Patrick B. Hall

CUNY Graduate Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (196)785.41 Total impact

  • Patrik Pirkola · Patrick B Hall
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    ABSTRACT: The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Physics Education
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of the highest velocity C iv broad absorption line to date in the z = 2.47 quasar SDSS J023011.28+005913.6, hereafter J0230. In comparing the public DR7 and DR9 spectra of J0230, we discovered an emerging broad absorption trough outflowing at ∼60 000 km s−1, which we refer to as trough A. In pursuing follow up observations of trough A, we discovered a second emergent C iv broad absorption trough outflowing at ∼40 000 km s−1, namely trough B. In total, we collected seven spectral epochs of J0230 that demonstrate emergent and rapidly (∼10 d in the rest-frame) varying broad absorption. We investigate two possible scenarios that could cause these rapid changes: bulk motion and ionization variability. Given our multi-epoch data, we were able to rule out some simple models of bulk motion, but have proposed two more realistic models to explain the variability of both troughs. Trough A is likely an augmented ‘crossing disc’ scenario with the absorber moving at 10 000 < v(km s−1) < 18 000. Trough B can be explained by a flow-tube feature travelling across the emitting region at 8000 < v(km s−1) < 56 000. If ionization variability is the cause for the changes observed, trough A's absorber has ne ≥ 724 cm−3 and is at requal ≥ 2.00 kpc, or is at r < 2.00 kpc with no constraint on the density; trough B's absorber either has ne ≥ 1540 cm−3 and is at requal ≥ 1.37 kpc, or is at r < 1.37 kpc with no constraint on the density.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astroparticle Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM) is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg$^2$ field with the SDSS-III BOSS spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i_psf=21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1<z<4.5. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 Jan-Jul dark/grey time, with an average cadence of ~4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the CFHT and the Steward Observatory Bok telescopes in 2014, with a cadence of ~2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (RA, DEC=14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM 6-month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ~10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z>0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Data Release 10 Quasar (DR10Q) catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. The catalog includes all BOSS objects that were targeted as quasar candidates during the first 2.5 years of the survey and that are confirmed as quasars via visual inspection of the spectra. The catalog also includes known quasars (mostly from SDSS-I and II) that were reobserved by BOSS. The catalog contains 166,583 quasars (74,454 are new discoveries since SDSS-DR9) detected over 6,373 deg$^{2}$ with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The number of quasars with $z>2.15$ (117,668) is $\sim$5 times greater than the number of $z>2.15$ quasars known prior to BOSS. Redshifts and FWHMs are provided for the strongest emission lines (CIV, CIII, MgII). The catalog identifies 16,461 broad absorption line quasars and gives their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag and information on the optical morphology and selection method. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra cover the wavelength region 3,600-10,500\AA\ at a spectral resolution in the range 1,300$<$R$<$2,500; the spectra can be retrieved from the SDSS Catalog Archive Server. We also provide a supplemental list of an additional 2,376 quasars that have been identified among the galaxy targets of the SDSS-III/BOSS.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e., an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Gamma = 1.7 or flatter at a >99% confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 10^23 cm^-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening, and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet, and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Patrick B. Hall · E. S. Noordeh · L. S. Chajet · E. Weiss · C. J. Nixon
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    ABSTRACT: Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than expected from standard theoretical predictions based on quasar fluxes or black hole masses. Blackburne and colleagues have also found a very weak wavelength dependence of these half-light radii. We consider disc temperature profile models that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned accretion discs around spinning black holes will be disrupted at radii small enough for the Lense-Thirring torque to overcome the disc's viscous torque. Gas in precessing annuli torn off a disc will spread radially and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, if the intersection occurs at an angle of more than a degree or so, highly supersonic collisions will shock-heat the gas to a Compton temperature of T~10^7 K, and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of discs with such shock-heated regions are poor fits to observations of quasar SEDs. Torn discs where heating occurs in intermittent weak shocks that occur whenever the intersection angle reaches a tenth of a degree pose less of a conflict with observations, but do not have significantly larger half-light radii than standard discs. We also study two phenomenological disc temperature profile models. We find that discs with a temperature spike at relatively large radii and lowered temperatures at radii inside the spike yield improved and acceptable fits to microlensing sizes in most cases. Such temperature profiles could in principle occur in sub-Keplerian discs partially supported by magnetic pressure. However, such discs overpredict the fluxes from quasars studied with microlensing except in the limit of negligible continuum emission from radii inside the temperature spike.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of seventeen broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with high-ionization troughs that include absorption redshifted relative to the quasar rest frame. The redshifted troughs extend to velocities up to v=12,000 km/s and the trough widths exceed 3000 km/s in all but one case. Approximately 1 in 1000 BAL quasars with blueshifted C IV absorption also has redshifted C IV absorption; objects with C IV absorption present only at redshifted velocities are roughly four times rarer. In more than half of our objects, redshifted absorption is seen in C II or Al III as well as C IV, making low-ionization absorption at least ten times more common among BAL quasars with redshifted troughs than among standard BAL quasars. However, the C IV absorption equivalent widths in our objects are on average smaller than those of standard BAL quasars with low-ionization absorption. We consider several possible ways of generating redshifted absorption. The two most likely possibilities may be at work simultaneously, in the same objects or in different ones. Rotationally dominated outflows seen against a quasar's extended continuum source can produce redshifted and blueshifted absorption, but variability consistent with this scenario is seen in only one of the four objects with multiple spectra. The infall of relatively dense and low-ionization gas to radii as small as 400 Schwarzschild radii can in principle explain the observed range of trough profiles, but current models do not easily explain the origin and survival of such gas. Whatever the origin(s) of the absorbing gas in these objects, it must be located at small radii to explain its large redshifted velocities, and thus offers a novel probe of the inner regions of quasars.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Data Release 9 Quasar (DR9Q) catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. The catalog includes all BOSS objects that were targeted as quasar candidates during the survey, are spectrocopically confirmed as quasars via visual inspection, have luminosities Mi[z=2]<-20.5 (in a $\Lambda$CDM cosmology with H0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, $\Omega_{\rm M}$ = 0.3, and $\Omega_{\Lambda}$ = 0.7) and either display at least one emission line with full width at half maximum (FWHM) larger than 500 km/s or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. It includes as well, known quasars (mostly from SDSS-I and II) that were reobserved by BOSS. This catalog contains 87,822 quasars (78,086 are new discoveries) detected over 3,275 deg$^{2}$ with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra newly derived from a training set of 8,632 spectra from SDSS-DR7. The number of quasars with $z>2.15$ (61,931) is ~2.8 times larger than the number of z>2.15 quasars previously known. Redshifts and FWHMs are provided for the strongest emission lines (CIV, CIII], MgII). The catalog identifies 7,533 broad absorption line quasars and gives their characteristics. For each object the catalog presents five-band (u,g,r,i,z) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag, and information on the morphology and selection method. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June. The data release includes five-band photometric data for 180 million objects selected over 6670 deg2 and 673,280 spectra of galaxies, quasars, and stars selected from 4783 deg2 of those imaging data using the standard SDSS target selection algorithms. These numbers represent a roughly 27% increment over those of the Third Data Release; all the data from previous data releases are included in the present release. The Fourth Data Release also includes an additional 131,840 spectra of objects selected using a variety of alternative algorithms, to address scientific issues ranging from the kinematics of stars in the Milky Way thick disk to populations of faint galaxies and quasars.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg2 to measure BAO to redshifts z < 0.7. Observations of neutral hydrogen in the Lyα forest in more than 150,000 quasar spectra (g < 22) will constrain BAO over the redshift range 2.15 < z < 3.5. Early results from BOSS include the first detection of the large-scale three-dimensional clustering of the Lyα forest and a strong detection from the Data Release 9 data set of the BAO in the clustering of massive galaxies at an effective redshift z = 0.57. We project that BOSS will yield measurements of the angular diameter distance dA to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H(z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Lyα forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate DA(z) and H –1(z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z ~ 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A search for emission lines in foreground galaxies in quasar spectra (zgal < zQSO) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 5 reveals 23 examples of quasars shining through low redshift, foreground galaxies at small impact parameters (<10 kpc). About 74 000 quasar spectra were examined by searching for narrow Hα emission lines at z < 0.38, at a flux level greater than 5 × 10−17 erg cm−2 s−1, and then confirming that other expected emission lines of the H ii regions in the galaxy are detected. The galaxies were deblended from the quasar images to get colours and morphologies. For cases that allow the galaxy and the quasar to be deblended, the galaxies are blue (0.95 < (u−r) < 1.95). Extinction and reddening through the galaxies are determined from the (g−i) colour excess of the quasars. These reddening values are compared with the flux ratio of Hα to Hβ, which reflect the extinction for an undetermined fraction of the sightline through each galaxy. No trends were found relating E(B−V)(g−i), impact parameter (b), and (u−r) for the galaxies or between E(B−V) derived from (g−i) and that derived from Hα/Hβ. Comparison with previous studies of quasar absorption systems indicates that our sample is more reddened, suggesting disc-dominated absorber galaxies. Measurement or limits on galactic, interstellar Ca ii and Na i absorption lines are given from the quasar spectrum. No trends were found relating the Ca ii equivalent width W (Ca ii) or the Na i equivalent width W (Na i) to b, but a correlation of rs=−0.77 (α= 0.05) was found relating W (Ca ii) and E(B−V)(g−i).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: A search for emission lines in foreground galaxies in quasar spectra (z(gal) < z(QSO)) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 (DR5) reveals 23 examples of quasars shining through low redshift, foreground galaxies at small impact parameters (< 10 kpc). About 74,000 quasar spectra were examined by searching for narrow H{\alpha} emission lines at z < 0.38, at a flux level greater than 5 \times 10^-17 ergs cm^-2 s^-1, then confirming that other expected emission lines of the H II regions in the galaxy are detected. The galaxies were deblended from the quasar images to get colors and morphologies. For cases that allow the galaxy and the quasar to be deblended, the galaxies are blue (0.95 <(u-r)< 1.95). Extinction and reddening through the galaxies is determined from the (g-i) color excesses of the quasars. These reddening values are compared with the flux ratio of H{\alpha} to H{\beta}, which reflect the extinction for an undetermined fraction of the sightline through each galaxy. No trends were found relating E(B-V)_(g-i), impact parameter (b), and (u-r) for the galaxies or between E(B-V) derived from (g-i) and that derived from H{\alpha}/H{\beta}. Comparison with previous studies of quasar absorption systems indicate our sample is more reddened, suggesting disk-dominated absorber galaxies. Measurement or limits on galactic, interstellar Ca II and Na I absorption lines are given from the quasar spectrum. No trends were found relating Ca II equivalent width (W (Ca II)) or Na I equivalent width (W (Na I)) to b, but a correlation of r_s = -0.77 ({\alpha} = 0.05) was found relating W (Ca II) and E(B-V)(g-i) .
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012
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    ABSTRACT: We present the final statistical sample of lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). The well-defined statistical lens sample consists of 26 lensed quasars brighter than i = 19.1 and in the redshift range of 0.6 < z < 2.2 selected from 50,826 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), where we restrict the image separation range to 1'' < θ < 20'' and the i-band magnitude differences in two images to be smaller than 1.25 mag. The SDSS DR7 quasar catalog also contains 36 additional lenses identified with various techniques. In addition to these lensed quasars, we have identified 81 pairs of quasars from follow-up spectroscopy, 26 of which are physically associated binary quasars. The statistical lens sample covers a wide range of image separations, redshifts, and magnitudes, and therefore is suitable for systematic studies of cosmological parameters and surveys of the structure and evolution of galaxies and quasars.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Broad Absorption Line (BAL) trough variability is predominantly due to cloud motion transverse to our line of sight. The rate at which the variability occurs indicates the velocity of the cloud, which can provide constraints on the cloud's distance from the central source. This requires detailed spectroscopy during a variability event. Such spectra have proven elusive, suggesting either the timescale of variability is too short to be caught, or too long to notice until a sufficient amount of time has passed. Photometric monitoring of BAL quasar colours may potentially be used as an early warning system to trigger time resolved spectroscopic monitoring of BAL variability. Towards this end, we are analyzing both BAL and non-BAL colour variability using time series photometry from Stripe 82 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We report on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of 11 radio-quiet quasars with weak or no emission lines identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshift z=0.4-2.5. The distribution of relative X-ray brightness for our low-redshift weak-line quasar (WLQ) candidates is significantly different from that of typical radio-quiet quasars, having an excess of X-ray weak sources, but it is consistent with that of high-redshift WLQs. The X-ray weak sources generally show similar UV emission-line properties to those of the X-ray weak quasar PHL 1811; they may belong to the notable class of PHL 1811 analogs. The average X-ray spectrum of these sources is somewhat harder than that of typical radio-quiet quasars. Several other low-redshift WLQ candidates have normal ratios of X-ray-to-optical/UV flux, and their average X-ray spectral properties are also similar to those of typical radio-quiet quasars. The X-ray weak and X-ray normal WLQ candidates may belong to the same subset of quasars having high-ionization "shielding gas" covering most of the wind-dominated broad emission-line region, but be viewed at different inclinations. The mid-infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources are generally consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars, showing that they are not likely to be BL Lac objects with relativistically boosted continua and diluted emission lines. However, one source in our X-ray observed sample is remarkably strong in X-rays, indicating that a small fraction of low-redshift WLQ candidates may actually be BL Lacs residing in the radio-faint tail of the BL Lac population. We also investigate universal selection criteria for WLQs over a wide range of redshift, finding that it is not possible to select WLQ candidates in a fully consistent way using different prominent emission lines as a function of redshift.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical to far-infrared photometry of 31 reddened QSOs that show evidence for radiatively driven outflows originating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in their rest-frame UV spectra. We use these data to study the relationships between the AGN-driven outflows, and the AGN and starburst infrared luminosities. We find that FeLoBAL QSOs are invariably IR-luminous, with IR luminosities exceeding 1012 L ☉ in all cases. The AGN supplies 76% of the total IR emission, on average, but with a range from 20% to 100%. We find no evidence that the absolute luminosity of obscured star formation is affected by the AGN-driven outflows. Conversely, we find an anticorrelation between the strength of AGN-driven outflows, as measured from the range of outflow velocities over which absorption exceeds a minimal threshold, and the contribution from star formation to the total IR luminosity, with a much higher chance of seeing a starburst contribution in excess of 25% in systems with weak outflows than in systems with strong outflows. Moreover, we find no convincing evidence that this effect is driven by the IR luminosity of the AGN. We conclude that radiatively driven outflows from AGNs can have a dramatic, negative impact on luminous star formation in their host galaxies. We find that such outflows act to curtail star formation such that star formation contributes less than ~25% of the total IR luminosity. We also propose that the degree to which termination of star formation takes place is not deducible from the IR luminosity of the AGN.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Jesse A. Rogerson · Patrick B. Hall
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    ABSTRACT: We test whether the Tinker & Chen model of Mg ii absorption due to the gaseous halo around a galaxy can reproduce absorption in quasar pairs (both lensed and physical) and lensed triples and quads from the literature. These quasars exhibit absorption from a total of 38 Mg ii systems spanning z= 0.043–2.066 with mean redshift 〈z〉= 1.099 and weighted mean rest-frame equivalent width of 0.87 Å. Using the Tinker & Chen model to generate simulated sight-lines, we marginalize the unknown parameters of the absorbing galaxies: dark matter halo mass, impact parameter and azimuthal angle on the sky. We determine the ability of the model to statistically reproduce the observed variation in Mg ii absorption strength between paired sight-lines for different values of the gas covering fraction fc and the characteristic length scale ℓc, within which the variation in absorption equivalent widths between sight-lines exponentially decreases. We find a best-fitting fc= 0.60 ± 0.15 per cent and (1σ confidence limits), with smaller fc allowed at larger ℓc. At 99.7 per cent confidence, we are able to rule out fc > 0.87 for all values of ℓc and the region where kpc and fc < 0.3.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use SDSS spectra and optical to far-infrared photometry for a sample of 31 FeLoBAL QSOs to study the relationship between the AGN-driven outflows, and obscured star formation in their host galaxies. We find that FeLoBAL QSOs invariably have IR luminosities exceeding 10^12 Solar luminosities. The AGN supplies 75% of the total IR emission, on average, but with a range from 20% to 100%. We find a clear anticorrelation between the strength of the AGN-driven outflows and the contribution from star formation to the total IR luminosity, with a much higher chance of seeing a starburst contribution in excess of 25% in systems with weak outflows than in systems with strong outflows. Moreover, we find no evidence that this effect is driven by the IR luminosity of the AGN. We conclude that radiatively driven outflows from AGN act to curtail obscured star formation in the host galaxies of reddened QSOs to less than ~25% of the total IR luminosity. This is the most direct evidence yet obtained for `quasar mode' AGN feedback.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011

Publication Stats

15k Citations
785.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2015
    • York University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2011
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, MD, United States
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Baton Rouge College
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2003-2009
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • • Departamento de Anatomía
      • • Facultad de Física
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 2000-2008
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1970-2007
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States