Qin Wang

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (3)10.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: African trypanosomiasis is caused by Salivarian trypanosomes, tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa that inhabit the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluids, and, in the case of Trypanosoma brucei species, also the cerebrospinal fluid of mammal hosts. Trypanosomiasis in people and domestic animals manifests as recurring waves of parasites in the blood and is typically fatal. In contrast, trypanosomiasis in Cape buffaloes, which are naturally selected to resist the disease, is characterized by the development of only one or a few waves of parasitemia, after which the infection becomes cryptic, being maintained by the presence of 1-20 mammal-infective organisms/ml of blood. The control of the acute phase of parasitemia in Cape buffaloes correlates with a decline in blood catalase activity and the generation of trypanocidal H(2)O(2) in serum during the catabolism of endogenous purine by xanthine oxidase. Here we review features of this response, and of trypanosome metabolism, that facilitate H(2)O(2)-mediated killing of the parasites with minimal damage to the host. We also discuss the origin and regulation of serum xanthine oxidase and catalase, and show how recovery of serum catalase in infected Cape buffaloes precludes a role for H(2)O(2) in the long-term, stable suppression of trypanosome parasitemia.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
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    ABSTRACT: Cape buffalo serum contains xanthine oxidase which generates trypanocidal H(2)O(2) during the catabolism of hypoxanthine and xanthine. The present studies show that xanthine oxidase-dependent trypanocidal activity in Cape buffalo serum was also elicited by purine nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases even though xanthine oxidase did not catabolize those purines. The paradox was explained in part, by the presence in serum of purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase, that, together with xanthine oxidase, catabolized adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine to uric acid yielding trypanocidal H(2)O(2). In addition, purine catabolism by trypanosomes provided substrates for serum xanthine oxidase and was implicated in the triggering of xanthine oxidase-dependent trypanocidal activity by purines that were not directly catabolized to uric acid in Cape buffalo serum, namely guanosine, guanine, adenine monophosphate, guanosine diphosphate, adenosine 3':5-cyclic monophosphate, and 1-methylinosine. The concentrations of guanosine and guanine that elicited xanthine oxidase-dependent trypanocidal activity were 30-270-fold lower than those of other purines requiring trypanosome-processing which suggests differential processing by the parasites.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutive anti-Trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei S 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. The sera fell into 5 categories. Sera from Cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. Sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. Their antitrypanosome activity was inactivated by heating at 56 C for 30 min but not affected by absorbing with trypanosomes at 4 C. Sera from lion and leopard showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of T. brucei S427 clone 1 organisms, but not clone 22 organisms. These sera lacked xanthine oxidase. Their anti-T. brucei S 427 clone 1 activity was inactivated by heating at 56 C for 30 min but not removed by absorbing with trypanosomes. Serum from Grant's gazelle prevented replication of both T. brucei clones, lacked xanthine oxidase, and was not affected by heating at 56 C. Sera from waterbuck, Thompson's gazelle, sitatunga, Cape hartebeeste, gerenuk, Grant's zebra, cow, several cat, cougar, bobcat, and domestic cat were fully supportive of trypanosome replication irrespective of concentration tested up to a maximum of 48% v/v in culture medium. Sera from different individuals of the same mammal species had similar effects on trypanosomes, and samples collected from the same individual at different times also had similar activities indicating species-specific stable expression, or lack thereof, of constitutive serum antitrypanosome components.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Parasitology