[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that 5 copies of the hypoxia response element (HRE) can conditionally regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression under hypoxic/ischemic conditions in mice. In the present study, we investigated the controlled expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) by HRE under hypoxic conditions and determined the protective effects of conditionally expressed NT-3 on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Five copies of the HRE (5HRE) and the simian virus 40 minimal promoter (SV40mp) were employed to construct a cassette, and transfer of therapeutic gene, NT-3, into PC12 cells was achieved using a retroviral vector. Our results showed that the retroviral vector, pLNC-5HRE-NT3, was successfully constructed and transfected into PC12 cells. Compared with normal conditions, in which NT-3 was expressed at low levels, the expression of NT-3 significantly increased under hypoxic conditions in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic PC12 cells (P<0.05). By contrast, in NT-3 transgenic PC12 cells without HRE, we found no significant difference in NT-3 expression between the normoxic and hypoxic groups. The conditional adjustment of NT-3 expression by 5HRE significantly reduced apoptosis induced by hypoxia in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic PC12 cells (P<0.05) but not in 5HRE-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic PC12 cells and PC12 cells without gene transfer. In addition, the hypoxia-induced upregulation of both p38 and caspase-3 activities was suppressed in 5HRE-NT3 transgenic PC12 cells under hypoxic conditions (P<0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5HRE-SV40mp regulates NT-3 gene expression in response to hypoxia in PC12 cells. The data presented in this study may prove useful in future gene therapy studies for the treatment of ischemic diseases.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exogenous delivery of the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. To investigate the neuroprotective effects of NT-3 expression controlled by 5HRE after focal cerebral ischemia, we constructed a recombinant retrovirus vector (RV) with five copies of hypoxia-responsive elements (5HRE or 5H) and NT-3 and delivered it to the rat brain. Three groups of rats received RV-5H-NT3, RV-5H-EGFP or saline injection. Three days after gene transfer, the rats underwent 90min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), followed by 1-28days of reperfusion. Three days after tMCAO, brain NT-3 expression was significantly increased in the RV-5H-NT3-transduced animals compared with the RV-5H-EGFP or saline group, and brain infarct volume was smaller in the RV-5H-NT3-transduced group than the RV-5H-EGFP or saline group. The percentage of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced in RV-5H-NT3-transduced brains compared with the RV-5H-EGFP or saline group 3 and 7days after tMCAO. Furthermore, the neurological status of RV-5H-NT3-transduced rats was better than that of RV-5H-EGFP- or saline-transduced animals from 1day to 4weeks after tMCAO. Our results demonstrated that 5HRE could modulate NT-3 expression in the ischemic brain environment and that the up-regulated NT-3 could effectively improve neurological status following tMCAO due to decreased initial damage. To avoid unexpected side effects, 5HRE-controlled gene expression might be a useful tool for gene therapy of ischemic disorders in the central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia/ischemia induces proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in rodent and human brain; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) on NPC proliferation under hypoxia, the expression of cyclin D1, and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in cell culture. The results showed that hypoxia induced mGluR5 expression on NPCs in vitro. Under hypoxia, the mGluR5 agonists DHPG and CHPG significantly increased NPC proliferation in cell activity, diameter of neurospheres, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell division, and expression of cyclin D1, with decreasing cell death. The mGluR5 siRNA and antagonist MPEP decreased the NPC proliferation and expression of cyclin D1, with increasing cell death. Phosphorylated JNK and ERK increased with the proliferation of NPCs after DHPG and CHPG treatment under hypoxia, while p-p38 level decreased. These results demonstrate that the expression of mGluR5 was upregulated during the proliferation of rat NPCs stimulated by hypoxia in vitro. The activation of the ERK and JNK signaling pathway and the expression of cyclin D1 were increased in this process. These finding suggest the involvement of mGluR5 in rat NPC proliferation and provide a target molecule in neural repair after ischemia/hypoxia injury of CNS.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is closely relative to the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). This study primarily examined the mGluR5 expression of NPCs in subventricular zone (SVZ) and the effects of mGluR5 on neurogenesis to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rat. The experiment was designated as the following: (1) The ICH model was established by collagenase infusion into the right striatum of the rats, and the brain tissue was collected to assess the expression of mGluR5 in SVZ NPCs. (2) The rat brains were sampled for immunostaining of doublecortin (DCX) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to examine the effects of the (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) on neurogenesis. (3) Behavioral testing was carried out to evaluate the effects of CHPG on neurofunctional recovery. The results of Western blot analysis showed that mGluR5 levels in the ipsilateral SVZ increased as early as at 3 days after ICH, peaked at 14 days. The change of mGluR5 mRNA level in the ipsilateral SVZ was generally similar to the pattern of Western blot analysis. The immunostaining also demonstrated that some nestin-positive cells were co-expressed with mGluR5. The injection of CHPG into ipsilateral ventricle increased DCX levels both in the ipsilateral striatum (STR) and the peri-lesion area of the striatum (PLA). Meanwhile, a significant difference in behavioral score was presented at 28 days after ICH between the CHPG-treated rats and the vehicle-treated or the non-treated rats. Our results demonstrated for the first time that the increased expression of mGluR5 in SVZ NPCs occurred in ICH rat. The CHPG promoted the neurogenesis and improved neurofunctional symptom induced by ICH. These results suggested that the increased expression of mGluR5 on NPCs in SVZ may play an important role in neurogenesis in ICH rat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate neurogenesis in brain, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of mGluR5 on the proliferation of human embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs), the expression of cyclin D1 and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that mGluR5 agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine hydrate (DHPG) increased the proliferation of NPCs by increasing cell activity, diameter of neurospheres and cell division, while mGluR5 siRNA and antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) decreased the NPC proliferation. The mRNA and protein expressions of cyclin D1 increased with DHPG treatment and decreased after siRNA or MPEP treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of NPCs. After DHPG treatment, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK2 levels increased, and meanwhile p-p38 level decreased; but p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK2 levels decreased after siRNA or MPEP treatment, and p-p38 level increased. Our findings demonstrated that mGluR5 promoted the proliferation of human embryonic cortical NPCs and increased cyclin D1 expression with the changes in phosphorylation of MAPKs signaling pathways in vitro, suggesting a novel mechanism for pharmacological study of treatment for ischemic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders.