W. L. Holzapfel

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

Are you W. L. Holzapfel?

Claim your profile

Publications (289)984.74 Total impact

  • B. Westbrook · A. Cukierman · A. Lee · A. Suzuki · C. Raum · W. Holzapfel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the development of the next generation of multi-chroic sinuous antenna-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers optimized for precision measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and cosmic foreground. These devices employ a polarization sensitive broadband self-complementary sinuous antenna to feed on-chip band defining filters before delivering the power to load resistors coupled to a TES on a released bolometer island. This technology was originally developed by UC Berkeley and will be deployed by POLARBEAR-2 and SPT-3G in the next year and half. In addition, it is a candidate detector for the LiteBIRD mission which will make all sky CMB and cosmic foreground polarization observations from a satellite platform in the early 2020’s. This works focuses on expanding both the bandwidth and band count per pixel of this technology in order to meet the needs of future CMB missions. This work demonstrates that these devices are well suited for observations between 20 and 380 GHz. This proceeding describes the design, fabrication, and the characterization of three new pixel types: a low-frequency triplexing pixel (LFTP) with bands centered on 40, 60, and 90 GHz, a high-frequency triplexing pixel (HFTP) with bands centered on 220, 280, and 350 GHz, and a mid-frequency tetraplexing pixel with bands (MFTP) centered on 90, 150, 220, and 280 GHz. The average fractional bandwidth of these pixels designs was 36.7, 34.5, and 31.4 % respectively. In addition we found that the polarization modulation efficiency of each band was between 1 and 3 % which is consistent with the polarization efficiency of the wire grid used to take the measurement. Finally, we find that the beams have \({\sim }\)1 % ellipticity for each pixel type. The thermal properties of the bolometers where tuned for characterization in our lab so we do not report on G and noise values as they would be unsuitable for modern CMB experiments.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2, having 7,588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance (ESR) of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (> 3 MHz).
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of the design and status of the \Pb-2 and the Simons Array experiments. \Pb-2 is a Cosmic Microwave Background polarimetry experiment which aims to characterize the arc-minute angular scale B-mode signal from weak gravitational lensing and search for the degree angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The receiver has a 365~mm diameter focal plane cooled to 270~milli-Kelvin. The focal plane is filled with 7,588 dichroic lenslet-antenna coupled polarization sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometric pixels that are sensitive to 95~GHz and 150~GHz bands simultaneously. The TES bolometers are read-out by SQUIDs with 40 channel frequency domain multiplexing. Refractive optical elements are made with high purity alumina to achieve high optical throughput. The receiver is designed to achieve noise equivalent temperature of 5.8~$\mu$K$_{CMB}\sqrt{s}$ in each frequency band. \Pb-2 will deploy in 2016 in the Atacama desert in Chile. The Simons Array is a project to further increase sensitivity by deploying three \Pb-2 type receivers. The Simons Array will cover 95~GHz, 150~GHz and 220~GHz frequency bands for foreground control. The Simons Array will be able to constrain tensor-to-scalar ratio and sum of neutrino masses to $\sigma(r) = 6\times 10^{-3}$ at $r = 0.1$ and $\sum m_\nu (\sigma =1)$ to 40 meV.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We probe star formation in the environments of massive (∼1013 M⊙) dark matter haloes at redshifts of z ∼ 1. This star formation is linked to a submillimetre clustering signal which we detect in maps of the Planck High Frequency Instrument that are stacked at the positions of a sample of high redshift (z > 2) strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. The clustering signal has submillimetre colours which are consistent with the mean redshift of the foreground lensing haloes (z ∼ 1). We report a mean excess of star formation rate (SFR) compared to the field, of (2700 ± 700) M⊙ yr−1 from all galaxies contributing to this clustering signal within a radius of 3.5 arcmin from the SPT DSFGs. The magnitude of the Planck excess is in broad agreement with predictions of a current model of the cosmic infrared background. The model predicts that 80 per cent of the excess emission measured by Planck originates from galaxies lying in the neighbouring haloes of the lensing halo. Using Herschel maps of the same fields, we find a clear excess, relative to the field, of individual sources which contribute to the Planck excess. The mean excess SFR compared to the field is measured to be (370 ± 40) M⊙ yr−1 per resolved, clustered source. Our findings suggest that the environments around these massive z ∼ 1 lensing haloes host intense star formation out to about 2 Mpc. The flux enhancement due to clustering should also be considered when measuring flux densities of galaxies in Planck data.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity $E$-mode and odd-parity $B$-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARBEAR experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR non-detection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nano-Gauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of $B$-modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by primordial magnetic fields would also contribute to the $B$-mode power spectrum. Using the POLARBEAR measurements of the $B$-mode power spectrum (two-point correlation), we set a 95% C.L. upper limit of 3.9 nG on primordial magnetic fields assuming a flat prior on the field amplitude. This limit is comparable to what was found in the Planck 2015 two-point correlation analysis with both temperature and polarization. We perform a set of systematic error tests and find no evidence for contamination. This work marks the first time that anisotropic cosmic birefringence or primordial magnetic fields have been constrained from the ground at sub-degree scales.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Physical Review D
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work presents the procedures used at Argonne National Laboratory to fabricate large arrays of multichroic transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. These detectors will be assembled into the focal plane for the SPT-3G camera, the third generation CMB camera to be installed in the South Pole Telescope. The complete SPT-3G camera will have approximately 2690 pixels, for a total of 16 140 TES bolometric detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a Nb microstrip line. In-line filters are used to define the different bands before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES bolometers. There are six TES bolometer detectors per pixel, which allow for measurements of three band-passes (95, 150 and 220 GHz) and two polarizations. The steps involved in the monolithic fabrication of these detector arrays are presented here in detail. Patterns are defined using a combination of stepper and contact lithography. The misalignment between layers is kept below 200 nm. The overall fabrication involves a total of 16 processes, including reactive and magnetron sputtering, reactive ion etching, inductively coupled plasma etching and chemical etching.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Superconductor Science and Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-wavelength study of 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster, based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O II] emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available, finding 7 systems with SFR > 100 Msun/yr. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 Msun/yr in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 < z < 1.25, compared to ~1-5% at z ~ 0 from the literature. At z > 1, this fraction increases to 92(+6)(-31)%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific star formation rate in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z > 0.6, the correlation between cluster central entropy and BCG star formation - which is well established at z ~ 0 - is not present. Instead, we find that the most star-forming BCGs at high-z are found in the cores of dynamically unrelaxed clusters. We investigate the rest-frame near-UV morphology of a subsample of the most star-forming BCGs using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, finding complex, highly asymmetric UV morphologies on scales as large as ~50-60 kpc. The high fraction of star-forming BCGs hosted in unrelaxed, non-cool core clusters at early times suggests that the dominant mode of fueling star formation in BCGs may have recently transitioned from galaxy-galaxy interactions to ICM cooling.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum (the BB spectrum) from 100 deg(2) of sky observed with SPTpol, a polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope. The observations used in this work were taken during 2012 and early 2013 and include data in spectral bands centered at 95 and 150 GHz. We report the BB spectrum in five bins in multipole space, spanning the range 300 <= l <= 2300, and for three spectral combinations: 95 GHz x 95 GHz, 95 GHz x 150 GHz, and 150 GHz x 150 GHz. We subtract small (<0.5 sigma in units of statistical uncertainty) biases from these spectra and account for the uncertainty in those biases. The resulting power spectra are inconsistent with zero power but consistent with predictions for the BB spectrum arising from the gravitational lensing of E-mode polarization. If we assume no other source of BB power besides lensed B modes, we determine a preference for lensed B modes of 4.9 sigma. After marginalizing over tensor power and foregrounds, namely, polarized emission from galactic dust and extragalactic sources, this significance is 4.3 sigma. Fitting for a single parameter, A(lens), that multiplies the predicted lensed B-mode spectrum, and marginalizing over tensor power and foregrounds, we find A(lens) = 1.08 +/- 0.26, indicating that our measured spectra are consistent with the signal expected from gravitational lensing. The data presented here provide the best measurement to date of the B-mode power spectrum on these angular scales.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 〈ln λ|M500〉 ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses λ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\lambda = 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\lambda =0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\sigma _{\ln M|\lambda } = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ∈ [4, 4.5].
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements, and find that the polarization fraction of atmospheric emission is below 1.0 percent. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. The net magnitude of the systematic shift to lower cluster mass is approximately the size of our statistical error bar, and we do not attempt to correct for it. We apply the maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their SZ signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.0$\sigma$. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: $M_{200,\rm{lens}} = 0.76^{+0.37}_{-0.36} M_{200,\rm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential using data from the first two seasons of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100 deg$^2$ of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. Using a quadratic estimator, we make maps of the CMB lensing potential from combinations of CMB temperature and polarization maps. We combine these lensing potential maps to form a minimum-variance (MV) map. The lensing potential is measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than one for angular multipoles between $100< L <250$. This is the highest signal-to-noise mass map made from the CMB to date and will be powerful in cross-correlation with other tracers of large-scale structure. We calculate the power spectrum of the lensing potential for each estimator, and we report the value of the MV power spectrum between $100< L <2000$ as our primary result. We constrain the ratio of the spectrum to a fiducial $\Lambda$CDM model to be $A_{\rm MV}=0.92 \pm 0.14 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.08 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. Restricting ourselves to polarized data only, we find $A_{\rm POL}=0.93 \pm 0.25 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.11 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of no lensing at $5.8 \sigma$ using polarization data alone, and at $14 \sigma$ using both temperature and polarization data.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of $E$-mode polarization and temperature-$E$-mode correlation in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using data from the first season of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100~\sqdeg\ of sky with arcminute resolution at $150\,$GHz. We report the $E$-mode angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and the temperature-$E$-mode angular cross-power spectrum ($TE$) over the multipole range $500 < \ell \leq5000$. These power spectra improve on previous measurements in the high-$\ell$ (small-scale) regime. We fit the combination of the SPTpol power spectra, data from \planck\, and previous SPT measurements with a six-parameter \LCDM cosmological model. We find that the best-fit parameters are consistent with previous results. The improvement in high-$\ell$ sensitivity over previous measurements leads to a significant improvement in the limit on polarized point-source power: after masking sources brighter than 50\,mJy in unpolarized flux at 150\,GHz, we find a 95\% confidence upper limit on unclustered point-source power in the $EE$ spectrum of $D_\ell = \ell (\ell+1) C_\ell / 2 \pi < 0.40 \ \mu{\mbox{K}}^2$ at $\ell=3000$, indicating that future $EE$ measurements will not be limited by power from unclustered point sources in the multipole range $\ell < 3600$, and possibly much higher in $\ell.$
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of $\xi$ =4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the $\xi$>4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the $\xi$>5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above $z$~0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is $M_{\scriptsize 500c}(\rho_\mathrm{crit})$ ~ 3.5 x 10$^{14} M_\odot h^{-1}$, the median redshift is $z_{med}$ =0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at $z$>1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of the design and development of the POLARBEAR-2 experiment. The POLARBEAR-2 experiment is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment, which aims to characterize the small angular scale B-mode signal due to gravitational lensing and search for the large angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The experiment will have a 365 mm diameter multi-chroic focal plane filled with 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor bolometers and will observe at 95 and 150 GHz. The focal plane is cooled to 250 mK. The bolometers will be read-out by SQUIDs with frequency domain multiplexing. The experiment will utilize high purity alumina lenses and thermal filters to achieve the required high optical throughput. A continuously rotating, cooled half-wave plate will be used to give stringent control over systematic errors. The experiment is designed to achieve a noise equivalent temperature of 5.7 K, and this allows us to constrain the signal from the inflationary primordial gravitational corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of (). POLARBEAR-2 will also be able to put a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses to 90 meV () with POLARBEAR-2 data alone and 65 meV () when combined with the Planck satellite. We plan to start observations in 2014 in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics

Publication Stats

8k Citations
984.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2006-2014
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 1997-2013
    • University of Chicago
      • Enrico Fermi Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Physics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2001
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States