST is less severe than that following CST, it is still a significant problem.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients who require management in the intensive care unit (ICU) for complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) generally have a poor outcome. We retrospectively studied whether the risk-prediction stratification systems commonly used for patients admitted to the ICU, that is, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and APACHE III systems, could be useful for identifying patients who should receive intensive care earlier. We reviewed the medical records of 210 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT and found that 18 (8.6%) had been admitted to the ICU for acute respiratory failure (n=9), acute renal failure (n=7), and septic shock (n=2). The median APACHE II and III scores were, respectively, 16 (10-27) and 55 (22-87) at the onset of complications and 26 (15-43) and 101 (65-157) upon admission to the ICU. Thus, both the APACHE II and APACHE III scores at ICU admission were higher than those at the onset of complications (P <0.0001). Seventeen patients (94%) subsequently died, with a median ICU stay of 7.5 days (1-51 days), as a result of multiorgan failure (n=14), respiratory failure (n=2), and septic shock (n=1). The APACHE II and III scores of the sole surviving patient were, respectively, 21 and 71 at the onset and 24 and 86 upon transfer to the ICU. Thus, the APACHE scores in this study were lower than those reported for other surgical or medical patients treated in the ICU, despite their uniform poor prognosis. Although nine patients had developed grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease, which is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT, this was not fully evaluated in the current scoring systems. Application of these systems to HSCT will require adequate modification, with particular attention to organ dysfunction secondary to graft-versus-host disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flow cytometry (FC) is widely utilized in the diagnosis of lymphoma and the light chain ratio (LCR) is especially useful in the diagnosis of B-cell malignancy. In this study we analysed, retrospectively, the predictive value of the LCR in the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in 105 consecutive patients with persistent lymph node enlargement or extranodal masses who underwent biopsy. We used a receiver-operating characteristic curve to establish a LCR threshold value of 2.0. The specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were 92.3%, 73.1%, 90% and 77%, respectively. We concluded that determination of LCR is a useful adjunct to pathological diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Clinical & Laboratory Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The range of survival duration in myeloma patients is wide and several percent of patients live longer than 10 years. Therefore, a precise prediction of survival for the individual patient is required to decide treatment. We evaluated possible prognostic factors at diagnosis for 116 Japanese patients with multiple myeloma. Twelve parameters reported to affect survival were analyzed using a log rank test and stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression. Factors identified as adversely affecting survival were age over 60 years, male sex, blood hemoglobin less than 8.5 g/dl, platelets less than 100 x 10(9)/l, serum creatinine level more than 2.0 mg/dl, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level more than 6.0 mg/l, and serum beta2-microglobulin level more than 6.0 mg/l. Among them, only high age and high serum CRP level were independently prognostic for poor survival. In conclusion, we have established a simple prognostic model for Japanese myeloma patients only, using factors that can be determined in routine examinations without the need of subjective information.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed data of 47 patients aged 60 years or older, hospitalized in our institution with the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and searched for prognostic factors. Induction with anthracyclines significantly correlated with better complete remission (CR) rate (P = 0.0016) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). Another factor significantly affecting CR rate was higher age (> 70 years) (P = 0.042). Therapy-non-related factors predictive for shorter OS in univariate analyses were age older than 70 years (P = 0.003), percentage of blasts in bone marrow more than 80% (P = 0.048), serum lactate dehydrogenase level higher than 250 U l(-1) (P = 0.032). In stepwise cox proportional hazard regression model, all the four factors predictive for poor OS remained to be independently and significantly prognostic for shorter OS. Only two patients receiving anthracyclines died within 30 days and the frequency was not different from that in patients not receiving anthracyclines. The use of anthracyclines as induction therapy is recommended even in the elderly patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant of inflammation. We evaluated the clinical value of serial measurement of CRP in neutropenic patients. CRP was shown to be useful to monitor the response to therapy for febrile episodes in neutropenia. However, we failed to show statistically significant differences in CRP levels between febrile episodes with or without clinically documented infection (p= 0.10) and with or without bacteremia (p = 0.55). Also, we could not predict febrile episodes within three days by the elevation of CRP value. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curve depicting the relationship between CRP levels and forthcoming febrile episodes was only 0.60. In conclusion, serial measurement of CRP was considered to be not useful to predict fever within three days, or to differentiate the types of infection.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied clinical features and pathologic findings in 52 consecutively autopsied patients with multiple myeloma in our center between 1979 and 1998. Distant extraosseous involvement was found in 33 patients (63.5%). Thirty-one patients (59.6%) were proven to have infection at autopsy, among which pneumonia was most common site of infection. Amyloidosis was shown in 8 patients. Second malignancies were observed in 4 cases. The three major causes of death were hemorrhage, infection, and renal failure, which accounted for death in approximately 70% of the patients. Advances in the anticancer and antimicrobial chemotherapies might have decreased deaths due to myeloma itself or infection.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · American Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and rarely cured by chemotherapy. Villunger et al. showed that the neoplastic plasma cells express Fas ligand (FasL), which transmits a signal of apoptosis upon ligation to Fas, and suggested that the FasL suppresses the T-cells activated against malignant cells, resulting in escape from tumour immunity. We examined serum soluble FasL (sFasL) levels in 35 multiple myeloma patients to evaluate the correlation between sFasL levels and clinical characteristics. The serum sFasL levels were not affected by the disease status, serum monoclonal protein levels, or other prognostic factors. We could not determine whether the expression of FasL is involved in the poor clinical course of the disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated possible prognostic factors just before salvage therapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) for 36 patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The median duration from diagnosis to the first VAD salvage was 14 months (range 2-76 months). Among parameters that have been shown to be associated with poor survival, a high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was the sole significant predictor of survival. The median survival of patients with high LDH levels was 4 months, whereas that of patients with low LDH levels was 20 months. A multivariate analysis identified high LDH and high age as independent prognostic factors. More aggressive therapies might be indicated for high-LDH patients with refractory myeloma.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · American Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is widely used for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, and a dose adjustment of CPA in the presence of renal failure has not been suggested. However, we describe a myeloma patient with renal failure (serum creatinine 4.2 mg/dl, creatinine clearance 11.2 ml/min) receiving CPA 2 g/m2 for 2 days, who developed unexpectedly severe toxicity, including myopericarditis and prolonged myelosuppression. The serial serum concentrations of CPA metabolites were persistently much higher than those in a myeloma patient with normal renal function. We consider, therefore, that the dose of CPA should be reduced in the presence of severe renal failure when used as high-dose therapy or to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluconazole is used widely for fungal prophylaxis. Although studies with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients clearly showed the usefulness of oral fluconazole, results of the studies in neutropenic patients other than BMT recipients have been inconsistent. Therefore, the authors performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of fluconazole prophylaxis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
The authors identified reports that were not restricted to those in English and not restricted to published trials through MEDLINE, CANCERLIT, or the data base of the Pfizer company. The authors included prospective, randomized studies comparing oral fluconazole with placebo, no treatment, or oral polyenes as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients. Two independent authors extracted data from 16 trials with 3734 patients enrolled. The outcome measures were the development of fungal-related death, systemic and superficial fungal infections, the use of empiric intravenous amphotericin-B, and infections or colonization with fluconazole-resistant fungi. The summarized odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and the DerSimonian-Laird method.
Prophylactic fluconazole was not effective in reducing fungal-related death or in reducing proven, systemic fungal infections in non-BMT patients (OR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-2.82 and OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.47-1.55, respectively). However, fluconazole was very effective in reducing superficial fungal infections (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.80), even when it was given in lower doses (50-200 mg per day). There was no increase in proven, systemic infection of fluconazole-resistant fungi, although colonization of those fungi increased. When the results were combined in studies in which the incidence of systemic fungal infections was > 15%, fluconazole was effective in reducing such infections (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.15-0.36).
The current analyses failed to find an effect of fluconazole on both fatal fungal infection and systemic fungal infection in non-BMT patients. Further studies on severely neutropenic patients are warranted because prophylactic fluconazole seemed to be effective when the incidence of systemic fungal infection was expected to be > 15%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients have risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) including venous stasis caused by immobilization in the sterile unit, vessel wall damage caused by preparative regimen or indwelling catheters, and hypercoagulability caused by decreased natural anticoagulants. We successfully treated a patient who developed massive DVT in the superior vena cava after BMT with anticoagulation and the use of temporary vena caval filters. Considering the delayed complications, permanent filter is not appropriate for BMT recipients, because the risk factors for DVT associated with BMT are transient. We considered that temporary vena caval filter is a safe and useful device to prevent pulmonary embolism after DVT in BMT recipients.
No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many studies have been performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of CD34 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the findings have been inconsistent. In this study, the authors reviewed such previous studies to establish a definite conclusion.
Using MEDLINE, the authors identified studies that evaluated the prognostic significance of CD34 expression in AML. The outcome measure was the complete remission rate. They used the random-effect method to combine the results. Results were presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The ORs were less than 1 if the complete remission occurred more frequently in the CD34 negative group.
Twenty-two studies including 2483 patients were reviewed. The combined OR was 0.38 (95% CI, 0. 26-0.57), which suggested that CD34 expression was associated with a poor remission rate. However, the authors found statistical evidence of marked heterogeneity among trials (P < 0.001), especially according to time of publication. The combined OR in studies published in or after 1994 was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.47-1.09). The authors divided the studies into several subgroups, but they could not determine the reason for the heterogeneity.
At present, CD34 expression should not be considered a marker of poor prognosis because it is not supported by the combined data from recent studies. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the intensity of CD34 expression in specific populations of patients, such as those with t(8;21) or t(15;17) translocations or the AML-M0 subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral complications occur frequently after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Some of them are caused by regimen-related toxicity of the preparative regimen, and others by infections. In addition, oral tissues are targets of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Oral granulomatous lesions are not a common complication after BMT, and are especially rare on the tongue. Such rare lesions reported in the literature, developed late after BMT with oral chronic GVHD. We present here a patient who developed pyogenic granuloma of the tongue early after allogeneic BMT done for multiple myeloma. Regimen-related mucositis, oral acute GVHD, the administration of cyclosporine A, and the preexisting macroglossia might be responsible for the formation of granuloma.
Full-text · Article · May 2000 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 2 receptor is expressed not only on the surface of activated T or B lymphocytes, but also on certain lymphoid malignancies. The receptor is released from the cell membrane as soluble form (sIL-2R). Serum sIL-2R level is a sensitive and quantitative marker of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation or specific tumor cell growth including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the relevance of serum sIL-2R levels relating to clinical outcome in adult patients with NHL remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the serial serum sIL-2R levels in 28 untreated patients with NHL to evaluate its correlation with clinical characteristics. High serum sIL-2R level (>1000 U/ml) at diagnosis was associated with a high incidence of treatment failure (p=0.03) and poor overall survival (p=0.057). The serum sIL-2R levels decreased significantly after achieving complete remission (p=0.003). Further larger studies are required to evaluate whether serum sIL-2R level is an independent prognostic factor or not. However, adding this parameter to those already employed in the International Prognostic Index would perhaps provide a better prognostic index for adult patients with NHL.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Leukemia and Lymphoma