[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic dissection of complex traits may ultimately require a large number of SNPs to be genotyped in multiple individuals who exhibit phenotypic variation in a trait of interest. Microarray technology can enable rapid genotyping of variation specific to study samples. To facilitate their use, we have developed an automated statistical method (ABACUS) to analyze microarray hybridization data and applied this method to Affymetrix Variation Detection Arrays (VDAs). ABACUS provides a quality score to individual genotypes, allowing investigators to focus their attention on sites that give accurate information. We have applied ABACUS to an experiment encompassing 32 autosomal and eight X-linked genomic regions, each consisting of approximately 50 kb of unique sequence spanning a 100-kb region, in 40 humans. At sufficiently high-quality scores, we are able to read approximately 80% of all sites. To assess the accuracy of SNP detection, 108 of 108 SNPs have been experimentally confirmed; an additional 371 SNPs have been confirmed electronically. To access the accuracy of diploid genotypes at segregating autosomal sites, we confirmed 1515 of 1515 homozygous calls, and 420 of 423 (99.29%) heterozygotes. In replicate experiments, consisting of independent amplification of identical samples followed by hybridization to distinct microarrays of the same design, genotyping is highly repeatable. In an autosomal replicate experiment, 813,295 of 813,295 genotypes are called identically (including 351 heterozygotes); at an X-linked locus in males (haploid), 841,236 of 841,236 sites are called identically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acids are synthesized de novo from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA through a series of reactions mediated by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). In rodents, the principal fatty acid produced by FAS is palmitic acid (16:0). Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) enhance the transcription of many genes responsible for fatty acid synthesis. In transgenic mice that overexpress SREBPs in liver, the rate of fatty acid synthesis is markedly increased, owing to the activation of these biosynthetic genes, which include ATP citrate lyase, ACC, FAS, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. The fatty acids that accumulate in livers of SREBP transgenic mice are 18 carbons rather than 16 carbons in length, suggesting that the enzymes required for the elongation of palmitic to stearic acid may be induced. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of a murine long chain fatty acyl elongase (LCE) that was identified initially by oligonucleotide array analysis of mRNA from SREBP transgenic mouse livers. LCE mRNA is highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. The cDNA encodes a protein of 267 amino acids that shares sequence identity with previously identified very long chain fatty acid elongases. Cells that overexpress LCE show enhanced addition of 2-carbon units to C12-C16 fatty acids. We provide evidence that LCE catalyzes the rate-limiting condensing step in this reaction. The current studies suggest that mouse LCE expression is increased by SREBPs and that the enzyme is a component of the elusive mammalian elongation system that converts palmitic to stearic acid.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry