P O'Hanley

Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (4)15.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of one dose of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine was performed in Indonesia from 1993 to 1997. 67,508 persons aged 2-41 years ingested vaccine or placebo and were followed for four years, detecting cholera cases using hospital-based surveillance. A nested reactogenicity study (538 vaccinees, 535 controls) revealed no vaccine-attributable side effects. A nested immunogenicity study (N=657) showed vibriocidal seroresponses in 64-70% of vaccinees vs 1-2% of controls. Cholera incidence was lower than expected. 103 cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor diarrhea were detected, 93 evaluable for vaccine efficacy (43 vaccine, 50 placebo; efficacy=14%). A suggestion of protection was observed among persons with blood group O [P=0.12]. Only seven cases occurred within six months of vaccination, precluding assessment of short-term efficacy. In Jakarta, single-dose CVD 103-HgR did not confer long-term protection. Short-term protection from a single-dose and long-term protection from two doses have yet to be studied.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: A community-based prospective study was performed from December 1993 through March 31, 1994 in Indonesia in children less than five years of age. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was identified in diarrheic stool by colony hybridization assay, using toxin probes, and this bacterium was isolated from 19% of 340 episodes of diarrhea. Sixty-one percent of ETEC produced heat-labile toxin (LT) only, 325 LT and heat-stable toxin (ST), and 75 ST only. The age-specific incidence rates of diarrhea among children 0-1 and 2-3 years of age were 77% and 61%, respectively, during the study period; ETEC was isolated from 26% of children 0-1 years of age versus 53% for children 2-3 years of age. As many as seven episodes of diarrhea were repeatedly experienced by a single child during the four-month study period; however, only two children had more than one episode of known ETEC-associated diarrheal disease during the period of observation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: In 1992, a serologically novel clone of Vibrio cholerae, designated O139, caused large epidemics of diarrhea in India and Bangladesh. To determine the extent of the spread of V. cholerae O139 worldwide, 484 V. cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from different patients with diarrhea in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Peru in 1993 were tested for agglutination in O139 antisera. One hundred fifty-one of these 484 isolates were examined for genes encoding cholera toxin, zonula occlulans toxin, the repetitive sequence 1, and the toxin coregulated pilin A (the V. cholerae virulence gene complex). Thirty-three percent (122 of 364) of V. cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from different patients with diarrhea in Thailand agglutinated in O139 antisera. Ninety-eight percent (120 of 122) of V. cholerae O139 contained the V. cholerae virulence gene complex. None of the 104 V. cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from patients with diarrhea in Indonesia or the 14 strains from patients with diarrhea in the Philippines were serotype O139. Four different ribotypes were found in V. cholerae O139 isolated in Asia. Twenty-three (47%) of 49 Thai O139 strains examined were of different ribotypes than isolates from India and Bangladesh; V. cholerae strains that were not O1 or O139 that were isolated from flies and water in Thailand 11 years previously in 1981 contained the same V. cholerae virulence gene complex found in V. cholerae O1 and O139. This suggests that other unidentified virulence determinants are involved in V. cholerae O139 pathogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant A-B+ Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR is a safe, highly immunogenic, single-dose live oral vaccine in adults in industrialized countries, Safety, excretion, immunogenicity, vaccine transmissibility, and environmental introduction ofCVD 103-HgR were investigated among 24- to 59-month-old children in Jakarta. In 81 households, 1 child was randomly allocated a single dose of vaccine (5 x 109 cfu) and another, placebo. Additionally, 139 unpaired children were randomly allocated vaccine or placebo. During 9 days of follow-up, diarrhea or vomiting did not occur more often among vaccinees than controls. Vaccine was minimally excreted and was isolated from no controls and from 1 (0.6%) of 177 unvaccinated family contacts. A 4-fold or higher rise in serum vibriocidal antibody was observed in 75% of vaccinees (10-fold rise in geometric mean titer over baseline). Of 135 paired placebo recipients or household contacts, 5 had vibriocidal seroconversions. Moore swabs placed in sewers and latrines near 97 households failed to detect vaccine. These observations pave the way for a large-scale field trial of efficacy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1993 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases