[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection is still a potential threat to public health worldwide. While vaccines and antiviral drugs are currently under development, neutralizing antibodies could offer an alternative strategy to prevent and treat H5N1 virus infection. In the present study, we had developed a humanized antibody against H5N1 viruses from mouse-derived hybridoma in order to minimize its immunogenicity for potential clinical application. The humanized antibody hH5M9 was generated by transferring the mouse complementarity determining region (CDR) residues together with four key framework region (FR) residues onto the FR of the human antibody. This humanized antibody exhibited high affinity and specificity comparable to the parental mouse or chimeric counterpart with broad and strong neutralization activity against all H5N1 clades and subclades except for Egypt clades investigated. Furthermore, through epitope mapping we identified a linear epitope on the top region of hemagglutinin (HA) that was H5N1 specific and conserved. Our results for the first time reported a humanized antibody against H5N1 viruses by CDR grafting method. With the expected lower immunogenicity, this humanized antibody was expected to be more efficacious than murine or human-mouse chimeric antibodies for future application in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A widely held viewpoint is that the use of multiple markers, combined in some type of algorithm, will be necessary to provide high enough discrimination between diseased cases and non-diseased. We applied stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify the best combination of the 32 biomarkers at chromosome 8q on an independent public microarray test set of 80 paired gastric samples. A combination of SULF1, INTS8, ATP6V1C1, and GPR172A was identified with a prediction accuracy of 98.0% for discriminating carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues in our previous 25 paired samples. Interestingly, the overexpression of SULF1 was associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Function prediction analysis revealed that the 4-marker panel was mainly associated with acidification of intracellular compartments. Taken together, we found a 4-gene panel that accurately discriminated gastric carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues and these results had potential clinical significance in the early diagnosis and targeted treatment of gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used to alleviate diverse pains. Accumulated clinical experiences and experimental observations indicated that significant differences exist in sensitivity to EA analgesia for individuals of patients and model animals. However, the molecular mechanism accounting for this difference remains obscure.
We classified model male rats into high-responder (HR; TFL changes >150) and non-responder (NR; TFL changes ≤ 0) groups based on changes of their pain threshold detected by tail-flick latency (TFL) before and after 2 Hz or 100 Hz EA treatment. Gene expression analysis of spinal dorsal horn (DH) revealed divergent expression in HR and NR after 2 Hz/100 Hz EA. The expression of the neurotransmitter system related genes was significantly highly regulated in the HR animals while the proinflammation cytokines related genes were up-regulated more significantly in NR than that in HR after 2 Hz and 100 Hz EA stimulation, especially in the case of 2 Hz stimulation.
Our results suggested that differential regulation and coordination of neural-immune related genes might play an important role for individual variations in analgesic effects responding to EA in DH. It also provided new candidate genes related to EA responsiveness for future investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To get more understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer, 25 paired samples were applied to gene expression microarray analysis. Here, expression microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that GPRC5A was significantly elevated in gastric cancer tissues. The integrative network analysis of deregulated genes generated eight subnetworks. We also mapped copy number variations (CNVs) and associated mRNA expression changes into pathways and identified WNT, RTK-Ras-PI3K-AKT, NF-κB, and PLAU-JAK-STAT pathways involved in proliferation, evading apoptosis and sustained angiogenesis, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal several interesting genes including GPRC5A as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer, and highlight more systematical insight of deregulated genes in genetic pathways of gastric carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Figure S3. Correlation between copy number ratios and expression ratios in representative genes (XPO5 and MCM4). The X axis showed 25 gastric samples and the Y axis displayed log ratios of copy number and gene expression from microarrays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Table S4. Copy number associated gene expression changes. Pearson correlation coefficients between DNA copy number aberrations and alterations in mRNA expression level for each selected gene were calculated in SPSS 11.5 software. Gene expression referred to log2 ratios from gene expression profiling. Normal and Tumor referred to an average log2 ratio of 25 pairs of gastric samples, respectively. aCGH log2 ratio referred to an average log2 ratio for only those cases (Frequency) in which the ratio was over 1.5-fold changed (log2 ratio ≥ 0.585 or ≤ −0.585). firstly, a mean log2 copy number variation ratio was calculated for all the probes targeting the same gene. Then, the Pearson’s r was measured between aCGH and gene expression profiling performed in 25 pairs of gastric samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate gene expression associated with copy number changes, we performed a genome-wide copy number and expression microarray analysis of 25 pairs of gastric tissues.
We applied laser capture microdissection (LCM) to obtain samples for microarray experiments and profiled DNA copy number and gene expression using 244K CGH Microarray and Human Exon 1.0 ST Microarray.
Obviously, gain at 8q was detected at the highest frequency (70%) and 20q at the second (63%). We also identified molecular genetic divergences for different TNM-stages or histological subtypes of gastric cancers. Interestingly, the C20orf11 amplification and gain at 20q13.33 almost separated moderately differentiated (MD) gastric cancers from poorly differentiated (PD) type. A set of 163 genes showing the correlations between gene copy number and expression was selected and the identified genes were able to discriminate matched adjacent noncancerous samples from gastric cancer samples in an unsupervised two-way hierarchical clustering. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 4 genes (C20orf11, XPO5, PUF60, and PLOD3) of the 163 genes validated the microarray results. Notably, some candidate genes (MCM4 and YWHAZ) and its adjacent genes such as PRKDC, UBE2V2, ANKRD46, ZNF706, and GRHL2, were concordantly deregulated by genomic aberrations.
Taken together, our results reveal diverse chromosomal region alterations for different TNM-stages or histological subtypes of gastric cancers, which is helpful in researching clinicopathological classification, and highlight several interesting genes as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Medical Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Figure S1. Efficiency of cell capturing. Noncancerous mucosa (A) before and (B) after dissection of the epithelia. (C) Image of the epithelium on the cap. Tumor cells in muscle layer (D) before and (E) after dissection of the tumor cells. (F) Image of the tumor cell on the cap.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Figure S2. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 50 gastric samples with 163 genes revealed two distinct clusters. Log ratio scale bar for the Treeview color change was also shown. Suffix “T” indicates gastric cancer samples; “N” indicates matched adjacent noncancerous samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Table S3. The 27 pairs of gastric samples were analyzed by aCGH using Agilent CGH Analytics 4.0.76 software. ADM-2 algorithm with a threshold level of 4 was used to identify CNVs in individual samples. CNVs, copy number variations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports regarding the function of EFEMP1 in different cancer types. In this study, we sought to evaluate the role of EFEMP1 in malignant glioma biology.
Real-time qRT-PCR was used to quantify EFEMP1 expression in 95 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Human high-grade glioma cell lines and primary cultures were engineered to express ectopic EFEMP1, a small hairpin RNA of EFEMP1, or treated with exogenous recombinant EFEMP1 protein. Following treatment, growth was assayed both in vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracranial (i.c.) xenograft model systems).
Cox regression revealed that EFEMP1 is a favorable prognostic marker for patients with GBM. Over-expression of EFEMP1 eliminated tumor development and suppressed angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and VEGFA expression, while the converse was true with knock-down of endogenous EFEMP1 expression. The EFEMP1 suppression of tumor onset time was nearly restored by ectopic VEGFA expression; however, overall tumor growth rate remained suppressed. This suggested that inhibition of angiogenesis was only partly responsible for EFEMP1's impact on glioma development. In glioma cells that were treated by exogenous EFEMP1 protein or over-expressed endogenous EFEMP1, the EGFR level was reduced and AKT signaling activity attenuated. Mixing of EFEMP1 protein with cells prior to s.c. and i.c. implantations or injection of the protein around the established s.c. xenografts, both significantly suppressed tumorigenicity.
Overall, our data reveals that EEFEMP1 suppresses glioma growth in vivo, both by modulating the tumor extracellular microenvironment and by altering critical intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways.