[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Our previous studies show that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is highly expressed in most Her2-overexpressing breast cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying upregulation of the β2-AR expression in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells are not fully understood. The clinical significance of the β2-AR overexpression in breast cancer is unclear. Methods: Human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MCF-7/Her2 were transfected with the let-7 mimics or inhibitors. The expression of β2-AR was analyzed by Western blot. The β2-AR status in primary and metastatic sites of breast cancer and the human breast cancer tissue microarrays containing 49 primary tumors and 50 metastatic lymph node tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of lymph node metastasis with the β2-AR level was determined in 59 primary tumor tissues from the patients with Her2-positive breast cancer. The clinical prognostic significance of the β2-AR overexpression in the patients with Her2-positive breast cancers was evaluated by a retrospective study. Results: The let-7f level in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells SKBR3 and BT474 was significantly lower than that in MCF-7 cells, which express low level of Her2. Ectopic expression of Her2 in MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/Her2) represses the expression of microRNA let-7f, which is previously identified to regulate baseline β2-AR expression. The treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 or PD184352 effectively restored the let-7f level, suggesting that Her2-overexpression-mediated ERK constitutive activation inhibited let-7f, leading to the upregulation of the β2-AR expression. The transfection with the let-7f mimics markedly downregulated the β2-AR level, whereas the let-7 inhibitor significantly upregulated the β2-AR expression in both parental MCF-7 and MCF-7/Her2 cells. In addition, treatment of MCF-7/Her2 cells with isoproterenol resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction of the let-7f expression, demonstrating that the inhibitory effect of Her2 overexpression on let-7f can be reinforced by agonist-triggered β2-AR activation. We further demonstrate that high level of β2-AR associates with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in the patients with Her2-positive breast cancer. Conclusions: The mutual and reciprocal interaction between Her2, β2-AR, and let-7f may maintain a high level of β2-AR in breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that β2-AR may be a new useful biomarker for predicting prognosis in Her2-positive breast cancer and may also be a promising selective therapeutic target for the aggressive subtype of breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we demonstrate that prolonged treatment by trastuzumab induced resistance of NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab. The resistant cells possessed typical characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cells and acquired more invasive and metastatic potentials both in vitro and in vivo. Long term treatment with trastuzumab dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but triggered the activation of STAT3. The level of IL-6 was remarkably increased, implicating that the release of IL-6 that drives the STAT3 activation initiates the survival signaling transition. Furthermore, the Notch activities were significantly enhanced in the resistant cells, companied by upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the Notch responsive genes Hey1 and Hey2. Inhibiting the endogenous Notch pathway reduced the IL-6 expression and restored the sensitivities of the resistant cells to trastuzumab. Blocking of the STAT3 signaling abrogated IL-6-induced Jagged-1 expression, effectively inhibited the growth of the trastuzumab resistant cells, and enhanced the anti-tumor activities of trastuzumab in the resistant cells. These findings implicate that the IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch axis may be a useful target and that combination of the Notch or STAT3 inhibitors with trastuzumab may prevent or delay clinical resistance and improve the efficacy of trastuzumab in gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells are known to be involved in the alloreactive responses in organ transplantation, but little is known about the relationship between Tregs and Th17 cells in the context of liver alloresponse. Here, we investigated whether the circulating Tregs/Th17 ratio is associated with acute allograft rejection in liver transplantation. In present study, thirty-eight patients who received liver transplant were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: acute allograft rejection group (Gr-AR) (n = 16) and stable allograft liver function group (Gr-SF) (n = 22). The frequencies of circulating Tregs and circulating Th17 cells, as well as Tregs/Th17 ratio were determined using flow cytometry. The association between Tregs/Th17 ratio and acute allograft rejection was then analyzed. Our results showed that the frequency of circulating Tregs was significantly decreased, whereas the frequency of circulating Th17 cells was significantly increased in liver allograft recipients who developed acute rejection. Tregs/Th17 ratio had a negative correlation with liver damage indices and the score of rejection activity index (RAI) after liver transplantation. In addition, the percentages of CTLA-4+, HLA-DR+, Ki67+, and IL-10+ Tregs were higher in Gr-SF group than in Gr-AR group. Our results suggested that the ratio of circulating Tregs/Th17 cells is associated with acute allograft rejection, thus the ratio may serve as an alternative marker for the diagnosis of acute rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important factor in invasive tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Multiple proangiogenic mechanisms are involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine upregulated VEGF (VEGFA) expression in breast cancer cells and that the culture supernatant from norepinephrine-treated breast cancer cells promoted the formation of the capillary-like network of endothelial cells. However, the effects of norepinephrine were further enhanced when the endothelial cells were cocultured with breast cancer cells, indicating a critical role of tumor cell-endothelial cell contacts in norepinephrine-induced tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, norepinephrine dramatically induced the activation of the Notch pathway, which is a cell-contact-mediated intercellular signaling pathway and tightly linked to tumor cell-stromal cell interaction and angiogenesis, in the endothelial cells that had been cocultured with breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged 1 was significantly upregulated by norepinephrine at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. Inhibitors of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), protein kinase A (PKA), and mTOR could reverse norepinephrine-induced Jagged 1 upregulation, indicating that the β2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway participates in this process. Knockdown of Jagged 1 expression in breast cancer cells not only repressed norepinephrine-induced activation of the Notch pathway in cocultured endothelial cells but also evidently impaired the effects of norepinephrine on capillary-like sprout formation. These data demonstrate that tumor angiogenesis mediated by the Jagged 1/Notch intercellular signaling is governed by the norepinephrine-activated β2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the characteristics of γδ T cells as well as the Vδ1(+) and Vδ2(+) subsets in the peripheral blood in liver allograft recipients.
Sixty-three liver transplant recipients were enrolled in this study: 26 cases with acute allograft rejection (Gr-AR), and 37 cases with stable allograft liver function (Gr-SF). The frequencies of γδ T cells, the Vδ1(+) and Vδ2(+) subsets, and interleukin (IL)-10-producing Vδ1(+) γδ T cells in the peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The relationship between liver function parameters and the Vδ1(+)/Vδ2(+) ratio was analyzed.
The frequency of the Vδ1(+) subset and the Vδ1(+)/Vδ2(+) ratio in Gr-SF were significantly higher than that in Gr-AR; in contrast, the frequency of the Vδ2(+) subset in Gr-SF was markedly lower than that in Gr-AR. In addition, there was no significant difference in the frequency of γδ T cells between the Gr-AR and Gr-SF groups. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between the Vδ1(+)/Vδ2(+) ratio with the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Gr-AR.
Vδ1(+) γδ T cells may have potential role in maintaining stable graft liver function, and Vδ2(+) γδ T cells may be due to liver allograft rejection,. The Vδ1(+)/Vδ2(+) ratio could serve as a prognostic marker for acute rejection after liver transplantation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Transplant Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim:
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment is an effective medical therapy for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC); however, 40% of PBC patients show an incomplete response to the UDCA therapy. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transfusion in PBC patients with an incomplete response to UDCA.
We conducted a single-arm trial that included seven PBC patients with a suboptimal response to UDCA treatment. UC-MSCs were first cultured, and then 0.5 × 10(6) cells/kg body weights were infused through a peripheral vein. UC-MSCs were given three times at 4-week intervals, and patients were followed up for 48 weeks. Primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety and feasibility of UC-MSC treatment, and secondary outcomes were to evaluate liver functions and patient's quality of life.
No obvious side-effects were found in the patients treated with UC-MSCs. Symptoms such as fatigue and pruritus were obviously alleviated in most patients after UC-MSC treatment. There was a significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels at the end of the follow-up period as compared with baseline. No significant changes were observed in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time activity, international normalized ratio, or immunoglobulin M levels. The Mayo risk score, a prognostic index, was also stable during the treatment and follow-up period.
UC-MSC transfusion is feasible and well tolerated in patients with PBC who respond only partially to UDCA treatment, thus representing a novel therapeutic approach for patients in this subgroup. A larger, randomized controlled cohort study is warranted to confirm the clinical efficacy of UC-MSC transfusion.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erbin is ubiquitously expressed in normal epithelial tissues and constitutively associates with Her2 at the basolateral membranes in epithelial cells. The inhibitory role of Erbin in ERK signaling has been demonstrated. However, whether the expression of Erbin is altered in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer is unclear. There is little information regarding the function of Erbin in cancer progression. In the present study, we demonstrate that the level of Erbin is significantly downregulated or lost in breast cancer tissues. Erbin deficiency resulted in a dramatic enhancement in heregulin-induced AKT activation and overexpression of Erbin not only significantly decreased the intensity of heregulin-induced AKT phosphorylation but also shortened its duration in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Knockdown of Erbin remarkably promotes cell migration, induces invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells and antagonized the anti-proliferative effect of therapeutic antibody trastuzumab. Treatment with AKT inhibitor GDC0941 dramatically reversed the effects of Erbin knockdown on the cell migration and trastuzumab resistance, which is mainly mediated by aberrant activation of AKT. The data reveal that Erbin is a negative regulator of AKT activation and suggest that Erbin may play a role in breast cancer progression.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is currently used for patients with Her2(+) advanced gastric cancer. However, the response rate to trastuzumab among the patients is low. The molecular mechanisms underlying trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer are unknown. Our in vitro data show that activation of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) triggered by catecholamine caused "targeting failure" of trastuzumab in gastric cancer cells. The antitumor activities of trastuzumab were significantly impeded by chronic catecholamine stimulation in gastric cancer cells and in the mice bearing human gastric cancer xenografts. Mechanistically, catecholamine induced upregulation of the MUC4 expression at both transcription and protein levels via activating STAT3 and ERK. The effects of catecholamine could be effectively blocked by β2-AR antagonist ICI-118,551, indicating that β2-AR-mediated signaling pathway plays a key role in upregulation of MUC4, which was previously demonstrated to interfere with the recognition and physical binding of trastuzumab to Her2 molecules. Moreover, a significant elevation of the MUC4 level was observed in the xenograft tissues in nude mice chronically treated with isoproterenol. Knockdown of MUC4 restored the binding activities of trastuzumab to Her2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells. In addition, coexpression of β2-AR and MUC4 were observed in gastric cancer tissues. Our data indicated a novel trastuzumab resistance mechanism, by which catecholamine-induced β2-AR activation mediates desensitization of gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab through upregulating the MUC4 expression.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in the expression of glycosyltransferases directly influence the oligosaccharide structures and conformations of cell surface glycoproteins and consequently cellular phenotype transitions and biological behaviors. In the present study, we show that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) modulates the N-glycan composition of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by manipulating the expression of two N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, GnT-III and GnT-V, via the ERK signaling pathway. Exposure of various cells to ATRA caused a remarkable gel mobility down-shift of ICAM-1. Treatment with PNGase F confirmed that the reduction of the ICAM-1 molecular mass is attributed to the decreased complexity of N-glycans. We noticed that the expression of the mRNA encoding GnT-III, which stops branching, was significantly enhanced following ATRA exposure. In contrast, the level of the mRNA encoding GnT-V, which promotes branching, was reduced following ATRA exposure. Silencing of GnT-III prevented the molecular mass shift of ICAM-1. Moreover, ATRA induction greatly inhibited the adhesion of SW480 and U937 cells to the HUVEC monolayer, whereas knock-down of GnT-III expression effectively restored cell adhesion function. Treatment with ATRA also dramatically reduced the trans-endothelial migration of U937 cells. These data indicate that the alteration of ICAM-1 N-glycan composition by ATRA-induced GnT-III activities hindered cell adhesion and cell migration functions simultaneously, pinpointing a unique regulatory role of specific glycosyltransferases in the biological behaviors of tumor cells and a novel function of ATRA in the modulation of ICAM-1 N-glycan composition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe, life-threatening complication, and new and efficient therapeutic strategies for liver failure are urgently needed. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusions have been shown to reverse fulminant hepatic failure in mice and to improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver diseases. We assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) transfusions for ACLF patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 43 ACLF patients were enrolled for this open-labeled and controlled study; 24 patients were treated with UC-MSCs, and 19 patients were treated with saline as controls. UC-MSC therapy was given three times at 4-week intervals. The liver function, adverse events, and survival rates were evaluated during the 48-week or 72-week follow-up period. No significant side effects were observed during the trial. The UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients; reduced the model for end-stage liver disease scores; increased serum albumin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity; and increased platelet counts. Serum total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased after the UC-MSC transfusions. UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we demonstrated the cell cycle periodicity of Erbin expression with the maximal expression of Erbin in G2/M phase. A significant increase in Erbin promoter activity was observed in G2/M phase-synchronized cells. Sequence analysis revealed a c-Myb site in the core promoter region of Erbin. Mutagenesis of c-Myb consensus sequences abrogated the increased Erbin promoter activity in G2/M phase. ChIP and oligonucleotide pull-down assays validated that the recruitment of c-Myb to the consensus sequences was specific. The interaction of c-Myb with c-Myb site in the Erbin promoter was significantly enhanced in G2/M phase. Ectopic overexpression of c-Myb led to the up-regulation of Erbin promoter activity and c-Myb silencing by small interfering RNA significantly decreased Erbin protein level. Transfection of c-Myb rescued Erbin expression that was impaired by c-Myb knockdown. It proves that c-Myb and the c-Myb response element mediate the cell cycle-dependent expression of Erbin. Inactivation of Erbin causes an acceleration of the G1/S transition, the formation of multipolar spindles and abnormal chromosome congression. These results unravel a critical role of c-Myb in promoting Erbin transcription in G2/M phase and also predict an unappreciated function of Erbin in cell cycle progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation therapy in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.
UC-MSCs were transplanted intravenously into patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Serum levels of glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), white blood cells (WBC), and prothrombin activity (PA) were detected at different time points after UC-MSCs transplantation.
Most UC-MSC transplanted patients experienced an improvement in quality of life, to varying degrees. With the exception of low-grade fever in a few patients, side effects and oncogenic events were rare (treatment group: 1/38 vs. control group: 1/16; P more than 0.05). The UC-MSCs transplantation showed no effect on GLU, TC, BUN, AFP, WBC, or PA.
UC-MSCs transplantation in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis is safe and may improve the patient's quality of life.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Her2 and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) can form a heterocomplex in cardiomyocytes and agonists can induce Her2 transactivation, which is important for cardiovascular homeostasis. The scaffolding molecules that mediate β2-AR/Her2 interaction are currently unknown. Erbin, a PDZ domain-containing protein is a binding partner of Her2. The C-terminus of β2-AR harbors a PDZ domain-binding motif. Hypothesis of this study is that Erbin may organize the assembly of β2-AR/Her2 complex. METHODS: The interaction among β2-AR, Her2 and Erbin was investigated in COS-7, HEK-293 and H9c2 cells and rat brain and heart tissues by coimmunoprecipitation. The β2-AR binding region of Erbin was identified by utilizing the Erbin deletion mutants. The functional significance of Erbin in cardiomyocytes was determined by Erbin silencing, contraction frequency measurement and cellular apoptosis assays. RESULTS: Erbin was able to form a complex with both exogenous and endogenous β2-AR and Her2 in the presence of isoproterenol (ISO). Deletion of the Erbin LRR domain did not affect its binding to β2-AR and Her2, whereas lacking of the PDZ domain lost the ability of Erbin. Silencing of Erbin greatly abrogated ISO-induced activation of ERK. The treatment of H9c2 cells transfected with the Erbin siRNA with ISO caused severe cell apoptosis. Knock-down of Erbin expression in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes led to a remarkable reduction of the beating frequency after ISO stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Erbin mediates catecholamine-induced β2-AR/Her2 complexation and promotes catecholamine-induced activation of ERK signaling in cardiomyocytes, conferring protection of cardiomyocytes from apoptosis induced by chronic catecholamine stimulation.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · International journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC), a life-threatening complication of chronic liver disease, is one of the major indications for liver transplantation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusion has been shown to lead to the regression of liver fibrosis in mice and humans. This study examined the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) in patients with decompensated LC. A total of 45 chronic hepatitis B patients with decompensated LC, including 30 patients receiving UC-MSC transfusion, and 15 patients receiving saline as the control, were recruited; clinical parameters were detected during a 1-year follow-up period. No significant side-effects and complications were observed in either group. There was a significant reduction in the volume of ascites in patients treated with UC-MSC transfusion compared with controls (P < 0.05). UC-MSC therapy also significantly improved liver function, as indicated by the increase of serum albumin levels, decrease in total serum bilirubin levels, and decrease in the sodium model for end-stage liver disease scores. UC-MSC transfusion is clinically safe and could improve liver function and reduce ascites in patients with decompensated LC. UC-MSC transfusion, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for patients with decompensated LC.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN)-γ plays crucial roles in regulating both innate and adaptive immunity. The existence of IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) molecules on the cell surface is a prerequisite to the initiation of IFN-γ signaling; low expression of IFNGR1 leads to a functional blockade of IFN-γ signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms by which IFNGR1 expression is controlled are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that IFNGR1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer. Heterogeneous IFNGR1 immunoreactivity appeared to be associated with the morphological heterogeneity of breast cancer, and loss of IFNGR1 expression was predominantly observed in poorly differentiated areas. We identified the functional activating protein (AP)-2 and specificity protein (SP)-1 sites within the IFNGR1 promoter. Ectopic expression of AP-2α drastically repressed the expression of IFNGR1 and hindered IFN-γ signaling, whereas AP-2α gene silencing elevated IFNGR1 levels. Overexpression of SP-1 effectively antagonized the repressive effects of AP-2α. Simultaneous recruitment of both transcription factors to the AP-2 and SP-1 motifs, respectively, in the IFNGR1 promoter was demonstrated, implying that AP-2α and SP-1 may synergistically modulate IFNGR1 transcription. Moreover, AP-2α overexpression in AP-2-deficient SW480 cells remarkably inhibited Stat1 phosphorylation and the anti-proliferative effects of IFN-γ, whereas knockdown of the AP-2α expression dramatically enhanced the sensitivities of HeLa cells highly expressing AP-2 to IFN-γ, indicating that dysregulation of AP-2α expression is associated with impaired IFN-γ actions in cancer cells.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) play pivotal roles in regulating host immune responses. However, the inhibitory effects of this pathway on the function of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes, the main effector cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, are not well defined. In this study, we characterized circulating and intratumor PD-1/PD-L1 expression and analyzed their association with disease progression in a cohort of hepatitis B virus-infected patients, including 56 with HCC, 20 with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 20 healthy controls (HC). The frequency of circulating PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells increased with disease progression from LC to HCC patients versus HC. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating effector CD8(+) T cells showed a drastic increase in PD-1 expression. These increases in circulating and intratumor PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells could predict poorer disease progression and postoperative recurrence. Immunohistochemical staining showed that PD-L1 expressing hepatoma cells and apoptotic infiltrating CD8(+) T cells were both enriched in tumor sections. In vitro, CD8(+) T cells induced PD-L1 expression on hepatoma cells in an IFN-γ-dependent manner, which in turn promoted CD8(+) T cells apoptosis, and blocking PD-L1 reversed this effect. Therefore, this study extends our knowledge of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in tumor evasion and provides evidence for a new therapeutic target in HCC patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erbin belongs to the LAP protein family. It represents a novel type of adaptor protein that features targeting of basolateral localization of the Her2 receptor through direct binding to the Her2 C terminus. Recent studies demonstrated that Erbin could inhibit the Ras-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathways. It suggests that Erbin may function as a signaling molecule. The functions of Erbin in determining cell polarity and cell adhesion have been well described. This review mainly focuses on the recent findings in regulation of signaling pathways by Erbin.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Current Protein and Peptide Science