N. Langer

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (416)1153.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We introduce a HST/STIS stellar census of R136a, the central ionizing star cluster of 30 Doradus. We present low resolution far-ultraviolet STIS/MAMA spectroscopy of R136 using 17 contiguous 52×0.2 arcsec slits which together provide complete coverage of the central 0.85 parsec (3.4 arcsec). We provide spectral types of 90% of the 57 sources brighter than mF555W = 16.0 mag within a radius of 0.5 parsec of R136a1, plus 8 additional nearby sources including R136b (O4 If/WN8). We measure wind velocities for 52 early-type stars from C ivλλ1548–51, including 16 O2–3 stars. For the first time we spectroscopically classify all Weigelt & Baier members of R136a, which comprise three WN5 stars (a1-a3), two O supergiants (a5-a6) and three early O dwarfs (a4, a7, a8). A complete Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the most massive O stars in R136 is provided, from which we obtain a cluster age of 1.5$^{+0.3}_{-0.7}$ Myr. In addition, we discuss the integrated ultraviolet spectrum of R136, and highlight the central role played by the most luminous stars in producing the prominent He ii λ1640 emission line. This emission is totally dominated by very massive stars with initial masses above ∼100M⊙. The presence of strong He iiλ1640 emission in the integrated light of very young star clusters (e.g A1 in NGC 3125) favours an initial mass function extending well beyond a conventional upper limit of 100 M⊙. We include montages of ultraviolet spectroscopy for LMC O stars in the Appendix. Future studies in this series will focus on optical STIS/CCD medium resolution observations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 10% of massive OBA main-sequence (MS) and pre-MS stars harbour strong, large-scale magnetic fields. At the same time there is a dearth of magnetic stars in close binaries. A process generating strong magnetic fields only in some stars must be responsible with the merging of pre-MS and MS stars being suggested as one such channel. Stars emerging from the coalescence of two MS stars are rejuvenated, appearing younger than they are. They can therefore be identified by comparison with reference clocks. Here we predict the rejuvenation of MS merger products over a wide range of masses and binary configurations calibrated to smoothed-particle-hydrodynamical merger models. We find that the rejuvenation is of the order of the nuclear timescale and is strongest in the lowest-mass mergers and the most evolved binary progenitors with the largest mass ratios. These predictions allow us to put constraints on the binary progenitors of merger products. We show that the magnetic stars HR 2949 and $\tau$ Sco are younger than the potential binary companion HR 2948 and the Upper-Sco association, respectively, making them promising merger candidates. We find that the age discrepancies and the potential binary progenitors of both are consistent with them being rejuvenated merger products, implying that their magnetic fields may originate from this channel. Searching for age discrepancies in magnetic stars is therefore a powerful way to explore which fraction of magnetic stars may have obtained their strong magnetic field in MS mergers and to improve our understanding of magnetism in massive stars and their remnants.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in gravitational-wave astronomy make the direct detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two stellar-mass compact objects a realistic prospect. Evolutionary scenarios towards mergers of double compact objects generally invoke common-envelope evolution which is poorly understood, leading to large uncertainties in merger rates. We explore the alternative scenario of massive overcontact binary (MOB) evolution, which involves two very massive stars in a very tight binary which remain fully mixed due to their tidally induced high spin. We use the public stellar-evolution code MESA to systematically study this channel by means of detailed simulations. We find that, at low metallicity, MOBs produce double-black-hole (BH+BH) systems that will merge within a Hubble time with mass ratios close to one, in two mass ranges, ~25...60msun and >~ 130msun, with pair instability supernovae (PISNe) being produced in-between. Our models are also able to reproduce counterparts of various stages in the MOB scenario in the local Universe, providing direct support for it. We map the initial parameter space that produces BH+BH mergers, determine the expected chirp mass distribution, merger times, Kerr parameters and predict event rates. We typically find that for Z~<Z_sun/10, there is one BH+BH merger for ~1000 core-collapse supernovae. The advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detection rate is more uncertain and depends on the metallicity evolution. Deriving upper and lower limits from a local and a global approximation for the metallicity distribution of massive stars, we estimate aLIGO detection rates (at design limit) of ~19-550 yr^(-1) for BH+BH mergers below the PISN gap and of ~2.1-370 yr^(-1) above the PISN gap. Even with conservative assumptions, we find that aLIGO should soon detect BH+BH mergers from the MOB scenario and that these could be the dominant source for aLIGO detections.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a magnetic field in the helium-strong star CPD-57 3509 (B2 IV), a member of the Galactic open cluster NGC3293, and characterise the star's atmospheric and fundamental parameters. Spectropolarimetric observations with FORS2 and HARPSpol are analysed using two independent approaches to quantify the magnetic field strength. A high-S/N FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrum is analysed using a hybrid non-LTE model atmosphere technique. Comparison with stellar evolution models constrains the fundamental parameters of the star. We obtain a firm detection of a surface averaged longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 1 kG. Assuming a dipolar configuration of the magnetic field, this implies a dipolar field strength larger than 3.3 kG. Moreover, the large amplitude and fast variation (within about 1 day) of the longitudinal magnetic field implies that CPD-57 3509 is spinning very fast despite its apparently slow projected rotational velocity. The star should be able to support a centrifugal magnetosphere, yet the spectrum shows no sign of magnetically confined material; in particular, emission in H{\alpha} is not observed. Apparently, the wind is either not strong enough for enough material to accumulate in the magnetosphere to become observable or, alternatively, some leakage process leads to loss of material from the magnetosphere. The quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star yields an effective temperature and a logarithmic surface gravity of 23750+-250 K and 4.05+-0.10, respectively, and a surface helium fraction of 0.28+-0.02 by number. The surface abundances of C, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar are compatible with the cosmic abundance standard, whereas Mg, Al, Si, and Fe are depleted by about a factor of 2. This abundance pattern can be understood as the consequence of a fractionated stellar wind. CPD-57 3509 is one of the most evolved He-strong stars known.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within HII regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within HII regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the HII region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the HII region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the TORUS code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24um through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24um intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the HII region RCW120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38 11636 in RCW120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in HII regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Thomas Tauris · Norbert Langer · Philipp Podsiadlowski
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    ABSTRACT: The explosion of ultra-stripped stars in close binaries may explain new discoveries of weak and fast optical transients. We have demonstrated that helium star companions to neutron stars (NSs) may evolve into naked metal cores as low as ~1.5 Msun, barely above the Chandrasekhar mass limit, by the time they explode. Here we present a new systematic investigation of the progenitor evolution leading to such ultra-stripped supernovae (SNe), in some cases yielding pre-SN envelopes of less than 0.01 Msun. We discuss the nature of these SNe (electron-capture vs iron core-collapse) and their observational light-curve properties. Ultra-stripped SNe are highly relevant for binary pulsars, as well as gravitational wave detection of merging NSs by LIGO/VIRGO, since these events are expected to produce mainly low-kick NSs in the mass range 1.10-1.80 Msun.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of the envelope of low- and intermediate-mass stars is unstable to convection, leading to sub-surface turbulent motion. Here, we consider and include the effects of turbulence pressure in our stellar evolution calculations. In search of an observational signature, we compare the fractional contribution of turbulent pressure to the observed macroturbulent velocities in stars at different evolutionary stages. We find a strong correlation between the two quantities, similar to what was previously found for massive OB stars. We therefore argue that turbulent pressure fluctuations of finite amplitude may excite high-order, high-angular degree stellar oscillations, which manifest themselves at the surface an additional broadening of the spectral lines, i.e., macroturbulence, across most of the HR diagram. When considering the locations in the HR diagram where we expect high-order oscillations to be excited by stochastic turbulent pressure fluctuations, we find a close match with the observational $\gamma$ Doradus instability strip, which indeed contains high-order, non-radial pulsators. We suggest that turbulent pressure fluctuations on a percentual level may contribute to the $\gamma$ Dor phenomenon, calling for more detailed theoretical modelling in this direction.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We propose that nebular Halpha emission as detected in the Type Ic superluminous supernova iPTF13ehe stems from matter which is stripped from a companion star when the supernova ejecta collide with it. The temporal evolution, the line broadening, and the overall blueshift of the emission are consistent with this interpretation. We scale the nebular Halpha luminosity predicted for Type Ia supernovae in single-degenerate systems to derive the stripped mass required to explain the Halpha luminosity of iPTF13ehe. We find a stripped mass of 0.1 - 0.9 solar masses, assuming that the supernova luminosity is powered by radioactivity or magnetar spin down. Because a central heating source is required to excite the Halpha emission, an interaction-powered model is not favored for iPTF13ehe. We derive a companion mass of more than 20 solar masses and a binary separation of less than about 20 companion radii based on the stripping efficiency during the collision, indicating that the supernova progenitor and the companion formed a massive close binary system. If Type Ic superluminous supernovae generally occur in massive close binary systems, the early brightening observed previously in several Type Ic superluminous supernovae may also be due to the collision with a close companion. Observations of nebular hydrogen emission in future Type Ic superluminous supernovae will enable us to test this interpretation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The contact phase expected to precede the coalescence of two massive stars is poorly characterized due to the paucity of observational constraints. Here we report on the discovery of VFTS 352, an O-type binary in the 30 Doradus region, as the most massive and earliest spectral type overcontact system known to date. We derived the 3D geometry of the system, its orbital period $P_{\rm orb}=1.1241452(4)$ d, components' effective temperatures -- $T_1=42\,540\pm280$ K and $T_2=41\,120\pm290$ K -- and dynamical masses -- $M_1=28.63\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$ and $M_2 = 28.85\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$. Compared to single-star evolutionary models, the VFTS 352 components are too hot for their dynamical masses by about 2700 and 1100 K, respectively. These results can be explained naturally as a result of enhanced mixing, theoretically predicted to occur in very short-period tidally-locked systems. The VFTS 352 components are two of the best candidates identified so far to undergo this so-called chemically homogeneous evolution. The future of VFTS 352 is uncertain. If the two stars merge, a very rapidly rotating star will be produced. Instead, if the stars continue to evolve homogeneously and keep shrinking within their Roche Lobes, coalescence can be avoided. In this case, tides may counteract the spin down by winds such that the VFTS 352 components may, at the end of their life, fulfill the requirements for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors in the collapsar scenario. Independently of whether the VFTS 352 components become GRB progenitors, this scenario makes VFTS 352 interesting as a progenitor of a black hole binary, hence as a potential gravitational wave source through black hole-black hole merger.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    I. Petermann · N. Langer · N. Castro · L. Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: About 10$\%$ of the massive main sequence stars have recently been found to host a strong, large scale magnetic field. Both, the origin and the evolutionary consequences of these fields are largely unknown. We argue that these fields may be sufficiently strong in the deep interior of the stars to suppress convection near the outer edge of their convective core. We performed parametrised stellar evolution calculations and assumed a reduced size of the convective core for stars in the mass range 16 M$_{\odot}$ to 28 M$_{\odot}$ from the zero age main sequence until core carbon depletion. We find that such models avoid the coolest part of the main sequence band, which is usually filled by evolutionary models that include convective core overshooting. Furthermore, our `magnetic' models populate the blue supergiant region during core helium burning, i.e., the post-main sequence gap left by ordinary single star models, and some of them end their life in a position near that of the progenitor of Supernova 1987A in the HR diagram. Further effects include a strongly reduced luminosity during the red supergiant stage, and downward shift of the limiting initial mass for white dwarf and neutron star formation.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Jonathan Mackey · Norberto Castro · Luca Fossati · Norbert Langer
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    ABSTRACT: The massive red supergiant (RSG) W26 in Westerlund 1 is one of a growing number of RSGs shown to have winds that are ionized from the outside in. The fate of this dense wind material is important for models of second generation star formation in massive star clusters. Mackey et al. (2014) showed that external photoionization can stall the wind of RSGs and accumulate mass in a dense static shell. We use 1D R-HD simulations of an externally photoionized wind to predict the Halpha and [NII] emission arising from photoionized winds both with and without a dense shell. We analyse spectra of the Halpha and [NII] emission in the environment around W26 and compare them with predicted synthetic emission. Simulations of slow winds that are decelerated into a dense shell show strongly limb-brightened line emission, with line radial velocities that are independent of the wind speed. Faster winds (>22 km/s) do not form a dense shell, have less limb-brightening, and the line radial velocity is a good tracer of the wind speed. The brightness of the [NII] and Halpha lines as a function of distance from W26 agrees reasonably well with observations when only the line flux is considered. The radial velocity disagrees, however: the brightest observed emission is blueshifted by ~25 km/s relative to the radial velocity of the star, whereas a spherically symmetric wind has the brightest emission at zero radial velocity. Our results show that the bright nebula surrounding W26 must be asymmetric; we suggest it is confined by external ram pressure from the wind of the nearby supergiant W9. We obtain a lower limit on the nitrogen abundance within the nebula of 2.35 times solar. The line ratio strongly favours photoionization over shock ionization, and so even if the observed nebula is pressure confined there should still be an ionization front and a photoionization-confined shell closer to the star.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code cmfgen, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of ≈21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B − V) ≈ 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of MV = −6.8 ± 0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/L⊙ ≈ 5.42 ± 0.30, a mass-loss rate of ≈(2.8-4.5) × 10− 7 M⊙ yr− 1, and resides at a distance of ≈5.6$^{+1.5} _{-1.2}$ kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (Sher 25, HD 168625, [SBW2007] 1) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (Sk−69$\deg$202). The nitrogen abundances in these nebulae imply that blue supergiants can produce them from the main-sequence stage up to the pre-supernova stage. We also present a K-band spectrum of the candidate luminous blue variable MN56 (encircled by a ring-like nebula) and report the discovery of an OB star at ≈17 arcsec from MN18. The possible membership of MN18 and the OB star of the star cluster Lynga 3 is discussed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Debashis Sanyal · Takashi J. Moriya · Norbert Langer
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    ABSTRACT: Massive, luminous stars reaching the Eddington limit in their interiors develop very dilute, extended envelopes. This effect is called envelope inflation. If the progenitors of Type Ib/c supernovae, which are believed to be Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, have inflated envelopes then the shock breakout signals diffuse in them and can extend their rise times significantly. We show that our inflated, hydrogen-free, WR stellar models with a radius of ~Rsun can have shock breakout signals longer than ~60 s. The puzzlingly long shock breakout signal observed in the Type Ib SN 2008D can be explained by an inflated progenitor envelope, and more such events might argue in favour of existence of inflated envelopes in general.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the characteristics of two newly discovered short-period, double-lined, massive binary systems, VFTS 450 (O9.7$\;$II--Ib$\,$+$\,$O7::) and VFTS 652 (B1$\;$Ib$\,+\,$O9:$\;$III:). We perform model-atmosphere analyses to characterise the photospheric properties of both members of each binary (denoting the `primary' as the spectroscopically more conspicuous component). Radial velocities and optical photometry are used to estimate the binary-system parameters. We estimate $T_{\rm eff}=27$ kK, $\log{(g)}=2.9$ (cgs) for the VFTS 450 primary spectrum (34kK, 3.6: for the secondary spectrum); and $T_{\rm eff} = 22$kK, $\log{(g)}=2.8$ for the VFTS 652 primary spectrum (35kK, 3.7: for the secondary spectrum). Both primaries show surface nitrogen enrichments (of more than 1 dex for VFTS 652), and probable moderate oxygen depletions relative to reference LMC abundances. We determine orbital periods of 6.89d and 8.59d for VFTS 450 and VFTS 652, respectively, and argue that the primaries must be close to filling their Roche lobes. Supposing this to be the case, we estimate component masses in the range $\sim$20--50M$_\odot$. The secondary spectra are associated with the more massive components, suggesting that both systems are high-mass analogues of classical Algol systems, undergoing case-A mass transfer. Difficulties in reconciling the spectroscopic analyses with the light-curves and with evolutionary considerations suggest that the secondary spectra are contaminated by (or arise in) accretion disks.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Cepheids are key probes of both stellar astrophysics and cosmology as standard candles and pulsating variable stars. It is important to understand Cepheids in unprecedented detail in preparation for upcoming GAIA, JWST and extremely-large telescope observations. Cepheid eclipsing binary stars are ideal tools for achieving this goal, however there are currently only three known systems. One of those systems, OGLE-LMC-CEP1812, raises new questions about the evolution of classical Cepheids because of an apparent age discrepancy between the Cepheid and its red giant companion. We show that the Cepheid component is actually the product of a stellar merger of two main sequence stars that has since evolved across the Hertzsprung gap of the HR diagram. This post-merger product appears younger than the companion, hence the apparent age discrepancy is resolved. We discuss this idea and consequences for understanding Cepheid evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Dorottya Szecsi · Norbert Langer

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    Dorottya Szecsi · Norbert Langer

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars (BOB)", we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with the FORS instruments, we derived the magnetic field values with two completely independent reduction and analysis pipelines. We compare and discuss the results obtained from the two pipelines. We obtained a general good agreement, indicating that most of the discrepancies on magnetic field detections reported in the literature are caused by the interpretation of the significance of the results (i.e., 3-4 sigma detections considered as genuine, or not), instead of by significant differences in the derived magnetic field values. By combining our results with past FORS1 measurements of HD46328, we improve the estimate of the stellar rotation period, obtaining P = 2.17950+/-0.00009 days. For HD125823, our FORS2 measurements do not fit the available magnetic field model, based on magnetic field values obtained 30 years ago. We repeatedly detect a magnetic field for the O9.7V star HD54879, the HD164492C massive binary, and the He-rich star CPD -57 3509. We obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 6+/-4%, while by considering only the apparently slow rotators we derive a detection rate of 8+/-5%, both comparable with what was previously reported by other similar surveys. We are left with the intriguing result that, although the large majority of magnetic massive stars is rotating slowly, our detection rate is not a strong function of the stellar rotational velocity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for supernovae (SNe) of Type IIb, Ib, and Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Here, we select three ejecta with a total kinetic energy of ≈1.2 × 1051 erg, but characterized by different ejecta masses (2–5 M⊙), composition, and chemical mixing. The Type IIb/Ib models correspond to the progenitors that have retained their He-rich shell at the time of explosion. The Type Ic model arises from a progenitor that has lost its helium shell, but retains 0.32 M⊙ of helium in a CO-rich core of 5.11 M⊙. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties during the first 2–3 months after explosion, and connect these to their progenitor and ejecta properties including chemical stratification. For these three models, Arnett's rule overestimates the 56Ni mass by ≈ 50 per cent while the procedure of Katz et al., based on an energy argument, yields a more reliable estimate. The presence of strong C i lines around 9000Å prior to maximum is an indicator that the pre-SN star was underabundant in helium. As noted by others, the 1.08μm feature is a complex blend of C i, Mg ii, and He i lines, which makes the identification of He uncertain in SNe Ibc unless other He i lines can be identified. Our models show little scatter in (V − R) colour 10 d after R-band maximum. We also address a number of radiative transfer properties of SNe Ibc, including the notion of a photosphere, the inference of a representative ejecta expansion rate, spectrum formation, blackbody fits and ‘correction factors’.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The major mass fraction of the envelope of hot luminous stars is radiatively stable. However, the partial ionisation of hydrogen, helium and iron gives rise to extended sub-surface convection zones in all of them. In this work, we investigate the effect of the pressure induced by the turbulent motion in these zones based on the mixing length theory, and search for observable consequences. We find that the turbulent pressure fraction can amount up to ~5% in OB supergiants, and to ~30% in cooler supergiants. The resulting structural changes are, however, not significantly affecting the evolutionary tracks compared to previous calculations. Instead, a comparison of macroturbulent velocities derived from high quality spectra of OB stars with the turbulent pressure fraction obtained in corresponding stellar models reveals a strong correlation of these two quantities. We discuss a possible physical connection, and conclude that turbulent pressure fluctuations may drive high-order oscillations, which - as conjectured earlier - manifest themselves as macroturbulence in the photospheres of hot luminous stars.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,153.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA)
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2014
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Cosmosciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2012
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2000-2012
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2009
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1997-2009
    • Universität Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group
      Los Alamos, California, United States
    • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2006
    • University of Delaware
      Ньюарк, Delaware, United States
    • Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute
      Box Elder, South Dakota, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1995-1998
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Granada
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1989
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      • Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
  • 1986-1989
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985-1986
    • American University of Beirut
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon