[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La nécessaire adaptation des stratégies et des politiques sanitaires en réponse au changement climatique s'inscrit dans un contexte plus large de mutations globales concernant la demande croissante en produits d'origine animale, la globalisation de leurs échanges et l' impact des multiples déterminants environnementaux, socio-économiques et climatiques sur la santé humaine et la santé animale. Ces éléments de contexte amplifient les risques d' émergence, de diffusion et de maintien de maladies parasitaires et infectieuses animales et zoonotiques. C'est pourquoi, au travers de mesures d'adaptation, il convient d'accroître la résilience des secteurs de l'élevage et de la santé et de réduire la vulnérabilité des territoires face aux maladies climato-sensibles. Cette adaptation passe par la classification de l'importance des maladies, par l'évaluation des risques, puis par la réduction des risques (surveillance, prévention et contrôle), en s'appuyant sur une législation ad hoc basée sur le concept « Une seule santé » (One Health).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countries on livestock products coming from the Horn of Africa in 1998-1999 and 2000-2002 highlighted this interdependence. Both bans caused an abrupt stop in exportations from IGAD countries. Nevertheless, the impact of the outbreaks motivating these bans differed due to their unique timing with regard to the Muslim celebrations that trigger the main flow of livestock from the Horn of Africa to Mecca. Hence, in 2000, the worst impact was observed on pastoralist households because the ban was imposed in September, prior to the Haj festival, when the main seasonal export flow had not been realized yet. Regarding the 1997 outbreak, the ban was implemented only in February 1998, after the main trade flow had occurred.
The impacts of the bans on Somalia were particularly severe, due to the high specialization of the concerned region in an export-oriented livestock sector, benefitting from a niche market organized around the above-mentioned religious festivals and Arab consumers preferences. The country was all the more affected, as they own two main ports involved in this trade, i.e. Berbera (Somaliland) and Bossaso (Puntland). Prior to the bans, the size of the export market from Somalia to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates was estimated around US$600 million, with Saudi Arabia representing 66% of the total. The bans led the Somali livestock market to collapse. Losses for the livestock industry were estimated at US$109 million and US$326 million, for the first and second ban respectively. The government also directly incurred an important loss around US$45 million from foregone export taxes and docking fees. In the same time, livestock exporters lost a net cumulative profit of US$330 million, whereas producers estimated their annual losses at over US$8 million. Hence, the successive RVF-related trade bans impacted the employment rate, the public treasury, the exchange rate of national currency and thus, the price of imported goods, inducing a general inflationary pressure and important socio-economic upheavals.
More generally, the livestock market in the whole East Africa was affected, due to the fall in prices caused by the loss of outlets for livestock. Using market equilibrium models taking these shocks into account, the impact of the trade bans on the Somali region of Ethiopia were estimated at a 36% fall of the GDP. Other impacts originated in the closure of markets inside East Africa, being part of national control strategies. In Kenya, e.g., the closure of the Garissa Market, which is a major outlet for Somali and Ethiopian livestock, resulted in a more than 25% decrease in the price of cattle, inducing a total loss of US$10 million for the value chain. The emergency destocking response of distressed households also participated to the fall in prices and worsening of terms of trade. Together with flock mortality and abortion, destocking moreover affects the herds’ dynamics on the long run and the commercial potential of households. These mechanisms show greater impact on smallholders, due to threshold effects in livestock capitalisation and the loss in risk management ability in such variable environmental conditions. In the Middle East too, the bans showed drastic economic impacts. In Yemen, e.g., the bans caused a loss of US$15 million from foregone custom taxes and US$27 million profit losses for traders.
The two bans, combined with the prolonged ban maintained till 2009 by Saudi Arabia on Somalia, contributed to a restructuration of trade within and between the two regions. Indeed, trade actors soon reorganized their activity, as highlighted through official figures, notwithstanding the importance of informal trade. Hence, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates appeared as major alternative entry points on Arab Peninsula for Somali livestock. The latter could also transit through Djibouti or Sudan to reach Saudi Arabia. Benefitting from the prolonged bans on Somalia, the port of Djibouti emerged as a major player in the region between 2006 and 2009, thanks to massive investment in port infrastructures and agreements with Saudi importers. Therefore the private sector played a considerable role in adapting to new risks. The Djibouti port diverted much of the livestock trade previously handled at the Berbera and Bossaso ports. On this occasion, as it has been the case in Somalia after ban lifting in 2009, the Middle East has been a source of investment for the Horn of Africa for biosecurity infrastructure. Finally, the second ban led to the emergence of Australia as a major livestock supplier for Saudi Arabia from 2000 till now, and to a certain a point Australia has been a country of major Saudi investments which is seen as another way of adapting for some major value chain agents.
In the two last decades, the intraregional livestock trade grew rapidly in East Africa, spurred by the urban demand. Most of this trade is informal, thus lacking official figures. It nevertheless shows a great importance regarding poverty alleviation aspects, the small to medium actors being the main operators of this trade. In recent years, a considerable growth in recorded intraregional trade is noticed, mainly due to a growth of recorded exports from Ethiopia to neighboring countries, as a result of a policy aiming at the facilitation of registration procedures through the CAC/AP-system.
As a conclusion, livestock export to Middle East and the growing intraregional East-African livestock trade are both threatened by RVF-linked bans due to loss of outlets and price volatility. Thus, stability of the livestock sector being crucial to human and economic development in the region, a high priority must be given to RVF prevention and control, as supported by figures of impact of past outbreaks
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The financial cost of clinical Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and the financial benefit of its control through vaccination were studied based on questionnaire survey in Oromia region of Ethiopia from the perspective of livestock farmers. Production loss impacts for local zebu cattle were compared with those of Holstein Friesian (HF)/crossbred cattle in the study area. Annual cumulative incidence of LSD infection in HF/crossbred and local zebu cattle were 33.93% (95% CI: 30.92-36.94) and 13.41% (95% CI: 12.6-14.25) respectively and significantly different (p<0.05). Annual mortality was also significantly higher in HF/crossbred 7.43% (95% CI: 5.76-9.10) than in local zebu cattle 1.25% (95% CI: 0.98-1.52). The annual financial cost was calculated as the sum of the average production losses due to morbidity and mortality arising from milk loss, beef loss, traction power loss, and treatment and vaccination costs at the herd level. The financial cost in infected herds was estimated to be USD 6.43 (5.12-8) per head for local zebu and USD 58 (42-73) per head for HF/crossbred cattle. A partial budget analysis was used to estimate the financial benefit of an annual vaccination program in both the local zebu and HF/crossbred cattle farming systems. The marginal rate of return (MRR) gained from this control intervention was estimated to be 34 (3400%) and the net benefit per head was USD 1 for local zebu and USD 19 for HF/crossbred cattle. Vaccination thus enabled financial costs due to LSD to be reduced by 17% per head in local zebu herds and 31% per head in HF/crossbred herds. These results could provide guidance to producers and the government in their endeavors to control the disease.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surveillance and control of transboundary animal diseases remains a major challenge for animal production in developing countries. This has become a major public health issue for the developed world with the SARS episode in 2003 and again recently with the threat of pandemic influenzas. Innovative methodologies are greatly needed to evaluate the socioeconomical added value of animal disease surveillance adapted to the specific socio-economic contexts of the developing countries. This should come with the integration of modeling (risk-based surveillance; spatio-temporal immunity levels), socio-economy and epidemiology. Since the emerging and endemism of avian influenza H5N1 subtype in several countries in South East Asia, surveillance networks have been setup and are running but the outcomes of such investments (financial and human resources) have not been carefully evaluated. The objective of our research programme is to develop a novel methodology to evaluate the socio-economical added value of animal disease surveillance and more especially H5N1 surveillance network in South East Asia. In order to do so we apply and integrate different methodology based on social sciences (Social Network Analysis (SNA); participatory approaches), public and animal health economies (DALYS, QUALYS, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit methods) and epidemiology (risk analysis, spatial modeling). Results such as the use of SNA to evaluate the role and positioning of the different actors of the surveillance network will be presented and discussed during the conference. Such study allows the understanding of interaction between actors and the benefit they get with the outcomes of the surveillance network. The aim of this work is to provide valuable tools to decision makers to help them evaluate the best surveillance program to implement within their animal disease risk management policy. Extension off this work to evaluate the socio-economical added value of intervention programs (e.g. vaccination) is ongoing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rift valley fever (RVF) is an arboviral disease produced by a bunyavirus belonging to the genus Phlebovirus. Several species of Aedes and Culex are the vectors of this virus that affects sheep, goats, buffalos, cattle, camels and human beings. The human disease is well known, especially during periods of intense epizootic activity. The initial description of the disease dates back to 1930, when animals and human outbreaks appeared on a farm in Lake Naivasha, in the Great Rift Valley of Kenya. Until 2000, this disease was only described in Africa, and then outbreaks were also declared in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2000-2001 and 2004) and in Yemen (2000-2001). Animal and human cases were recorded. This work presents a retrospective summary of the data collected on animal RVF cases during this epidemic in Yemen. Results from several RVF surveys were gathered from the Yemeni vet services and FAO experts. Geographical data (topographic maps and data freely available on internet) were used for the location of outbreaks. After cleaning and standardization of location names, all the data were introduced into a GIS database. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was then studied at two scales: at the national level and at a local scale in the particular area of Wadi Mawr in the Tihama plain, Western coast of Yemen.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences