Qing Chen

Universität Ulm, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (4)12.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Crawford antigen (RH43) was described in 1980. It occurred in African American people, as a low-prevalence Rhesus antigen, who were also VS+. Twelve blood samples were analyzed because of inquiries into discrepant reactions in routine anti-D typing. The RHCE alleles were determined by nucleotide sequencing from genomic DNA. The D epitope profile was determined with 60 monoclonal anti-D. The population frequency was estimated in four major US regional blood centers. The novel RHce(W16C, Q233E, L245V) allele, dubbed ceCF, was found to be occurring in the cde haplotype as cause of the reactivity with the immunoglobulin M anti-D GAMA401. The ceCF phenotype expressed few D epitopes resembling but not matching the reaction patterns observed with other RhCE variants, like R0 (Har), ceRT, and ceSL. The frequency of the ceCF phenotype was 0.056 percent among African American persons and 0.007 percent in the general US population. The novel RHce(W16C, Q233E, L245V) allele, which is a variant of the known ce(s) allele, RHce(W16C, L245V), occurs in a haplotype with the RHD deletion and represents the molecular basis of the Crawford antigen.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Transfusion
  • Qing Chen · Hein Hustinx · Willy A Flegel
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    ABSTRACT: The example of ceRT proved that the expression of some D epitopes does not require D-specific amino acids. This allele denoted as RHce(R154T) caused the "false-positive" reactions that were observed in ccddee blood donors who typed positive for the D antigen with some monoclonal anti-D. No other example exposing a similar molecular mechanism was known. Eleven donor and 1 patient ccddee samples were collected in Switzerland that typed "false-positive" with some monoclonal anti-D in bromelain technique. Their RHCE alleles were determined by nucleotide sequencing from genomic DNA and by a polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific priming. The D epitope profile was compared to ceRT. The population frequencies were estimated in Switzerland and Germany by serology or at the molecular level, respectively. The "false-positive" reactions were caused by the RHCE allele RHce(S122L) occurring in the cde haplotype. Its ceSL phenotype expressed few D epitopes that belonged to the D epitope 6 group. The frequency of ceSL among D- donors was about 1:675 in the region of Bern, Switzerland. No ceSL donors were found elsewhere in Switzerland or in southwestern Germany. ceSL represented the second molecular mechanism for D antigen expression without any D-specific amino acids. ceSL and ceRT were useful to delineate the molecular mechanisms of D expression by RhCE proteins carrying amino acids not representative for the RhD proteins. The ceSL population frequencies differed significantly among three Swiss and German populations.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Transfusion
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    ABSTRACT: More than 20 years ago, two probands were described whose red blood cells (RBCs) typed Sc:1,-2,3. Their serum samples contained alloantibodies reactive with all RBCs tested except those of the Sc:-1,-2,-3 phenotype. Cloning of the Scianna gene allowed us to determine the molecular bases of these samples. In a collaborative effort, the two probands' samples and also two Sc:-1,-2,-3 samples were obtained from frozen storage. All 11 SC (ERMAP) exons and their flanking regions were sequenced. The two probands with antibodies to Scianna-related antigens were homozygous, respectively, for an ERMAP(R81Q) allele caused by a G to A substitution at nucleotide 242 in the ERMAP gene and for an ERMAP(H26Y,G35S) allele, in which the G35S substitution was caused by a G to A substitution at nucleotide 103. Two patients with the Sc:-1,-2,-3 phenotype both carried ERMAP(R332X) alleles caused by a C to T substitution at nucleotide 994 that differed at one nucleotide position in the noncoding region of exon 11. In eight samples carrying orphan low-prevalence antigens, no ERMAP variants were detected that could be implicated in Scianna antigen expression. SCER and SCAN expanded the Scianna blood group system to seven antigens, have been assigned the ISBT numbers 013.006 (Sc6) and 013.007 (Sc7), and were associated with ERMAP(R81Q) and ERMAP(G35S) proteins, respectively. ERMAP(R332X) is a second molecular basis for the Sc(null) phenotype. The eight low-prevalence antigens By, To(a), Pt(a), Re(a), Je(a), Li(a), SARA, and Sk(a) do not belong to the Scianna blood group system.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Transfusion
  • Qing Chen · Willy A Flegel
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    ABSTRACT: RHD alleles are considered more variable in African persons than in European persons. A systematic survey, however, was lacking among D+ European persons at the molecular level, precluding any definite frequency estimate. A random survey was performed among 500 ccDee, 250 CcDee, and 250 ccDEe blood donors in southwestern Germany. They were tested by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific priming (PCR-SSP) for up to 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms representative for the most frequent RHD alleles among European persons. The RHD exon 5 nucleotide sequence was also tested in all 1000 samples. The nucleotide sequence of the 10 RHD exons was checked in all samples with aberrant exon 5 or positive PCR-SSP procedures. By PCR-SSP, 15 aberrant RHD alleles were found among the 500 ccDee, 2 among the 250 CcDee, and none among the ccDEe samples. One of these was the novel RHD(F223V, E233Q, T379M) allele dubbed DAU-5. Weak D type 4 was detected more frequently than expected, whereas the population frequencies of the other RHD alleles conformed to published estimates. Nucleotide sequencing of RHD exon 5 further revealed three novel alleles RHD(G212G), RHD(R234W), and RHD(V245L), dubbed DUC-1, DQC, and DUC-2. In a limited screen at the molecular level among 1000 random D+ donors in southwestern Germany, 20 donors were found carrying aberrant RHD alleles. Four of these alleles were new and likely sporadic. An estimate was derived of the variety that may be encountered in genotyping approaches, and it was concluded that even within the European population the variety of RHD alleles may be larger than anticipated.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Transfusion