[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-related nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a rare event and has been described as a clinical form of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Although immunological mechanisms are thought to play important roles in NS after HSCT, the exact mechanisms have not been clarified.
We report a 4-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who developed NS during the tapering of immunosuppressants 5 months after an allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). A renal biopsy was performed, and light and electron microscopy revealed minimal change disease (MCD). Although the response to treatment with steroids and tacrolimus was favorable, the child experienced two relapses of NS within the first 9 months after the initial response. A second allo-HSCT was performed to treat the relapse of ALL. After the second allo-HSCT, the remission of NS was maintained without recurrence for 5 years, even after the cessation of immunosuppressants.
Our patient who had ALL and developed NS after his first allo-HSCT, maintained remission from NS after a second allo-HSCT. This suggests that the immune cells from the first donor origin were associated with the pathogenesis of NS.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, with a nuclear accident subsequently occurring at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The government ordered a mandatory evacuation from the high radioactive concentration area in Fukushima, which might have forced many evacuees to change particular aspects of their lifestyles. This study assessed the hypothesis that mean body weight and the proportion of overweight/obese individuals would increase among evacuees after versus before the disaster.
A longitudinal study examined data collected from 41,633 Japanese participants (mean age, 67 years) sourced from general health checkups conducted in 13 communities between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from June 2011 through March 2013.
A total of 27,486 participants (12,432 men and 15,054 women; follow-up proportion, 66%) received follow-up examinations after the disaster, with an average follow-up of 1.6 years. Mean body weight significantly increased in both evacuees (n=9,671) and non-evacuees (n=17,815) after the disaster, with greater changes in body weight among evacuees than non-evacuees (+1.2 kg vs +0.3 kg, p<0.001). The proportion of overweight/obese people also increased among evacuees after the disaster, and evacuation was associated with an increased risk of being overweight, despite adjustments for confounding variables. The proportions of overweight evacuees before and after the disaster were 31.8% and 39.4%, respectively, whereas proportions among non-evacuees were 28.3% and 30.3%, respectively.
Body weight and the proportion of overweight/obese people increased among residents, especially evacuees, in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Preventive Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection shed virus for variable periods. The aim of this study was to quantify the viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with RSV throughout their hospitalization. This study included 37 children who were admitted with a diagnosis of RSV infection based on a positive rapid diagnostic test. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients every day, from admission to discharge. Viral detection and quantification were performed using quantitative real-time PCR. Of the 37 patients, RSV-A was detected in 29 and RSV-B in 6. Two patients were PCR-negative for any type of RSV. RSV-A was detected in 12 of 16 patients (75%) 6 days after admission. These patients shed detectable virus from days 1 to 12, and for a significantly longer period (mean 5.7 days) than RSV-B (mean 3.8 days) patients. Half of the RSV-A patients were also positive on day 14 following onset. RSV-A was detected in patients < 12 months of age for significantly longer periods after onset than in patients ≥ 12 months of age. RSV-A viral load was negatively correlated with days from admission and days from onset. Because RSV shedding was frequently prolonged, the hospitalized children may have contracted RSV as a nosocomial infection. To prevent nosocomial RSV infections in hospital wards, healthcare workers must take appropriate infection control measures and provide adequate guidance on hand washing to the family of the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 9-year-old girl developed influenza A H1N1 pdm09-associated myocarditis and pericarditis 2 days after starting zanamivir therapy. The virus was detected in the respiratory tract but not in the serum or pericardial effusion. The virus sampled from the respiratory tract had normal susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors. Although no differences in interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed between the plasma and pericardial effusion, some inflammatory cytokines or chemokines (IL-6 and IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor were remarkably elevated in the pericardial effusion compared with the plasma. This suggested that the influenza virus, after infecting the respiratory tract, affected the myocardium, causing myocarditis to gradually develop, which might have been followed by an autoreactive pericarditis causing increased pericardial effusion. Therefore, influenza-associated myocarditis should be considered when influenza patients have respiratory and cardiac involvement, even during treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatrics International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children's health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children's physical development and health status throughout the disaster.
The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire "A" addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires "B1" and "B2" addressed individuals' data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days) and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days). The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases.
In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53 747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69 004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster.
With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children's physical development and health status throughout the disaster.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To assist in the long-term health management of residents and evaluate the health impacts after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to implement the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This report describes the results for residents aged 15 years or younger who received health checks and evaluates the data obtained from 2011 and 2012.
The target group consisted of residents aged 15 years or younger who had lived in the evacuation zone. The health checks were performed on receipt of an application from any of the residents. The checks, which included the measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, biochemical laboratory findings, and peripheral blood findings, were performed as required.
1) A total of 17,934 (64.5%) and 11,780 (43.5%) residents aged 15 years or younger received health checks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. 2) In both years, a number of male and female residents in the 7-15 year age group were found to suffer from obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, or liver dysfunction. Furthermore, pediatric aged 15 years or younger were commonly observed to suffer from hypertension or glucose metabolic abnormalities. 3) A comparison of data from 2012 and 2011 demonstrated that both males and females frequently showed increased body height and decreased body weight in 2012. The prevalence of hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities, or high γ-GTP values in males and females in the 7-15 year age group in 2012 was lower than that in 2011. However, the prevalence of hyperuricemia among residents in the 7-15 year age group was higher in 2012 than in 2011.
These results suggested that some residents aged 15 years or under who had lived in the evacuation zone had developed obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, liver dysfunction, hypertension, or glucose metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, we think that it is necessary to continue the health checks for these residents in order to ameliorate these lifestyle-related diseases.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Fukushima journal of medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of rituximab and low-dose cyclosporine combination therapy for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS).
Five FSGS children with SRNS were treated twice with rituximab and low-dose cyclosporine combination therapy (RTX-CyAT). The clinical features and laboratory data were investigated before and after RTX-CyAT, and the outcomes were assessed.
Prednisolone (PSL) was discontinued 3 months after RTX-CyAT in all patients. The number of CD19-positive cells decreased to less than 1 % of all white blood cells in all patients at one month after RTX-CyAT, with the duration of the decrease in CD19-positive cells (<1%) continuing for 259.6 ± 68.2 days. All patients remained in remission for the duration of the decrease in CD19-positive cells (<1%). Two patients also remained in remission throughout the observation period, with three patients experiencing a single relapse at 333 ± 89 (range 231-376) days after RTX-CyAT. In all patients, the mean steroid and CyA doses after RTX-CyAT were lower than those before RTX-CyAT.
The results of our study suggest that RTX-CyAT is effective in FSGS patients with SRNS and may ameliorate the side effects of PSL and immunosuppressive drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Pediatrics International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 forced the evacuation of a large number of residents and created changes in the lifestyle of the evacuees. These changes may have affected the evacuees’ glucose metabolism, thereby leading to an increase in the incidence of diabetes. This study included Japanese men and women who were living near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima prefecture before the disaster. Subjects subsequently underwent annual health checkups with a focus on metabolic syndromes, which were conducted under the Health Care Insurers. Using the Comprehensive Health Check survey, we analyzed changes in the glucose metabolism before and after the disaster. A total of
27,486 subjects underwent follow-up examinations after the disaster, with a mean follow-up period of 1.6 years. After the disaster,
the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly, and we observed that the incidence of diabetes was significantly greater among
evacuees than among nonevacuees. Furthermore,multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that evacuation was significantly associated with the incidence of diabetes. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that evacuation is associated with the incidence of diabetes. This information may be used to guide follow-up recommendations for evacuees.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Diabetes Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assist in the long-term health management of residents and evaluate health impacts after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This report describes the results for residents aged 16 years or older who received the health check examinations and evaluates the data obtained from 2011 and 2012.
The target group consisted of residents aged 16 years or older who had lived in the evacuation zone. The health check examinations were performed on receipt of an application for a health check examination from any of the residents. The examinations, including measurements of height, weight, abdominal circumference/body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, biochemical laboratory findings, and peripheral blood findings, were performed as required.
1) A total of 56,399 (30.9%) and 47,009 (25.4%) residents aged 16 years or older received health checks in 2011 and 2012, respectively. 2) In both years, a number of male and female residents in the 16-39 year age group were found to suffer obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, or liver dysfunction, and the prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia among residents increased with age. Furthermore, the proportion of residents with hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities or renal dysfunction was higher in those aged 40 years or older. 3) The frequencies of obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia among residents in 2012 were lower than those in 2011. However, the prevalence of liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, glucose metabolic abnormalities and renal dysfunction among residents was higher in 2012 than in 2011.
These results suggested the number of residents who had lived in the evacuation zone with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, liver dysfunction, hypertension, glucose metabolic abnormalities, or renal dysfunction increased with age in all age groups. Therefore, we think that it is necessary to continue with health check examinations for these residents in order to ameliorate lifestyle-related disease.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Fukushima journal of medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are various. One such manifestation is hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). We here report a child with SLE presenting with HPS as a primary manifestation. In October 2010, an 11-year-old Japanese boy presented with pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, hyperferritinemia and hemophagocytosis due to macrophages in the bone marrow, and was diagnosed with HPS. A year later, he was found to have proteinuria and hematuria. Oral aphtha and Raynaud's phenomenon were observed, and the patient showed low serum complement levels and was positive for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs). He was subsequently diagnosed with SLE. Moreover, low serum complement levels and ANA positivity were detected in a serum sample preserved at the onset of HPS. The HPS was considered to be a primary manifestation of SLE on the basis of these findings. Based on this case, the presence of an underlying disease, such as SLE, should be investigated in cases of HPS.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Fukushima journal of medical science