[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is accumulating from experimental and human studies that genetic factors are involved both in the control of infectious diseases and in the regulation of infection levels and clinical presentation. So far few studies have investigated the role of these genetic factors in human infection by the filarial parasite Loa loa. We present a segregation analysis on 74 nuclear families who live in the tropical rainforest of southern Cameroun and are exposed to homogeneous loiasis transmission. The results indicate that there is a genetic predisposition to be microfilaraemic and that predisposed subjects might be genetically unable to mount an efficient immune response against loiasis antigens. This individual susceptibility could explain at least in part why the prevalence of infection (microfilaraemic individuals) does not usually exceed 30% of the exposed population in hyperendemic regions. Further genetic studies, based on linkage analysis using both familial information and genetic markers, will help to identify the nature of the genetic factors predisposing to microfilaraemia.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1999 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A longitudinal, one-year survey of Loa loa infection was carried out in an endemic area of southern Cameroon. Parasitologic samplings (calibrated thick blood smears) were performed every two months to study the evolution of loiasis infection at both the population and the individual level. The mean number of measurements by subject was 3.8 (range 1-6). At the population level, prevalence of infection and microfilarial load were found to be very stable over time. This observation is consistent with the existence of an important reserve of parasitic material available for vectors and the maintenance of high levels of transmission. At the individual level, both the microfilarial status (microfilaremic/nonmicrofilaremic) and the level of parasitemia showed a remarkable stability over time. Age was the relevant factor that influenced the individual microfilarial status in the whole population. When only microfilaremic individuals were taken into account, age did not influence the level of microfilaremia, suggesting that loiasis could be considered as a noncumulative disease. The stability of individual microfilarial status and the pattern of infection variations observed with age support the view that genetic factors might be involved in host defense mechanisms against loiasis infection.
No preview · Article · May 1995 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and microfilarial density of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans filariasis have been determined in three successive surveys in one village in the dense rainforest of Southern Cameroon. The prevalence of L. loa microfilaraemia was 30.9% with a geometric mean density of 81.4 microfilariae/30 microliter blood. There was no difference between men and women. The prevalence increased with age from 14.5% at 0-9 years to 52.9% at 40-49 years, whereafter it stablized. The microfilarial density increased until the age of 30-39 years. The highest densities have been found around noon, although the difference was not significant. The prevalence of M. perstans microfilaraemia was 26.6% with a median density of 2.0 microfilariae/30 microliter blood. Both prevalence and density were increasing with age and were higher for men than for women. The time of day that the blood sample was taken had no influence on the microfilarial density of M. perstans.
No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Tropical and geographical medicine