N G Liomba

Ministry of Health, Malawi, Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi

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Publications (2)4.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance of the WHO algorithm for the detection of cervical infection in women presenting with vaginal discharge and modify the risk assessment score for optimum effectiveness in Malawi. 550 consecutive women presenting with non-ulcerative genitourinary complaints were interviewed and examined. Cervical infection was defined as presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture and/or Chlamydia trachomatis by EIA. Other laboratory investigations included wet mount microscopy, serology for syphilis and HIV, LED testing of cervical and vaginal secretions, and pH testing of vaginal fluid. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values (PPV) of different algorithms were determined in the analysis. Cervical infection was identified in 19.5% of women (17.1% gonorrhoea, 3.7% chlamydial infection). The sensitivity/specificity/PPV of the WHO risk assessment were 43%/73%/28%, respectively by history and 62%/61%/27% with the addition of speculum examination. Using Malawi results to modify the risk assessment improved the performance to 61%/68%/31% respectively by history alone, which increased to 73%/64%/33% with bimanual examination and 72%/56%/29% with speculum examination. The sensitivity of the WHO risk assessment is low for the detection of cervical infection in Malawi. Although the Malawi risk assessment performed somewhat better on history alone, this study identified external and bimanual examination variables that improved the diagnostic performance of the algorithm in settings where speculum examination is not possible. Although the PPVs of the algorithms are low, country specific risk assessments can provide a framework for management until simple, affordable diagnostic tests for the definitive diagnosis of cervical infection are available.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Sexually Transmitted Infections
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    ABSTRACT: A national survey of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management was carried out at 39 health care facilities in Malawi in 1994. Fifty-four health care providers were observed managing 150 patients presenting with selected STD syndromes and 103 providers were interviewed. STD case management was assessed by calculation of WHO/GPA prevention indicators (PIs) from observation data. The overall rate for PI-6, which measures correct assessment and treatment of STD patients was 11% (81% for history taking, 46% in physical examination, and 13% correct antibiotic treatment according to national guidelines). The score for PI-7, which measures overall patient counselling was 29% (65% for partner notification and 40% for condom advice). Although Haemophilus ducreyi is at least as common as Treponema pallidum as the causative agent for genital ulcers, only 16% of patients with genital ulcers were treated effectively for chancroid vs 56% for syphilis. Female patients received less comprehensive care than male STD patients. Only 20% of STD patients were offered condoms. Overall, the survey results support the policy decision to adopt syndromic management of STDs, and provide baseline information for planning and evaluation of a national control programme.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1996 · International Journal of STD & AIDS