Mark R. Krumholz

University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States

Are you Mark R. Krumholz?

Claim your profile

Publications (152)824.29 Total impact

  • Source
    Nathan J. Goldbaum · Mark R. Krumholz · John C. Forbes
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of gravitational instability-driven turbulence in determining the structure and evolution of disk galaxies, and the extent to which gravity rather than feedback can explain galaxy properties, remains an open question. To address it, we present high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of Milky Way-like isolated disk galaxies, including realistic heating and cooling rates and a physically motivated prescription for star formation, but no form of star formation feedback. After an initial transient, our galaxies reach a state of fully-nonlinear gravitational instability. In this state, gravity drives turbulence and radial inflow. Despite the lack of feedback, the gas in our galaxy models shows substantial turbulent velocity dispersions, indicating that gravitational instability alone may be able to power the velocity dispersions observed in nearby disk galaxies on 100 pc scales. Moreover, the rate of mass transport produced by this turbulence approaches $\sim 1$ $M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ for Milky Way-like conditions, sufficient to fully fuel star formation in the inner disks of galaxies. In a companion paper we add feedback to our models, and use the comparison between the two cases to understand what galaxy properties depend sensitively on feedback, and which can be understood as the product of gravity alone. All of the code, initial conditions, and simulation data for our model are publicly available.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • David Guszejnov · Mark R. Krumholz · Philip F. Hopkins
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A popular theory of star formation is gravito-turbulent fragmentation, in which self-gravitating structures are created by turbulence-driven density fluctuations. Simple theories of isothermal fragmentation successfully reproduce the core mass function (CMF) which has a very similar shape to the initial mass function (IMF) of stars. However, numerical simulations of isothermal turbulent fragmentation thus far have not succeeded in identifying a fragment mass scale that is independent of the simulation resolution. Moreover, the fluid equations for magnetized, self-gravitating, isothermal turbulence are scale-free, and do not predict any characteristic mass. In this paper we show that, although an isothermal self-gravitating flow does produce a CMF with a mass scale imposed by the initial conditions, this scale changes as the parent cloud evolves. In addition, the cores that form undergo further fragmentation and after sufficient time forget about their initial conditions, yielding a scale-free pure power-law distribution $\mathrm{d} N/\mathrm{d} M\propto M^{-2}$ for the stellar IMF. We show that this problem can be alleviated by introducing a simple model for stellar radiation feedback. Radiative heating, powered by accretion onto forming stars, arrests the fragmentation cascade and imposes a characteristic mass scale that is nearly independent of the time-evolution or initial conditions in the star-forming cloud, and that agrees well with the peak of the observed IMF. In contrast, models that introduce a stiff equation of state for denser clouds but that do not explicitly include the effects of feedback do not yield an invariant IMF.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate a novel Bayesian analysis method, based on the Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies (slug) code, to derive the masses, ages, and extinctions of star clusters from integrated light photometry. Unlike many analysis methods, slug correctly accounts for incomplete IMF sampling, and returns full posterior probability distributions rather than simply probability maxima. We apply our technique to 621 visually-confirmed clusters in two nearby galaxies, NGC 628 and NGC 7793, that are part of the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). LEGUS provides Hubble Space Telescope photometry in the NUV, U, B, V, and I bands. We analyze the sensitivity of the derived cluster properties to choices of prior probability distribution, evolutionary tracks, IMF, metallicity, treatment of nebular emission, and extinction curve. We find that slug's results for individual clusters are insensitive to most of these choices, but that the posterior probability distributions we derive are often quite broad, and sometimes multi-peaked and quite sensitive to the choice of priors. In contrast, the properties of the cluster population as a whole are relatively robust against all of these choices. We also compare our results from slug to those derived with a conventional non-stochastic fitting code, Yggdrasil. We show that slug's stochastic models are generally a better fit to the observations than the deterministic ones used by Yggdrasil. However, the overall properties of the cluster populations recovered by both codes are qualitatively similar.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC5253 hosts a number of young, massive star clusters, the two youngest of which are centrally concentrated and surrounded by thermal radio emission (the `radio nebula'). To investigate the role of these clusters in the starburst energetics, we combine new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC5253 with wavelength coverage from 1500 Ang to 1.9 micron in 13 filters. These include H-alpha, P-beta, and P-alpha, and the imaging from the Hubble Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey). The extraordinarily well-sampled spectral energy distributions enable modeling with unprecedented accuracy the ages, masses, and extinctions of the 9 optically brightest clusters (M_V < -8.8) and the two young radio nebula clusters. The clusters have ages ~1-15 Myr and masses ~1x10^4 - 2.5x10^5 M_sun. The clusters' spatial location and ages indicate that star formation has become more concentrated towards the radio nebula over the last ~15 Myr. The most massive cluster is in the radio nebula; with a mass 2.5x10^5 M_sun and an age ~1 Myr, it is 2-4 times less massive and younger than previously estimated. It is within a dust cloud with A_V~50 mag, and shows a clear nearIR excess, likely from hot dust. The second radio nebula cluster is also ~1 Myr old, confirming the extreme youth of the starburst region. These two clusters account for about half of the ionizing photon rate in the radio nebula, and will eventually supply about 2/3 of the mechanical energy in present-day shocks. Additional sources are required to supply the remaining ionizing radiation, and may include very massive stars.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), among the most energetic events in the Universe, are explosions of massive and short-lived stars, so they pinpoint locations of recent star formation. However, several GRB host galaxies have recently been found to be deficient in molecular gas (H2), believed to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line-of-sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought, with star formation being potentially directly fuelled by atomic gas (or with very efficient HI-to-H2 conversion and rapid exhaustion of molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low metallicity gas near the onset of star formation, because cooling of gas (necessary for star formation) is faster than the HI-to-H2 conversion. Indeed, large atomic gas reservoirs, together with low molecular gas masses, stellar and dust masses are consistent with GRB hosts being preferentially galaxies which have very recently started a star formation episode after accreting metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. This provides a natural route for forming GRBs in low-metallicity environments. The gas inflow scenario is also consistent with the existence of the companion HI object with no optical counterpart ~19 kpc from the GRB 060505 host, and with the fact that the HI centroids of the GRB 980425 and 060505 hosts do not coincide with optical centres of these galaxies, but are located close to the GRB positions.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius $R_p=2.14 R_{\rm Jup}$ and mass $M_p = 0.53 M_{\rm Jup}$. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow's ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet's nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that of the Sun, we find a steady-state mass loss rate of ~$2\times10^{10}$ g s$^{-1}$. The total mass loss rate and the outflow substructure along the substellar ray show good agreement with earlier 1D models, for two different fluxes. Our 3D data cube can be used to generate the outflow's extinction spectrum during transit. As a proof of concept, we find absorption of stellar Lyman-alpha at Doppler-shifted velocities of up to $\pm 50$ km s$^{-1}$. Our work provides a starting point for further 3D models that can be used to predict observable signatures of hot Jupiter mass loss.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Mark R. Krumholz · J. M. Diederik Kruijssen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We develop a simple dynamical model for the evolution of gas in the centres of barred spiral galaxies, using the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e. the central few hundred pc) as a case study. We show that, in the presence of a galactic bar, gas in a disc in the central regions of a galaxy will be driven inwards by angular momentum transport induced by acoustic instabilities within the bar's inner Lindblad resonance. This transport process drives turbulence within the gas that temporarily keeps it strongly gravitationally stable and prevents the onset of rapid star formation. However, at some point the rotation curve must transition from approximately flat to approximately solid body, and the resulting reduction in shear reduces the transport rates and causes gas to build up, eventually producing a gravitationally unstable region that is subject to rapid and violent star formation. For the observed rotation curve of the Milky Way, the accumulation happens ∼100 pc from the centre of the Galaxy, in good agreement with the observed location of gas clouds and young star clusters in the CMZ. The characteristic time-scale for gas accumulation and star formation is of the order of 10–20 Myr. We argue that similar phenomena should be ubiquitous in other barred spiral galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • M.R. Krumholz · J.C. Forbes
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While models based on this simplified geometry provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, the only publicly-available frameworks for simulating them are rather specialized and non-general. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems, though the amount of speedup is highly problem-dependent. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from https://bitbucket.org/krumholz/vader/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Computing
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stellar population synthesis techniques for predicting the observable light emitted by a stellar population have extensive applications in numerous areas of astronomy. However, accurate predictions for small populations of young stars, such as those found in individual star clusters, star-forming dwarf galaxies, and small segments of spiral galaxies, require that the population be treated stochastically. Conversely, accurate deductions of the properties of such objects also require consideration of stochasticity. Here we describe a comprehensive suite of modular, open-source software tools for tackling these related problems. These include the following: a greatly-enhanced version of the slug code introduced by da Silva et al., which computes spectra and photometry for stochastically or deterministically sampled stellar populations with nearly arbitrary star formation histories, clustering properties, and initial mass functions; cloudy_slug, a tool that automatically couples slug-computed spectra with the cloudy radiative transfer code in order to predict stochastic nebular emission; bayesphot, a general-purpose tool for performing Bayesian inference on the physical properties of stellar systems based on unresolved photometry; and cluster_slug and sfr_slug, a pair of tools that use bayesphot on a library of slug models to compute the mass, age, and extinction of mono-age star clusters, and the star formation rate of galaxies, respectively. The latter two tools make use of an extensive library of pre-computed stellar population models, which are included in the software. The complete package is available at http://www.slugsps.com.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. The MOSDEF survey aims to obtain moderate-resolution (R=3000-3650) rest-frame optical spectra (~3700-7000 Angstrom) for ~1500 galaxies at 1.37<z<3.80 in three well-studied CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-N. Targets are selected in three redshift intervals: 1.37<z<1.70, 2.09<z<2.61, and 2.95<z<3.80, down to fixed H_AB (F160W) magnitudes of 24.0, 24.5 and 25.0, respectively, using the photometric and spectroscopic catalogs from the 3D-HST survey. We target both strong nebular emission lines (e.g., [OII], Hbeta, [OIII], 5008, Halpha, [NII], and [SII]) and stellar continuum and absorption features (e.g., Balmer lines, Ca-II H and K, Mgb, 4000 Angstrom break). Here we present an overview of our survey, the observational strategy, the data reduction and analysis, and the sample characteristics based on spectra obtained during the first 24 nights. To date, we have completed 21 masks, obtaining spectra for 591 galaxies. For ~80% of the targets we identify and measure multiple emission or absorption lines. In addition, we confirm 55 additional galaxies, which were serendipitously detected. The MOSDEF galaxy sample includes unobscured star-forming, dusty star-forming, and quiescent galaxies and spans a wide range in stellar mass (~10^9-10^11.5 Msol) and star formation rate (~0-10^4 Msol/yr). The spectroscopically confirmed sample is roughly representative of an H-band limited galaxy sample at these redshifts. With its large sample size, broad diversity in galaxy properties, and wealth of available ancillary data, MOSDEF will transform our understanding of the stellar, gaseous, metal, dust, and black hole content of galaxies during the time when the universe was most active.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metal production in galaxies traces star formation, and is therefore both very patchy and highly concentrated toward the centers of galactic discs. This would seem to suggest that galaxies should have highly inhomogeneous metal distributions with strong radial gradients, but observations of present-day galaxies typically show only shallow gradients with little to no azimuthal variation, implying the existence of a redistribution mechanism. Unfortunately, this mechanism is still poorly understood. We study the possible role of gravitational instability-driven turbulence as a mixing mechanism by simulating an unstable, isolated galactic disc at high resolution, including metal fields treated as passive scalars. Since any cylindrical field can be decomposed into a sum of Fourier-Bessel basis functions, we set up initial metal fields characterized by these functions and study how different modes decay and mix. We find that both shear and turbulence contribute to mixing, but that the mixing rate strongly depends on the symmetries. Non-axisymmetric modes have decay times smaller than the galactic orbital period because shear winds them up to small spatial scales, where they are quickly erased by turbulence. In contrast, the decay timescales for axisymmetric modes are greater than the orbital period of the galaxy, although to all but the largest-scale inhomogeneities the decay time is still short enough for significant mixing to occur over cosmological time. The different timescales provides a natural explanation for why galaxies retain metallicity gradients while there is almost no variation at a fixed radius. Moreover the long timescales required for mixing axisymmetric modes may explain the much greater diversity of metallicity gradients observed in high redshift galaxies compared to local ones. The high-redshift systems have not yet reached equilibrium, while most of the local ones have.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    Todd A. Thompson · Mark R. Krumholz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We show that the turbulent gas in the star-forming regions of galaxies is unstable to wind formation via momentum deposition by radiation pressure or other momentum sources like supernova explosions, even if the system is below the average Eddington limit. This conclusion follows from the fact that the critical momentum injection rate per unit mass for unbinding gas from a self-gravitating system is proportional to the gas surface density and that a turbulent medium presents a broad distribution of column densities to the sources. For an average Eddington ratio of 〈Γ〉 ≃ 0.1 and for turbulent Mach numbers ≳ 30, we find that ∼1 per cent of the gas is ejected per dynamical time-scale at velocities larger than the local escape velocity. Because of the lognormal shape of the surface density distribution, the mass-loss rate is highly sensitive to the average Eddington ratio, reaching ∼20–40 per cent of the gas mass per dynamical time for 〈Γ〉 ≃ 1. Using this model we find a large scatter in the mass-loading factor for star-forming galaxies, ranging from ∼10−3–10, but with significant uncertainties. Implications for the efficiency of star formation in giant molecular clouds are highlighted. For radiation pressure feedback alone, we find an increasing star formation efficiency as a function of initial gas surface density. Uncertainties are discussed.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope, aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging, from the near-ultraviolet to the I-band, with the Wide Field Camera 3, plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the Wide Field Camera 3 are: F275W(2,704 A), F336W(3,355 A), F438W(4,325 A), F555W(5,308 A), and F814W(8,024 A); the parallel observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys use the filters: F435W(4,328 A), F606W(5,921 A), and F814W(8,057 A). The multi-band images are yielding accurate recent (<~50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial science results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with JWST and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    Yi Feng · Mark R. Krumholz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The abundances of elements in stars are a critical clue to their origins. Observed star-to-star variations in logarithmic abundance within an open cluster are typically only $\sim 0.01-0.05$ over many elements, significantly smaller than the variation of $\sim 0.06-0.3$ seen in the interstellar medium from which the stars form. It is unknown why clusters are so homogenous, and whether homogeneity should also prevail in regions of lower star formation efficiency that do not produce bound clusters. Here we report adaptive mesh simulations using passively-advected scalars in order to trace the mixing of chemical elements as star-forming clouds form and collapse. We show that turbulent mixing during cloud assembly naturally produces a stellar abundance scatter at least ~5 times smaller than that in the gas, sufficient to fully explain the observed chemical homogeneity of stars. Moreover, mixing occurs very early, so that regions with efficiencies $\varepsilon \sim 10\%$ are nearly as well-mixed as those with $\varepsilon\sim 50\%$. This implies that even regions that do not form bound clusters are likely to be well-mixed, and enhances the prospects for using chemical tagging to reconstruct dissolved star clusters via their unique chemical signatures.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Nature
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages $\leq$ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the upper end of the stellar IMF in M83 is consistent with an universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the $\lessapprox$ 10$^{3}$ Msun clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Mark R. Krumholz · John C. Forbes
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While such models provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, there is no publicly-available framework for simulating them. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of ~5 speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from https://bitbucket.org/krumholz/vader/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Star clusters larger than $\sim 10^{3}$ $M_\odot$ contain multiple hot stars that launch fast stellar winds. The integrated kinetic energy carried by these winds is comparable to that delivered by supernova explosions, suggesting that at early times winds could be an important form of feedback on the surrounding cold material from which the star cluster formed. However, the interaction of these winds with the surrounding clumpy, turbulent, cold gas is complex and poorly understood. Here we investigate this problem via an accounting exercise: we use empirically determined properties of four well-studied massive star clusters to determine where the energy injected by stellar winds ultimately ends up. We consider a range of kinetic energy loss channels, including radiative cooling, mechanical work on the cold interstellar medium, thermal conduction, heating of dust via collisions by the hot gas, and bulk advection of thermal energy by the hot gas. We show that, for at least some of the clusters, none of these channels can account for more than a small fraction of the injected energy. We suggest that turbulent mixing at the hot-cold interface or physical leakage of the hot gas from the HII region can efficiently remove the kinetic energy injected by the massive stars in young star clusters. Even for the clusters where we are able to account for all the injected kinetic energy, we show that our accounting sets strong constraints on the importance of stellar winds as a mechanism for feedback on the cold interstellar medium.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Star clusters larger than $\sim 10^{3}$ $M_\odot$ contain multiple hot stars that launch fast stellar winds. The integrated kinetic energy carried by these winds is comparable to that delivered by supernova explosions, suggesting that at early times winds could be an important form of feedback on the surrounding cold material from which the star cluster formed. However, the interaction of these winds with the surrounding clumpy, turbulent, cold gas is complex and poorly understood. Here we investigate this problem via an accounting exercise: we use empirically determined properties of four well-studied massive star clusters to determine where the energy injected by stellar winds ultimately ends up. We consider a range of kinetic energy loss channels, including radiative cooling, mechanical work on the cold interstellar medium, thermal conduction, heating of dust via collisions by the hot gas, and bulk advection of thermal energy by the hot gas. We show that, for at least some of the clusters, none of these channels can account for more than a small fraction of the injected energy. We suggest that turbulent mixing at the hot-cold interface or physical leakage of the hot gas from the HII region can efficiently remove the kinetic energy injected by the massive stars in young star clusters. Even for the clusters where we are able to account for all the injected kinetic energy, we show that our accounting sets strong constraints on the importance of stellar winds as a mechanism for feedback on the cold interstellar medium.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014
  • Source
    Robert L. da Silva · Michele Fumagalli · Mark R. Krumholz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The integrated light of a stellar population, measured through photometric filters that are sensitive to the presence of young stars, is often used to infer the star formation rate (SFR) for that population. However, these techniques rely on an assumption that star formation is a continuous process, whereas in reality stars form in discrete spatially and temporally correlated structures. This discreteness causes the light output to undergo significant time-dependent fluctuations, which, if not accounted for, introduce systematic errors in the inferred SFRs due to the intrinsic distribution of luminosities at any fix SFR. We use slug a code that Stochastically Lights Up Galaxies, to simulate galaxies undergoing stochastic star formation. We then use these simulations to present a quantitative analysis of these effects and provide tools for calculating probability distribution functions of SFRs given a set of observations. We show that, depending on the SFR tracer used, stochastic fluctuations can produce non-trivial errors at SFRs as high as 1 M⊙ yr−1 and biases ≳ 0.5 dex at the lowest SFRs. We emphasize that due to the stochastic behaviour of blue SFR tracers, one cannot assign a deterministic single value to the SFR of an individual galaxy, but we suggest methods by which future analyses that rely on integrated-light indicators can properly account for these stochastic effects.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

6k Citations
824.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem, Israel
  • 2012
    • Stanford University
      • Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology (KIPAC)
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2003-2012
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2005-2009
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States