Adam G. Riess

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (338)1318.8 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have acquired Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Very Large Telescope near-infrared spectra and images of supernova (SN) Refsdal after its discovery as an Einstein cross in Fall 2014. The HST light curve of SN Refsdal matches the distinctive, slowly rising light curves of SN 1987A-like supernovae (SNe), and we find strong evidence for a broad H-alpha P-Cygni profile in the HST grism spectrum at the redshift (z = 1.49) of the spiral host galaxy. SNe IIn, powered by circumstellar interaction, could provide a good match to the light curve of SN Refsdal, but the spectrum of a SN IIn would not show broad and strong H-alpha absorption. From the grism spectrum, we measure an H-alpha expansion velocity consistent with those of SN 1987A-like SNe at a similar phase. The luminosity, evolution, and Gaussian profile of the H-alpha emission of the WFC3 and X-shooter spectra, separated by ~2.5 months in the rest frame, provide additional evidence that supports the SN 1987A-like classification. In comparison with other examples of SN 1987A-like SNe, SN Refsdal has a blue B-V color and a high luminosity for the assumed range of potential magnifications. If SN Refsdal can be modeled as a scaled version of SN 1987A, we estimate it would have an ejecta mass of 20+-5 solar masses. The evolution of the light curve at late times will provide additional evidence about the potential existence of any substantial circumstellar material (CSM). Using MOSFIRE and X-shooter spectra, we estimate a subsolar host-galaxy metallicity (8.3+-0.1 dex and <8.4 dex, respectively) near the explosion site.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first year of Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the unique supernova (SN) 'Refsdal', a gravitationally lensed SN at z=1.488 +- 0.001 with multiple images behind the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223. The first four observed images of SN Refsdal (images S1-S4) exhibited a slow rise (over ~150 days) to reach a broad peak brightness around 20 April, 2015. Using a set of light curve templates constructed from the family of SN 1987A-like peculiar Type II SNe, we measure time delays for the four images relative to S1 of 4+-4 (for S2), 2+-5 (S3), and 24+-7 days (S4). The measured magnification ratios relative to S1 are 1.15+-0.05 (S2), 1.01+-0.04 (S3), and 0.34+-0.02 (S4). We find, however, that none of the template light curves fully captures the photometric behavior of SN Refsdal, so we also derive complementary measurements for these parameters using polynomials to represent the intrinsic light curve shape. These more flexible fits deliver fully consistent time delays of 7+-2 days (S2), 0.6+-3 days (S3), and 27+-8 days (S4). The lensing magnification ratios are similarly consistent, measured as 1.17+-0.02 (S2), 1.00+-0.01 (S3), and 0.38+-0.02 (S4).} We compare these measurements against published predictions from lens models, and find that the majority of model predictions are in very good agreement with our measurements. Finally, we discuss avenues for future improvement of time delay measurements -- both for SN Refsdal and for other strongly lensed SNe yet to come.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging taken on 10 November 2014, four images of supernova (SN) 'Refsdal' (z = 1.49) appeared in an Einstein-cross--like configuration (images S1-S4) around an early-type galaxy in the cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.54). The gravitational potential of the cluster creates three full images of the star-forming host galaxy of the SN. Almost all lens models of the cluster have predicted that the SN should reappear within approximately one year in a second host-galaxy image, offset by ~8" from the previous images. In HST observations taken on 11 December 2015, we find a new source that we interpret as a new image of SN Refsdal. This marks the first time the appearance of a SN at a particular time and location in the sky was successfully predicted in advance! We use these data and the light curve from the first four observed images of SN Refsdal to place constraints on the relative time delay and magnification of the new image (SX), compared to images S1-S4. This enables us, for the first time, to test lens model predictions of both magnifications and time delays for a lensed SN. We find that the timing and brightness of the new image are consistent with the blind predictions of a fraction of the models. The reappearance illustrates the discriminatory power of this blind test and its utility to uncover sources of systematic uncertainty in the lens models. From planned HST photometry, we expect to reach a precision of 1-2% on the relative time delay between S1-S4 and SX.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) multi-cycle treasury programs with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided new opportunities to probe the rate of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) at high redshift, now extending to $z\approx2.5$. Here we use a sample of approximately 44 CCSNe to determine volumetric rates, $R_{CC}$, in six redshift bins in the range $0.1<z<2.5$. Together with rates from our previous HST program, and rates from the literature, we trace a more complete history of $R_{CC}(z)$, with $R_{CC}=0.72\pm0.06$ yr$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ 10$^{-4}$ $h_{70}^{3}$ at $z<0.08$, and increasing to $3.7^{+3.1}_{-1.6}$ yr$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ 10$^{-4}$ $h_{70}^{3}$ to $z\approx2.0$. The statistical precision in each bin is several factors better than than the systematic error, with significant contributions from host extinction, and average peak absolute magnitudes of the assumed luminosity functions for CCSN types. Assuming negligible time delays from stellar formation to explosion, we find these composite CCSN rates to be in excellent agreement with cosmic star formation rate density (SFRs) derived largely from dust-corrected rest-frame UV emission, with a scaling factor of $k=0.0091\pm0.0017\,M^{-1}_{\odot}$, and inconsistent (to $>95\%$ confidence) with SFRs from IR luminous galaxies, or with SFR models that include simple evolution in the initial mass function over time. This scaling factor is expected if the fraction of the IMF contributing to CCSN progenitors is in the 8 to 50 $M_{\odot}$ range. It is not supportive, however, of an upper mass limit for progenitors at $<20\,M_{\odot}$.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Current cosmological analyses which use Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations combine SN samples to expand the redshift range beyond that of a single sample and increase the overall sample size. The inhomogeneous photometric calibration between different SN samples is one of the largest systematic uncertainties of the cosmological parameter estimation. To place these different samples on a single system, analyses currently use observations of a small sample of very bright flux standards on the $HST$ system. We propose a complementary method, called `Supercal', in which we use measurements of secondary standards in each system, compare these to measurements of the same stars in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) system, and determine offsets for each system relative to PS1, placing all SN observations on a single, consistent photometric system. PS1 has observed $3\pi$ of the sky and has a relative calibration of better than 5 mmag (for $\sim15<griz<21$ mag), making it an ideal reference system. We use this process to recalibrate optical observations taken by the following SN samples: PS1, SNLS, SDSS, CSP, and CfA1-4. We measure discrepancies on average of 10 mmag, but up to 35 mmag, in various optical passbands. We find that correcting for these differences changes recovered values for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, $w$, by on average $2.6\%$. This change is roughly half the size of current statistical constraints on $w$. The size of this effect strongly depends on the error in the $B-V$ calibration of the low-$z$ surveys. The Supercal method will allow future analyses to tie past samples to the best calibrated sample.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present two supernovae (SNe) discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), an HST multi-cycle treasury program. We classify both objects as Type Ia SNe and find redshifts of z = 1.80+-0.02 and 2.26 +0.02 -0.10, the latter of which is the highest redshift Type Ia SN yet seen. Using light curve fitting we determine luminosity distances and find that both objects are consistent with a standard Lambda-CDM cosmological model. These SNe were observed using the HST Wide Field Camera 3 infrared detector (WFC3-IR), with imaging in both wide- and medium-band filters. We demonstrate that the classification and redshift estimates are significantly improved by the inclusion of single-epoch medium-band observations. This medium-band imaging approximates a very low resolution spectrum (lambda/delta lambda ~ 100) which can isolate broad spectral absorption features that differentiate Type Ia SNe from their most common core collapse cousins. This medium-band method is also insensitive to dust extinction and (unlike grism spectroscopy) it is not affected by contamination from the SN host galaxy or other nearby sources. As such, it can provide a more efficient - though less precise - alternative to IR spectroscopy for high-z SNe.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    David O. Jones · Adam G. Riess · Daniel M. Scolnic
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies found a correlation with $\sim$3 sigma significance between the local star formation measured by GALEX in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) host galaxies and the distances or dispersions derived from these SNe. We search for these effects by using data from recent cosmological analyses to greatly increase the SN Ia sample; we include 185 GALEX-imaged SN Ia hosts with distances from the JLA and Pan-STARRS SN Ia cosmology samples and 156 GALEX-imaged SN Ia hosts with distances from the Riess et al. (2011) H$_0$ measurement. We find little evidence that SNe Ia in locally star-forming environments are fainter after light curve correction than SNe Ia in locally passive environments. We find a difference of only 0.007$\pm$0.018 (stat+sys) mag for SNe fit with SALT2 and 0.031$\pm$0.029 (stat+sys) mag for SNe fit with MLCS2k2 (R$_V$ = 2.5), which suggests that proposed changes to recent measurements of H$_0$ and w are not significant and numerically smaller than the parameter measurement uncertainties. We find the greatly reduced significance of these distance modulus differences compared to Rigault et al. (2013) and Rigault et al. (2015) result from two improvements with fairly equal effects, our larger sample size and the use of JLA and Riess et al. (2011) sample selection criteria. Without these improvements, we recover the results of Rigault et al. (2015). We find that both populations have more similar dispersion in distance than found by Rigault et al. (2013), Rigault et al. (2015), and Kelly et al. (2015), with slightly smaller dispersion for locally passive SNe Ia fit with MLCS, the opposite of the effect seen by Rigault et al. (2015) and Kelly et al. (2015). We caution that measuring local SNe Ia environments in the future may require a higher-resolution instrument than GALEX and that SN sample selection could effect the magnitude of local star formation biases.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: SN HFF14Tom is a Type Ia Supernova (SN) discovered at z = 1.3457 +- 0.0001 behind the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 (z = 0.308). In a cosmology-independent analysis, we find that HFF14Tom is 0.77 +- 0.15 magnitudes brighter than unlensed Type Ia SNe at similar redshift, implying a lensing magnification of mu_obs = 2.03 +- 0.29. This observed magnification provides a rare opportunity for a direct empirical test of galaxy cluster lens models. Here we test 17 lens models, 13 of which were generated before the SN magnification was known, qualifying as pure "blind tests". The models are collectively fairly accurate: 8 of the models deliver median magnifications that are consistent with the measured mu to within 1-sigma. However, there is a subtle systematic bias: the significant disagreements all involve models overpredicting the magnification. We evaluate possible causes for this mild bias, and find no single physical or methodological explanation to account for it. We do find that model accuracy can be improved to some extent with stringent quality cuts on multiply-imaged systems, such as requiring that a large fraction have spectroscopic redshifts. In addition to testing model accuracies as we have done here, Type Ia SN magnifications could also be used as inputs for future lens models of Abell 2744 and other clusters, providing valuable constraints in regions where traditional strong- and weak-lensing information is unavailable.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Seitenzahl et al. (2009) have predicted that roughly three years after its explosion, the light we receive from a Type Ia supernova will come mostly from reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the radioactive decay chain $^{57}{\rm Co}~\to~^{57}{\rm Fe}$, instead of positrons from the decay chain $^{56}{\rm Co}~\to~^{56}{\rm Fe}$ that dominates the supernova light at earlier times. Using the {\it Hubble Space Telescope}, we followed the light curve of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012cg out to $1055$ days after maximum light. Our measurements are consistent with the light curves predicted by the contribution of energy from the reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the decay of $^{57}$Co, offering evidence that $^{57}$Co is produced in Type Ia supernova explosions. However, the data are also consistent with a light echo $\sim14$ mag fainter than SN 2012cg at peak. Assuming no light-echo contamination, the mass ratio of $^{57}$Ni and $^{56}$Ni produced by the explosion, a strong constraint on any Type Ia supernova explosion model, is $0.049^{+0.014}_{-0.012}$, roughly twice Solar. In the context of current explosions models, this value favors a progenitor white dwarf with a mass near the Chandrasekhar limit.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the GALEX detection of a UV burst at the time of explosion of an optically normal Type II-P supernova (PS1-13arp) from the Pan-STARRS1 survey at z=0.1665. The temperature and luminosity of the UV burst match the theoretical predictions for shock breakout in a red supergiant, but with a duration a factor of ~50 longer than expected. We compare the $NUV$ light curve of PS1-13arp to previous GALEX detections of Type IIP SNe, and find clear distinctions that indicate that the UV emission is powered by shock breakout, and not by the subsequent cooling envelope emission previously detected in these systems. We interpret the ~ 1 d duration of the UV signal with a shock breakout in the wind of a red supergiant with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of ~ 10^-3 Msun yr^-1. This mass-loss rate is enough to prolong the duration of the shock breakout signal, but not enough to produce an excess in the optical plateau light curve or narrow emission lines powered by circumstellar interaction. This detection of non-standard, potentially episodic high mass-loss in a RSG SN progenitor has favorable consequences for the prospects of future wide-field UV surveys to detect shock breakout directly in these systems, and provide a sensitive probe of the pre-explosion conditions of SN progenitors.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SV) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g,r,i, and z. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit burst-like transients and one stochastic light curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources in the first 2.5 years of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGN, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host galaxy offsets, to define a robust photometric sample of 1233 active galactic nuclei and 812 supernovae. We use these samples to identify simple photometric priors that would enable their real-time identification in future wide-field synoptic surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We identify and phase a sample of 81 Cepheids in the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258 using the Large Binocular Telescope, and obtain calibrated mean magnitudes in up to four filters for a subset of 43 Cepheids using archival Hubble Space Telescope data. We employ three models to study the systematic effects of extinction, the assumed extinction law, and metallicity on the Cepheid distance to NGC 4258. We find a correction to the Cepheid colours consistent with a greyer extinction law in NGC 4258 compared to the Milky Way (RV = $4.9_{-0.7}^{+0.9}$), although we believe this is indicative of other systematic effects. If we combine our Cepheid sample with previously known Cepheids, we find a significant metallicity adjustment to the distance modulus of γ1 = −0.61 ± 0.21 mag dex−1 for the Zaritsky et al. metallicity scale, as well as a weak trend of Cepheid colours with metallicity. Conclusions about the absolute effect of metallicity on Cepheid mean magnitudes are limited by the available data on the metallicity gradient in NGC 4258, but our Cepheid data require at least some metallicity adjustment to make the Cepheid distance consistent with independent distances to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and NGC 4258. From our ensemble of models and the geometric maser distance of NGC 4258 (μN4258 = 29.40 ± 0.06 mag), we estimate μLMC = 18.57 ± 0.14 mag (51.82 ± 3.23 kpc), including the uncertainties due to metallicity.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of the first multiply-imaged gravitationally-lensed supernova. The four images form an Einstein cross with over 2" diameter around a z=0.544 elliptical galaxy that is a member of the cluster MACSJ1149.6+2223. The supernova appeared in Hubble Space Telescope exposures taken on 3-20 November 2014 UT, as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space. The images of the supernova coincide with the strongly lensed arm of a spiral galaxy at z=1.491, which is itself multiply imaged by the cluster potential. A measurement of the time delays between the multiple images and their magnification will provide new unprecedented constraints on the distribution of luminous and dark matter in the lensing galaxy and in the cluster, as well as on the cosmic expansion rate.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit cosmological model-independent measurements of the expansion history of the Universe to provide a cosmic distance ladder. These are supernovae Type Ia used as standard candles (at redshift between 0.01 and 1.3) and baryon acoustic oscillations (at redshifts between 0.1 and 0.8) as standard rulers. We calibrate (anchor) the ladder in two ways: first using the local H0 value as an anchor at z = 0 (effectively calibrating the standard candles) and secondly using the cosmic microwave background-inferred sound-horizon scale as an anchor (giving the standard ruler length) as an inverse distance ladder. Both methods are consistent, but the uncertainty in the expansion history H(z) is smaller if the sound-horizon scale is used. We present inferred values for the sound horizon at radiation drag rd which do not rely on assumptions about the early expansion history nor on cosmic microwave background measurements but on the cosmic distance ladder and baryon acoustic oscillations measurements. We also present derived values of H0 from the inverse distance ladder and we show that they are in very good agreement with the extrapolated value in a Λ cold dark matter model from Planck cosmic microwave background data.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a light echo from SN 2007af, a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in NGC 5584. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken three years post explosion reveal two separate echoes; an outer echo and extended central region, which we propose as an unresolved inner echo. Multiple images were obtained in the F160W, F350LP, F555W, and F814W using the Wide Field Camera 3. If the outer echo is produced by an interstellar dust sheet perpendicular to the line of sight, it is located ~800 pc in front of the SN. The dust for the inner echo is 0.45 pc < d < 90 pc away from the SN. The inner echo color is consistent with typical interstellar dust wavelength-dependent scattering cross-sections, while the outer echo color does not match the predictions. Both dust sheets, if in the foreground, are optically thin for scattering, with the outer echo sheet thickness consistent with the inferred extinction from peak brightness. Whether the inner echo is from interstellar or circumstellar dust is ambiguous. Overall, the echo characteristics are quite similar to previously observed SN Ia echoes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Type Iax supernovae are stellar explosions that are spectroscopically similar to some type Ia supernovae at the time of maximum light emission, except with lower ejecta velocities. They are also distinguished by lower luminosities. At late times, their spectroscopic properties diverge from those of other supernovae, but their composition (dominated by iron-group and intermediate-mass elements) suggests a physical connection to normal type Ia supernovae. Supernovae of type Iax are not rare; they occur at a rate between 5 and 30 per cent of the normal type Ia rate. The leading models for type Iax supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that do not completely unbind the star, implying that they are 'less successful' versions of normal type Ia supernovae, where complete stellar disruption is observed. Here we report the detection of the luminous, blue progenitor system of the type Iax SN 2012Z in deep pre-explosion imaging. The progenitor system's luminosity, colours, environment and similarity to the progenitor of the Galactic helium nova V445 Puppis suggest that SN 2012Z was the explosion of a white dwarf accreting material from a helium-star companion. Observations over the next few years, after SN 2012Z has faded, will either confirm this hypothesis or perhaps show that this supernova was actually the explosive death of a massive star.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 - 1.7μm bandpass. This paper describes the payload status, sub-system testing, and data transfer for the ACCESS instrument.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is the most used instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Providing a broad range of high quality imaging capabilities from 200 to 1700mn using Silicon CCD and HgCdTe IR detectors, WFC3 is fulfilling both our expectations and its formal requirements. With the re-establishment of the observatory level "spatial scan" capability, we have extended the scientific potential ofWFC3 in multiple directions. These controlled scans, often in combination with low resolution slit-less spectroscopy, enable extremely high precision differential photometric measurements of transiting exo-planets and direct measurement of sources considerably brighter than originally anticipated. In addition, long scans permit the measurement of the separation of star images to accuracies approaching 25 micro-arc seconds (a factor of 10 better than prior FGS or imaging measurements) enables direct parallax observations out to 4 kilo-parsecs. In addition, we have employed this spatial scan capability to both assess and improve the mid­ spatial frequency flat field calibrations. WFC3 uses a Teledyne HgCdTe 1014xl014 pixel Hawaii-lR infrared detector array developed for this mission. One aspect of this detector with implications for many types of science observations is the localized trapping of charge. This manifests itself as both image persistence lasting several hours and as an apparent response variation with photon arrival rate over a large dynamic range. Beyond a generally adopted observing strategy of obtaining multiple observations with small spatial offsets, we have developed a multi-parameter model that accounts for source flux, accumulated signal level, and decay time to predict image persistence at the pixel level. Using a running window through the entirety of the acquired data, we now provide observers with predictions for each individual exposure within several days of its acquisition. Ongoing characterization of the sources on infrared background and the causes of its temporal and spatial variation has led to the appreciation of the impact of He I 1.083 micron emission from the earth's atmosphere. This adds a significant and variable background to the two filters and two grisms which include this spectral feature when the HST spacecraft is outside of the earth's shadow. After nearly five years in orbit, long term trending of the scientific and engineering behavior of WFC3 demonstrates excellent stability other than the expected decline in CCD charge transfer efficiency. Addition of post-flash signal to images is shown to markedly improve the transfer efficiency for low level signals. Combined with a pixel based correction algorithm developed at STScl, CCD performance is stabilized at levels only slightly degraded from its initial values.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
  • Mario Livio · Adam Riess

    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Physics Today

Publication Stats

24k Citations
1,318.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2012
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Physics
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1997-2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Departamento de Anatomía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Economía
      Santiago, Region Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile
  • 2004
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States