[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammalian cells, tumor suppressor p53 plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, but whether and how p53 also regulates gluconeogenesis is less clear. Here, we report that p53 efficiently down-regulates the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), which encode rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Cell-based assays demonstrate the p53-dependent nuclear exclusion of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), a key transcription factor that mediates activation of PCK1 and G6PC, with consequent alleviation of FoxO1-dependent gluconeogenesis. Further mechanistic studies show that p53 directly activates expression of the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), whose interaction with FoxO1 leads to FoxO1 deacetylation and export to the cytoplasm. In support of these observations, p53-mediated FoxO1 nuclear exclusion, down-regulation of PCK1 and G6PC expression, and regulation of glucose levels were confirmed in C57BL/J6 mice and in liver-specific Sirt6 conditional knockout mice. Our results provide insights into mechanisms of metabolism-related p53 functions that may be relevant to tumor suppression.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been proven to be effective therapeutic agents to kill cancer cells through inhibiting HDAC activity or altering the structure of chromatin. As a potent HDAC inhibitor, depsipeptide not only modulates histone deacetylation but also activates non-histone protein p53 to inhibit cancer cell growth. However, the mechanism of depsipeptide-induced p53 transactivity remains unknown. Here, we show that depsipeptide causes DNA damage through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as demonstrated by a comet assay and by detection of the phosphorylation of H2AX. Depsipeptide induced oxidative stress was confirmed to relate to a disturbance in reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions through inhibition of the transactivation of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in human cancer cells. Upon treatment with depsipeptide, p53 phosphorylation at threonine 18 (Thr18) was specifically induced. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that phosphorylation of p53 at Thr18 is required for p53 acetylation at lysine 373/382 and for p21 expression in response to depsipeptide treatment. Our results demonstrate that depsipeptide plays an anti-neoplastic role by generating ROS to elicit p53/p21 pathway activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding hepatocystin/80K-H (PRKCSH) cause autosomal-dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). Hepatocystin functions in the processing of nascent glycoproteins as the noncatalytic beta subunit of glucosidase II (Glu II) and regulates calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Little is known, however, on how cells respond to a deficiency of hepatocystin. In this study, we demonstrate that knockdown of hepatocystin induces autophagy, the major intracellular degradation pathway essential for cellular health. Ectopic expression of wild-type hepatocystin, but not pathogenic mutants, rescues the siRNA-induced effect. Our data indicate that the induction of autophagy by hepatocystin deficiency is mediated through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Despite the resulting severe reduction in Glu II activity, the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway is not disturbed. Furthermore, the inhibition of IP3R-mediated transient calcium flux is not required for the induction of autophagy. These results provide new insights into the function of hepatocysin and the regulation of autophagy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Beclin 1 and mTOR are considered to be the main molecules to modulate the autophagic process, searching for other autophagy-regulating molecules is still an ongoing challenge to scientists. Here we demonstrated that FoxO1, a forkhead O family protein, is a mediator of autophagy. Upon oxidative stress or serum starvation, endogenous FoxO1 was required for autophagy in human cancer cell lines, and this process was independent of FoxO1's transcriptional activity as well as mTOR or Beclin 1. In response to stress, FoxO1 dissociated from an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT2 and FoxO1 thus became acetylated and in turn bound to Atg7, an E1-like protein, to influence the autophagic process leading to cell death. In particular, cytosolic FoxO1 suppressed tumor xenograft growth in nude mice in an autophagy-dependent manner. Our studies provide evidence that cytosolic FoxO1-induced autophagy is associated with tumor suppression function.