Peter Strong

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (32)134.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) is an emerging pathogen with the potential to cause great harm to humans, and there is concern about the potential for a new influenza pandemic. This virus is resistant to the antiviral effects of interferons and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the mechanism of interferon-independent protective innate immunity is not well understood. The prophylactic effects of chitin microparticles as a stimulator of innate mucosal immunity against a recently obtained strain of H5N1 influenza virus infection were examined in mice. Clinical parameters and the survival rate of mice treated by intranasal application of chitin microparticles were significantly improved compared to non-treated mice after a lethal influenza virus challenge. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the number of natural killer cells that expressed tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and that had migrated into the cervical lymph node was markedly increased (26-fold) after intranasal treatment with chitin microparticles. In addition, the level of IL-6 and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in the nasal mucosa after H5N1 influenza virus challenge was decreased by prophylactic treatment with chitin microparticles. These results suggest that prophylactic intranasal administration of chitin microparticles enhanced the local accumulation of natural killer cells and suppressed hyper-induction of cytokines, resulting in an innate immune response to prevent pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Attenuated recombinant H5N1 influenza virus was constructed to develop a safe H5N1 influenza vaccine. The immunogenicity and protective effect of the vaccine prepared from haemagglutinin-modified recombinant H5N1 influenza virus was evaluated in mice intranasally co-administered with cholera toxin B subunit containing a trace amount of holotoxin (CTB*), synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly (I:C) or chitin microparticles (CMP) as adjuvants. Intranasal administration of recombinant H5 HA split vaccine with CTB* or poly(I:C) and/or CMP elicited an immunological response with both anti-H5 HA IgA in the nasal wash and anti-H5 HA IgG antibody in the serum, and showed a protective against lethal H5N1 A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK483) infection. We also demonstrated that intranasal co-administration of antigen with both poly (I:C) and CMP enhanced the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR7 in the spleen. These results indicate that poly (I:C) and CMP are highly effective as mucosal adjuvants for use with the nasal H5N1 vaccine.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Microbes and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin, a natural polysaccharide extracted from shrimp, is a potent T and B cell adjuvant when delivered in the form of chitin microparticles and can shift a polarized T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response towards a Th1 response. We investigated the beneficial effects of the intranasal application of chitin microparticles in newborn mice before and after the establishment of a model of allergic asthma. Mice were grouped as asthma (A), primary prevention (PP), treatment (T), primary prevention+treatment (PPT) and control (C) groups. All mice except controls were sensitized with ovalbumin intraperitoneally and challenged intratracheally to establish the asthma model. Mice in the PP and PPT groups received chitin microparticles intranasally during the newborn period before sensitization. Mice in the PPT and T groups received intranasal chitin microparticles after challenge. Airway histopathology was evaluated in all groups. All of the airway histopathologic parameters of small and medium-sized airways of the T and PPT groups were significantly ameliorated when compared with the asthma model group. In the large airways, thicknesses of basement membrane, epithelium and subepithelial smooth muscle layers of the PPT group and basement membrane thicknesses of the T group were also significantly lower compared with the asthma model group. Comparison of the PP group with the asthma model group revealed significantly reduced goblet cell numbers and significantly reduced epithelial and basement membrane thicknesses in small and medium airways, in addition to significantly reduced basement membrane thicknesses in the medium-sized airways. Intranasal application of microgram quantities of chitin microparticles had a beneficial effect in preventing and treating histopathologic changes in the airways of asthmatic mice.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Clinical & Experimental Allergy
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin in the form of microparticles (chitin microparticles, CMP) has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulator of macrophages, promoting T-helper-1 (Th1) activation and cytokine response. In order to examine the mucosal adjuvant effect of CMP co-administered with influenza hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine against influenza infection, CMP were intranasally co-administered with influenza HA vaccine prepared from PR8 (H1N1) virus. Inoculation of the vaccine with CMP induced primary and secondary anti-HA IgA responses in the nasal wash and anti-HA IgG responses in the serum, which were significantly higher than those of nasal vaccination without CMP, and provided a complete protection against a homologous influenza virus challenge in the nasal infection influenza model. In addition, CMP-based immunization using A/Yamagata (H1N1) and A/Guizhou (H3N2) induced PR8 HA-reactive IgA in the nasal washes and specific-IgG in the serum. The immunization with A/Yamagata and CMP resulted in complete protection against a PR8 (H1N1) challenge in A/Yamagata (H1N1)-vaccinated mice, while that with A/Guizhou (H3N2) and CMP exhibited a 100-fold reduction of nasal virus titer, demonstrating the cross-protective effect of CMP and influenza vaccine. It is suggested that CMP provide a safe and effective adjuvant for nasal vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesised that long-term tracheostomy in infants and children may perpetuate chronic airway inflammation and airway remodeling due to easier access to the lungs for microorganisms. Pulmonary surfactant represents an important part of the initial host defense, and in particular, the surfactant proteins (SP) A and D may directly interact with invading microorganisms and also modulate the activity of local immune cells. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and intensity of a peripheral airway inflammation and of potential deficiency states of surfactant proteins in nonsymptomatic children with tracheostomy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell pattern, bacteria and viruses recovered, and concentrations of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D were assessed in 46 children (4.3 years (1.6–6)) median (range) carrying a tracheostomy for 2.4 years (1.3–4.9), and were compared to 16 children with no lung disease. Children with tracheostomy had an increased total number of cells, increased neutrophils, and more frequently bacteria, but no viruses were recovered. SP-D concentration was reduced by 50% on average (P = 0.0002). SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C were not different between the two groups. SP-D was inversely correlated to neutrophils, and high numbers of bacteria were associated with lower SP-D concentrations. We suggest that bacteria and low SP-D support neutrophilic inflammation in the lower respiratory tract of nonsymptomatic with children with tracheostomy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004; 37:356–361. © 2004 Wiely-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Pediatric Pulmonology
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    P Strong · P Townsend · R Mackay · K.B.M. Reid · H.W. Clark
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    ABSTRACT: C57Bl6 mice sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and challenged with D. pteronyssinus allergen extract given intranasally followed by treatment with intranasal applications of a 60-kDa truncated, trimeric recombinant form of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) showed a significant reduction in serum IgE, IgG1, peripheral blood eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness compared to saline or bovine serum albumin-treated controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of lung and spleen homogenates showed increases in interleukin (IL)-12 production in lung tissue and normalization of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in spleen tissue. In previous studies we demonstrated the effectiveness of native SP-D and rfhSP-D in down-regulating allergic responses to allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus. The results reported here indicate that rfhSP-D can suppress the development of allergic symptoms in sensitized mice challenged with allergens of the common house dust mite.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) can directly interact with carbohydrate residues on pulmonary pathogens and allergens, stimulate immune cells, and manipulate cytokine and chemokine profiles during the immune response in the lungs. Therapeutic administration of rfhSP-D, a recombinant homotrimeric fragment of human SP-D comprising the alpha-helical coiled-coil neck plus three CRDs, protects mice against lung allergy and infection caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The high resolution crystal structures of maltose-bound rfhSP-D to 1.4A, and of rfhSP-D to 1.6A, define the fine detail of the mode and nature of carbohydrate recognition and provide insights into how a small fragment of human SP-D can bind to allergens/antigens or whole pathogens, and at the same time recruit and engage effector cells and molecules of humoral immunity. A previously unreported calcium ion, located on the trimeric axis in a pore at the bottom of the funnel formed by the three CRDs and close to the neck-CRD interface, is coordinated by a triad of glutamate residues which are, to some extent, neutralised by their interactions with a triad of exposed lysine residues in the funnel. The spatial relationship between the neck and the CRDs is maintained internally by these lysine residues, and externally by a glutamine, which forms a pair of hydrogen-bonds within an external cleft at each neck-CRD interface. Structural links between the central pore and the cleft suggest a possible effector mechanism for immune cell surface receptor binding in the presence of bound, extended natural lipopolysaccharide and phospholipid ligands. The structural requirements for such an effector mechanism, involving both the trimeric framework for multivalent ligand binding and recognition sites formed from more than one subunit, are present in both native hSP-D and rfhSP-D, providing a possible explanation for the significant biological activity of rfhSP-D.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Molecular Biology
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    Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Viral Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    P Strong · H Clark · K Reid
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that chitin in the form of microparticles that can be phagocytosed is a potent macrophage stimulator and promotes a Th1 cytokine response and it has been shown that oral administration of chitin microparticles is effective in down-regulating serum IgE and lung eosinophilia in a mouse model of ragweed allergy. To date there have been no studies on the effectivness of directly applying chitin microparticles to the respiratory tract as a treatment for allergic symptoms. To test the effectivness of chitin microparticles when given intranasally as a treatment for the symptoms of respiratory allergy and allergic asthma and to compare its effectivness in two different mouse models of allergy, namely to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Aspergilhus fumigatus. The intranasal application of microgram doses of chitin microparticles is an effective treatment for reducing serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophilia, airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation in both allergy models results in elevation in Th1 cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and reduction in IL-4 production during allergen challenge. Chitin microparticle suspensions have Th1 immunostimulatory properties and are effective when administered intranasally in mice. The stimulation of the nasal associated lymphoid tissue with chitin microparticles could offer a novel and natural approach to treating allergic disease in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Clinical & Experimental Allergy
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    P Strong · K B M Reid · Clark HW
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    ABSTRACT: C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus 1-week culture filtrate, which is rich in the non-glycosylated allergen Asp f1, a major allergen in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). A comparison of the effect of treatment of allergen challenged mice by intranasal administration of a 60-kDa truncated recombinant form of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) or recombinant full length SP-A (rhSP-A) was undertaken. Treatment with rfhSP-D produced significant reduction in IgE, IgG1 and peripheral blood eosinophilia and treatment with rfhSP-D, but not rhSP-A resulted in a significant reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by whole body plethysmography. Lung histology revealed less peribronchial lymphocytic infiltration in mice treated with rfhSP-D. Intracellular cytokine staining of spleen homogenates showed increases in IL-12 and IFN-gamma and decrease in IL-4. The level of endogenous mouse SP-D was elevated sixfold in the lungs of sensitized mice and was not affected by treatment with rfhSP-D. Taken with our previous studies, with a BALB/c mouse model of ABPA using a 3-week A. fumigatus culture filtrate, the present results show that rfhSP-D can suppress the development of allergic symptoms in sensitized mice independent of genetic background and using a different preparation of A. fumigatus allergens.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a molecule of the innate immune system that recognizes the patterns of surface carbohydrate on pathogens and targets them for phagocytosis and killing. SP-D-deficient mice show an increased number of macrophages in the alveolar space, excess surfactant phospholipid, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and the development of emphysema. We report here that SP-D-deficient mice have a 5- to 10-fold increase in the number of apoptotic and necrotic alveolar macrophages, as defined by annexin V and propidium iodine staining, respectively. Intrapulmonary administration of a truncated 60-kDa fragment of human recombinant SP-D reduces the number of apoptotic and necrotic alveolar macrophages and partially corrects the lipid accumulation in SP-D-deficient mice. The same SP-D fragment binds preferentially to apoptotic and necrotic alveolar macrophages in vitro, suggesting that SP-D contributes to immune homeostasis in the lung by recognizing and promoting removal of necrotic and apoptotic cells.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · The Journal of Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations of Crystallography
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori establishes persistent infection of gastric mucosa with diverse clinical outcomes. The innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds selectively to microorganisms, inducing aggregation and phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of SP-D in gastric mucosa by reverse transcription-PCR and immuohistochemical analysis. SP-D is present at the luminal surface and within the gastric pits, with maximal expression at the surface. Levels of expression are significantly increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis compared to those in the normal mucosa. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to demonstrate binding and agglutination of H. pylori by SP-D in a lectin-specific manner. These activities resulted in a 50% reduction in the motility of H. pylori, as judged on the basis of curvilinear velocity measured by using a Hobson BacTracker. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from three H. pylori strains were shown to bind SP-D in a concentration-dependent manner, and there was marked variation in the avidity of binding among the strains. SP-D may therefore play a significant role in the innate immune response to H. pylori infection.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Infection and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effects of intranasal administration of amphotericin B (AmB), human SP-A, SP-D and a 60-kDa fragment of SP-D (rSP-D) were examined in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The untreated group of IPA mice showed no survival at 7 days postinfection. Treatment with AmB, SP-D, and rSP-D increased the survival rate to 80, 60, and 80%, respectively, suggesting that SP-D (and rSP-D) can protect immunosuppressed mice from an otherwise fatal challenge with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.
    Full-text · Article · May 2001 · Infection and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic disorder caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus (Afu). Lung surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D can interact with the glycosylated antigens and allergens of Afu, inhibit specific IgE binding to these allergens, and block histamine release from sensitized basophils. We have now examined the therapeutic effect of exogenous administration of human SP-A, SP-D, and a recombinant fragment of SP-D (rSP-D), in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by Afu antigens and allergens, which resembles human ABPA immunologically. The ABPA mice exhibited high levels of Afu-specific IgG and IgE, blood eosinophilia, extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the lung sections, and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment with SP-A, SP-D, and rSP-D lowered blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, and specific Ab levels considerably, which persisted up to 4 days in the SP-A–treated ABPA mice, and up to 16 days in the SP-D– or rSP-D–treated ABPA mice. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were decreased, while the level of IFN-γ was raised in the splenic supernatants of the treated mice, indicating a marked shift from Th2 to Th1 response. These results clearly implicate pulmonary SP-A and SP-D in the modulation of allergic reactions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: The first step in the activation of the classical complement pathway by immune complexes involves the binding of the six globular heads of C1q to the Fc regions of IgG or IgM. The globular heads of C1q (gC1q domain) are located C-terminal to the six triple-helical stalks present in the molecule, each head being composed of the C-terminal halves of one A, one B, and one C chain. The gC1q modules are also found in a variety of noncomplement proteins, such as type VIII and X collagens, precerebellin, hibernation protein, multimerin, Acrp-30, and saccular collagen. In several of these proteins, the chains containing these gC1q modules appear to form a homotrimeric structure. Here, we report expression of an in-frame fusion of a trimerizing neck region of surfactant protein D with the globular head region of C1q B chain as a fusion to Escherichia coli maltose binding protein. Following cleavage by factor Xa and removal of the maltose binding protein, the neck and globular region, designated ghB(3), formed a soluble, homotrimeric structure and could inhibit C1q-dependent hemolysis of IgG- and IgM-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The functional properties of ghB(3) indicate that the globular regions of C1q may adopt a modular organization in which each globular head of C1q may be composed of three structurally and functionally independent domains, thus retaining multivalency in the form of a heterotrimer. The finding that ghB(3) is an inhibitor of C1q-mediated complement activation opens up the possibility of blocking activation at the first step of the classical complement pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2001 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and induced sputum from adults with stable asthma (n = 36) and healthy controls (n = 12) was analyzed for phospholipid and protein compositions and function. Asthmatic subjects were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Phospholipid compositions of BALF and sputum from control subjects were similar and characteristic of surfactant. For asthmatic subjects, the proportion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/16:0PC), the major phospholipid in surfactant, decreased in sputum (P < 0.05) but not in BALF. In BALF, mole percent 16:0/16:0PC correlated with surfactant function measured in a capillary surfactometer, and sputum mole percent 16:0/16:0PC correlated with lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Neither surfactant protein A nor total protein concentration in either BALF or sputum was altered in asthma. These results suggest altered phospholipid composition and function of airway (sputum) but not alveolar (BALF) surfactant in stable asthma. Such underlying surfactant dysfunction may predispose asthmatic subjects to further surfactant inhibition by proteins or aeroallergens in acute asthma episodes and contribute to airway closure in asthma. Consequently, administration of an appropriate therapeutic surfactant could provide clinical benefit in asthma.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Journal of Applied Physiology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · Immunopharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Clinical Science